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T; TilK 










I) U B L I X : 











Commentators and translators alike understand this verse to 
express by its first clause the silence, by its second the attention 
— manifested by the fixed countenances of the audience — with 
which Aeneas was heard: ''Et tacuerunt et desiderio ducebantur- 
audiendi," Donatus. "Aut ora intuebantur loquentis, aut im- 
mobiles vultus habebant, ut Georg, 4, 4S3: 'Tettuitque inhians 
tria Cerberus ora/ i. e. immobilia habuit; aut intenti tenebant, 
habebant, ut sit figura, et intelligamus ora intenta habe- 
bant/' Serv. "Inti-inti or-\ tf2JEbant, ornate: erant intenti, habe- 
bont vultus et oculos intentos et converses in Aeneam," Hoyne. 
EfTBi 6e xai ox^tH^ 7vqoaio7iov (xaXiava nQoaox^^t; efucpaaiv e^Biy 
ovd^ SMivo TtaQ^XiTte, rov /Litj x,ai (HpO-aXjtioiij: avToigy oaa 'Aai 

* As to the source of the socoDd book, soo Macrob. Saturn. J. Z who 
iDtroduces Eustathius saying: ^^DicturumDe mo putatis ea (juae vulgo nota 
sunt? quod Theocrituin sibi fecerit pastoralis opens auctorem, ruralis Tleaio- 
dum? et quod in ipsis Oeorgicis, tenipestatis screnitatisfiuo signa de A rati 
Phaenomoois traxcrit? vel quod oversionem Troiao, cum Sinone suo, (»t 
equo ligneo, ceteris^iue omnibus, quae Ubrum sprufidit/tt faciunt, a Pisandro 
paene ad verbum transcripserit?" 


2 AENBIDEA [1 contic.— trnkbant 

loaif /9ij(jOjM€vot;c;, fnovovoDxi tiov x^^^^^ e^aQcrjoai tov Xeyovfog 

Tovg a/.ovovTagy rcqoad^eig ou ymi €vrjT€vi'Cov' TOiieativ areviog 

TtQog at'Tov laig oil'eaiv eixov, Eiigen. de Bulgaris. "Ix- 

TKNTi ORA TFjs^EBAXT iit^ 8. 520, 'defixi ora tenebant,' explica: 

'sie richteten aufhierksam den blick/" Gossrau. ''Intknti ora 

tenebaxt: ergo ut solent intenti, in ipso ore apparebat intentio," 

Wagner (1861). "Ora tenere is not, as in Oeorg. 4, 483, 

equivalent to linguam continere, but means to hold the 

countenance in attention, as in 7. 250 (where observe the epithet 

'defixa,' and compare 6. 156), 8. 520," Conington. '*Intenti 

ORA tenebant: habebant vultus et oculos intentos, et conversos 

in Aeneam," Forbiger (1878). 
^'tliey ceissit ail attanis incoDtiDent, 
with mouthis elois and vissage taking tent.'' Douglas. 

"they whisted all, with fixed face attent." Surrey. 

"they whiist^d all, and fixt with eios entontivo did behold." 

'*8tavan taciti, attenti, e disiosi 
d* udir gia tutti.'" Caro. 

"taciti tutti, e con vdlti bramosi 
d' udirc, imnioti stavansi." Alfiori. 

"still war's und jodos ohr hing an Aoneens munde." Schiller. 

" rings war alios vei-stiimmt und gespannt hielt joder das antlitz." 

J. H. Voss. 
"each eye was fixed, each lip compressed, 
when thus began the heroic guest." Conington. 

Tlie interpretation is false, and there is not one of all this 
biilliant tield of philologist truth-hunters whose horse has not 
shied and thrown him on tlie kerb of the deep dark well in 
which his vixen game so loves to lurk, and down into which, 
audax-not in iuventa but in senecta—and cheerily 
harking-in with Hermes' and Athena's* "whoop, whoop, halloo!" 
I propose now at all risks to pursue her. Let him who has a 
taste for such adventure draw on his spatteixiashes and accom- 

* This Rem. was written for, and fii'st published in, the Hermaihena of 
Ti-inity College, Dublin. 

he, — TK-VKHANT] 


pajiy me. I pruintse him sport, if nothing moro. "Allons! 
Vivo la i^hasse de la v/Tit^*'' 

Oka is here neither the faa\ nor the month literally, but ih 
ntmiih figuratively, L / ., the spmeh, roke^ or ntteranrv (exactl\' 
m » verse 42*i) ^'oi-a sjono <iisi'i>r<Hu/' stmrnt of roivc or .'^paeth, 

U^iyieeiny with assumed appearaftre. Compare alfc^o Ovid. 

te(. 6. 583 (of Proonej: 

. "dolor ora repressit, 
verbaque ^uiiereDti mtis indigo an ti a linguae 

i£f f^epreasfid her utteratwf]^\ and uka tenkbant is neither 

9€!tre hfMimi their months cloned, literally, nor iverr holding their 

fm-eit fijfil, but irvre hold if tg their moofhs rhsed. Kguratively, i. e,, 

tvere holding-iu (irithhoklingi their roiee, speech, or ntterauce : in 

other words, were remaining sHent; exactly as (a I, "dulor ora 

repre«!!i6it " (just quoted), grief repress&l her mmdh, i e„ her 

utieranee: and h8» still ninre exactly (6), Ovid, Met. .9. :113: 

. , '•(•citonsne IwiUi? putwrisnie faton? 
coget amor, potero; vel n [ludor ttra hnMf, 
littcm celatos arcana latebitur igoes" 

je will hold mg month [roiee); i, t\ will krep me nilent\\ anrl 

luiire exactly still, and even word for word ic\, Luean, 4. 172: 

. ^Ucnuere parurii|ier 
ora metu, mot urn ouni motoque *ialiit«ut 
ense snoh. luox at stimalis maiMribus ardeiis 
rupit amor legesi, audot tracHceDdt'ie vallum 
miles, ill ainpk'xus efl'usas tendere palmas. 
hospins ille ciet nompu, voeat ille propinqimm * 

[theif held their months, L e., their roiee, speeeh, ntteranre\\ 
aldli (d), 8enet% Trond. 521: 

^^cohihe parutiiper urn, questiiMrjue fqipiinie;*' 
and^ however diflVreutly expres^^ed < being prose), still pre- 
cisely the same thought \e), Seneca, d^ Vita Beata, 27: ''Ut 
quotiens aliqiiid ex illo proferetnr oraruto, intenti et eomprema 
roee audians, ' where we have the very intknti of our text 
and whein? **eompressa vtH*e'* is uur text's oha tknijiant. 

How truly this it* the meaning of the ora tenedant of our 
text is further shown, and srarcely less strikingly, on the 

4 AEKEIDBA [1 contic— tentoant 

one hand by Soniiis's own quotation, (reort/. 4.48*-^: '"tonuit- 
quo inhians tria Cerberus ora'' \iteithpt\ surely, with Servius, 
'^kept his three faces fixtnl/' ^Mmmobilia habuif' (a picture 
bordering on the ridiculous), tfor ''kept his three mouths cloRed'* 
(literally), for he has them partially open ("inhians''), a8 it is 
right he should have them, the mouth being always partially 
open whether in the passirms of wonder and admiration or in 
the expectation inseparable from attentive listening, iis Yal. 
Flacc. 5. 469: 

. . "postquani jiiiinis inhiauiin dictis 
agmina. suppress umquc videt iam murmur lason, 
talia mirauti propius tulit oi-sa tyranno; " 

Shakespeare. A7//// Johti, 4. 4: 

•* T saw a smith stand with his hammer, thus, 
the whilst his iron did on the .mvil cool, 
with open mouth straUoirinff a tailor s tints, 
who, with his sheai"s and measure in his hand, 
standing; on slip])ors. wliicli his niml)lo hasto 
had falsely thrust upou contrary feet, 
told ot a many thousand warlike French were emhatteled and rank'd in Kent;" 

Milton, Par. Losf. .7. ;/;>/? ; 

. . . "in himself was all his st.ite. 
more solemn than the tedious pomp that waits 
»)n princes, when their rich retinue long 
of horses h.^d and grooms hesmearod with gold 
(la^yJrs the crowd and set<i them all ot/apc;" 

Sir W. Scott, Ladf/ of the Luhr, 1. 17: 

"the maid(jn paused, jus if again 
she thought to catch the distant strain ; 
with head upraised and look intt-nt, 
and rt/c n/nt ntr nttcntirr Itvtit, 
and locks Hung hack and lips ftjKirf, 
like monument of (irccian art, 
in listening mood she seemed to st^'uxi 
the guardian naiad «if tlic strand.' 

and Mr. Conington's '^lip ('(impressed" being a mistake not 
merely with resjiect to VirgiPs meaning, but with respect to the 
natural phtMiom<'n«»n, and descriptive of the hahifNs, not of a 

1 coNTic. — tenebant] BOOK II. 5 

pleased and attentive listener, but of a pugilist, or the Cory- 
phaeas of a party— some Cromwell or some Gladstone — who 
throws down his bill on the table and defies you to reject itj, 
mmiA OB the other hand by the general use of solmrr 
ora^ resolvere ora, mororc ora, aperire ora — all plainly opposites 
of fenere ora — to expn?ss the breaking of silence, the beginning 
to speak. Nor is direct testimony to the same effect altogether 
wanting, the passage having been thus paraphrased by Sulpicius, 
Afithoi, Lat. Burm. (ed. ileyen, 228. 7: 

"conticuere omnes, inteotique ore loquentis 
ora tenent,'^ 

where— "intenti ore lo(|uehtis" expressing fully and unmistak- 
ably the intentness with which the hearers look thc^ speaker in 
the face— the remaining words, viz., "ora tenent.'* can hardly 
by possibility bp anything el.<e than hrp thrir months (inict, 
i. e.. say nothinff. 

Ora teuprr is thus the Latin repn,*sentative of the Greek 
aioua exfiv. equally figurative, and equally signifying to keep 
sib-nce, as the two following exampl»> <ufti«iijiitly t»'>tify. Kurip. 
Sftppl. ')1H: 

fit'^ . Idoi'.fii . ^y^ ojoin' 

Soph. Trarhin. U70 'Senex to Hylhw-: 

ntyii. Ji^xioi. II r XII r,r,,, 

ir/ou'.r oifi I'^i .ii'.rno. t'Hifnf nin",, 

OTffUi: not 

And tin,' oKA TKNKiMM of our r»'.\t i> om inithor- .i-ual njodi- 
tii'<l repetition in tli** li«tt<r jMit ..f hj^ vi r-<r — \vh»*tlHT for tjii- 
sake of th<» irreat'T impp-^-iv*!!*---. •.! rh*- I'^n-Jiter *'i\^*' .wA 
fluenry of versitir-ati-'n. ^r ^h- !•— difti'uit introdu^-tion of an 
additional thoujrht on tlii- •••• m-I .n. :• ri:*. f: . "r wh<rr.|j^'i for all 
three purpos^> at «m«-<^' — t th<- *fi"Mirli* •'!-• <.\pn-*<''l \u th*- 
former part r'n tlji> *-*'''t%^\"U. •• ;: ' >.»'>. . ' ofnpan // . 
Soph. Trtft'hin. UT^i j'l-* q-j ^'.i . vh^-j.- th" ♦fi-'i::}.'* or/n i.- 
repeated in the same tigurative form iu which tiie thought '»5- 

4 AEN15IDBA [1 contic.— tenbbant 

one hand by Scrvius's own quotation, (/ran/. 4. 483: ''tenuit- 
qiie inhians tria Cerberus ora" {^^fieifh^r, surely, with Servius^ 
''kept his three faces fixed," ''iniraobilia habuit*' (a picture 
bordering on the ridiculous), ttor "kept his three mouths closed*' 
(literally), for he has them partially open ("inhians"), as it is 
right he should have them, the mouth being always partially 
open whether in the passions of wonder and admiration or in 
the expectation inseparable from attentive listening, as Val. 
Flacc. 5. 469: 

. . "postquam primis inhlaiiti/i dictis 
agmina, suppressum<iue videt iain murmur lason, 
talia miranti propius tulit oi-sa tyranno;" 

8hakespeai*e, Khtif John, 4. 4: 

'T saw a smith stand with his hammer, thus, 
the whilst his iron did on the anvil cool, 
witli open moiith sicaUoutny a tailor's netvs, 
who, with his sheai*s and measure in his hand, 
standing on slippers, which his nimhle haste 
had falsely thnist upon contrary feet, 
told of a many thousand warlike French 
that were oml)atteIed and rankM in Kent; ' 

Milton, Par. Lost, .7. 353: 

. . . "in himself was all his state, 
more solemn than tlie tedious pomp thfit waits 
on princes, when their ri(;h retinue long 
of hoi"ses led and grooms besmeared with gold 
(laxxlen the crowd and sets them all mjape;' 

Sir W. Scott, Ladfi of the Lah\ 1, 17 : 

"the maiden paused, as if again 
she thought to (;atcli the distant strain ; 
with head upiaised and look intent, 
and cf/v nml ear aftrnfirr hrnf, 
and locks thing back and !ij).s apart. 
like monument of Grecian ai't, 
in listening mood she seemed to stand 
th»' guardian naiad of the strand," 

and Mr. Oonington's "lip conipressed '' being a mistake not 
merely witli respect to YirgiTs meaning, but with respect to the 
natural piienom^^non, and descriptive of thO hahitfts^ not of a 

1 COKTIC— tknebant] BOOK II. 5 

pleased and attentive listener, but of a pugilist, or the Cory- 
phaeus of a party— some Cromwell or some Gladstone — who 
throws down his bill on the table and defies you to reject itj, 
and on the other hand by the general use of solvere 
ora, resolvere ora, morere ora, apcrire ora — all plainly opposites 
of teuere ora — to express the breaking of silence, tlie beginning 
to speak. Nor is direct testimony to the same effect altogether 
wanting, the passage having been thus paraphrased by Sulpicius, 
Afit/fol. Lat. Burm. (ed. \Ieyer), 228. 7: 

"conticiiere omnes, intontique ore loquentis 
ora trumt.'^ 

wiiere— -^'intenti ore lo(|uehtis'' expressing fully and unmistak- 
ably the intentness with which the hearei*s look the speaker in 
the face— the remaining words, viz., ''ora tenent," c^in hardly 
by possibility bo anything else than hep thrir iuot(ths fjftirt, 
i. e., sat/ tfothifff/. 

Ora tniprr is thus the Latin representative of the Greek 
(jzofia exni\ e{|ually figurative, and equally signifying to keep 
silt»iice, as the two following examples sufficiently testify, Kurip. 
Stijjpl. .llii: 

•/Ml II tj nmuodih nni' i-utoi' tots fjotc Xoyovs 

Soph. Tnuhin. 976 (Senex to Hyllus): 

niya, Tt-Xfov, iirj yivijOt^s 
ayomr a&rvtjr .lar oo^: oniotf oin'Os. 
w// ;«(> noif/itrifs'. ^^A/' in/t^ Snxtnv 
orouii GOV. 

And the OKA tknkhant of our text is our author's usual modi- 
tii'd repetition in tln' lattor part of his vei-se — whetiier for the 
sake of the greatoi* impress! veness, or the greater case and 
fluency of vei-sification, or tin* less difficult introduction of an 
additional thought (on this occasion, rNTKNTi), or whether for all 
three purposes at once — of the th«)Ught just (wpnssf^d in the 
former |)art ((»n this occasion, coNTicrKivM:). Comparo u/), 
S4»ph. Tnirhin. 97 fi (just (juotedi, whcro the th(»ught ar/u is 
repeated in the same figurative form in which the thought con- 

6 AENEIDEA [1 contic— tenkbant 

TicumtE is repeated in our text (atya, laxs aio^a: conticuere, 
ORA TRN'EBANT), the thought dttziov being added to the repetition 
in the Greek, in the same manner as the thought intenti is 
added to the repetition in tlie Latin. (6), Eurip. Suppl. 51S (just 
quoted), where tlie thought ar/a is not only repeated in the 
same figurative form in which the thought conticuere is re- 
peated in our text iar/\ eye aio^a: contici:f3ie, ora tekebant), 
but re-repeated and enlarged upon throughout the whole of the 
next Terse. {e\ Eurip. Audrom. 250: 

where the thought auojtvj is repeated in the same figurative 
form in which the thought conticuere is repeated in our text: 
auoJHo, e/ctla^ruai aiof^ia: conticuere, ora tv:nebant. And 
(d), Plochiri Popumtiunt dromatiaim : 

otytc, airOtnn, atfiy/f ro&t- Itcroor oromt, 

where the thought atya, already repeated in ano/ca, is re-i-epeated 
in the same figurative form in which the thought conticuere is 
repeated in our text (ar/a, auorta, acpr/ye rode kacQov aio^a: 
conticuere, ora tknebant), the thought laiQor being added 
to the rc-repotition in the (ireek, as the thought intenti is 
added to the repetition in the Latin. That the repetition, so 
manifest and unmistakable in these examples, has so long es- 
caped detection in our text is owing to two causes: first, to the 
ambiguity of ora, a word equally significant of fare and of 
trionth; and, secondly, to the modification of the repetition by 
the change of time: conticuere, tenebant — they have become 
silent and irere holding— a change of time necessary to the full 
expression of the thought: fhey ce/ised to speak and were von- 
tinning silent. 

Nor is a right interpretation of our text the sole fruit of a 
right undei-standing of the expression tenere ora. The interpre- 
tiition of other passages, not only of Virgil, but of other authors 
also, is rectified at the same moment, ex. gr. (1), Aen. 11, 120: 

. . . '4111 obstuptierc silentes 
coBvei-sique ociilos inter so, atque ora tnicbanf : " 

not tket/ stood in Kiletit astani^hment lookifig at eaeh other, and 

1 domic.— tzttkba^t] 


keid their /W/r.v (fixed), but fhey stood in siiettt miottishment 
tookitttj at mrh <tthei\ and held their moath^s (quiot)^ i. o, intii- 
heU tfu*fr utterance, or speech^ said nothintj—^^om tenebant" 
hm\^ a mocliticd repotition (variation) of the theme ^'obstiipnere 
silontes,'' as \m\ tkxebant in our text is a modified repetition 
(variation) of the theme conticukre; and **convei*si rHnilus inter 
se," a third thought thrown in between theme and variation, 
and attached to the former C\silentes et eonversi oeulos inter se 
obstupuere''), as lstextt in our text is a third tliought thrown 
in between Uieme and variation, and attached to the hitter (oiu 
TBfnABTT iNTENTi). (2), Aen. 8. 520: 

. . . ^'defixi»|ue ora tmebant 
Aeneas Anchisiad***: et fidus Aehftter^, 
miiitAque (iiira siio tristi cum «-orde putabant," 

rbere the meaning h: Htnndinff fixed in one pcsitioft, f^ept 
iheir mouths (quiet), i. a, said nothiuif^ and revotrcd mautj 
kardMps trifh their minds: and where the silence referred- 
back-to in the words '*uuiltaque dura suo tristi euni eorde 
putabaut'' has nut been mentioned at all, if the wujtIs *^defixi 
ura teuebant*' be rightly interpi*eted l^ept their faces fij^M. 
(8), Ennius, ap. Cicer. de IHriuatione, /. 4H (ed. Oitslli). 

"610 expectabat populos atque ora ietttbat 
rpbas, atri magni victoria sit data regni; 

ni»t, the people expected and hfld their faeca fijed, but the 

people expected in .silence, And \4'K Val. Flaer, 4, 'V22; 

, . . ''jua mole iaccntis [Amyci| 
ipso otiani explon viftnr ne<jttit, om^n<^ longo 
••omniiauH obtutii mirans tntet:' 

whens, far more than either in *>iu text ur in any of the just 
cited oxamplen, ora tenerc might {m account *d' th<' supurmlded 
^'^obtutu'^'y be suspected of meaning to hold the fave /tjrd {admir- 
intf, hahh his fai-r fixed in a lonfj jfaxr\: but where, never- 
i^9t^ the "uhtutu ura premit*' «»f Statins |77*<?//. L 400: 

^'Btapet omiae tariti> 
fjfilixujt hcoioi, divina uraeuhi Ph<»ebi 
agtiosc:«u.s, anrmitusfjue datos vocalibiLs luitris. 
nbit4tu gelida ora premiiy JaatUBqtte jier artus 
honor iit" 

8 ABNBIDEA [I oontw.— tewbbaot 

(plainly incapable of being understood of the face at all, and 

equally plainly nothing more than an emphatic "obtutti ora 

tenet") J forbids us to find other meaning than keeps sile^ice 

hi a loug (faxe of admiration — gaxes lotig in silent adfniratimi. 

And so, precisely, "obtutu tenet ora,'' Aen, 7. 249: 

^•talibiis Ilionei dictis defixa Latin as 
obtutu tenet ora. soloque immobilis haeret, 
intentos volvens oculos'' 

— the very passage which has been put forward as demonstrative 
that the expression ora teffcri' s\gni^(}ii> to h/)ld the face fixed — is not 
iMlds his face fixed in a (/a u\ roiling his eyeji intently y but (as suffi- 
ciently shown by the examples just now commented upon, viz.: 
Val. Flacc. 4. 322, and Stat. Theh, 1. 490) holds hi^s mouth fixed 
in a (ja \e, rotting his eyes intently, i. e., gaxes urith fixed and 
silent mouth, and rolling eyes intent. Or, if to any one those 
examples be unsatisfactory, let him compare Stat. Theb, 11. 49: 

•'stabat in Argolioae fen-ato mai'gine turris 
egregius lituo doxtri Mavortis Enipeus 
hoi-tator; sed nunc niiseris dabat utile signum, 
suadebatcjiie fugam, et tutos in castra receptus; 
cum subitum obli«|UO descendit ab aere vulnus, 
urgentisque souuni laeva nianns aure retenta est 
sicut erat; fugit in vacuas iam in spiritus auras, 
iam gelida ora tacent, carmen tuba sola pei*egit," 

where there is no ambiguity, and no matter in which of its three 
senses— ///o/////, face, head — "ora" be understood, not fixed?iess 
of feature but only silence can by any possibility be meant; just 
as not fixedness of feature, but only silence, profound silence can 
by any possibility be meant in the exact Ovidian parallel, I 
might almost say repetition, of our text, ex. Panto, 2. 5, 47: 

'*cum tu desisti, mortaliaque ora quierunt, 
clausaquo non longa conticuere moi'a," 

w^here ^'conticuei-e" is the modified repetition (variation) of the 
theme ''ora quierunt," as the ora tenebant of our text is the 
modified repetition (variation) of the theme conticuere; and 
where to the variation are added the thoughts ''clausa" and 
'Mion longa mora" in the same way as to the variation in our 
text is added the thought intexti. 

„J. OQJmt'. — TMNKBANt] 



With the active fnHar orn, prt^mere ora, romparfi tbe passive 
ora tfmesf*'yt\ nni rctiniesrrrt' : Ovid, ex Pon/o. 2. 6. 47 (just 

'•cum til desish^ mortAlLafjue **ro tffu>rt4nf; ' 
Aen. 6. 102: 

"Mit prim am cessit furor, et rabida oro qnierunt:" 
ibid. 6\ SOO: 

"ut phmuin (ilatmtt wiiini ©t trepida f^ra qmtruni:' 
Prupert. X 10. 9: 

**Aleyonn»n pOJ^itJH n//tnrxrartf orft i|Uoiells, 

iiiGre{»Qt absumptum nee Biia muter Ityii" 

— in which passages ''quienint ' and ^^requieseant** express 
tftiiel, rest from mfion, exactly as ^'qiiievit/* last word of the thinl 
bot^k, expresses ((uirt, re^t from artion; with this only difference, 
that, the subject of ''qnieriint'* and '^requiescant'* hein^r *'cira," 
c|iiiet of the mouth onl\ is moant: whereas in the third book, 
the subject of ^^quievit" being Apneas, quiet both tif nioutli and 
limbs 18 meant: Amean itot onkf rm*W io fij)mk\ hut remsrd io 

Fsticulatrr and the thought which so appropriately and impres- 
Mvely cluses tJie third bouk is neither, with Hurmann and Wun- 
derlich. ^*sorano se tradidit/' mn- with Warmer in his edition of 
Heyne HHSISk '*narrare desiit/* but with Wagner (1861)— 
studiedly, however iraperfectly. translating, as is his wont, trora 
my ^*Twelve Yeai's' Voyage" (part 2, p. 53), and my paper in 
tiie (toettingen PkilrAoijtfs (vol. i1. p. 4H0) — '*Non cubitum ivit, 
sed tinita narnitione rediit ad habituni compositum et quietum." 
How omch morf* in ancient times tl*an at present the notion of 
motion was contained in tlic notion of speecfj appears less, perhaps^ 
from the so frequent expressions: tenure ora, premtrp ora, €x*'*' 
ato^m, and theii' opposites: soivfre oro, msolrvrp am, morerr ora, 
aperire ora, diat^ur to tno^ct, kteiv to atoim, avoiyar to nio^ttt 
^lur similar expressions are not unfommon either in <»ur own (^r 
modem languages), tJian from tin* strong pictun^ of im- 

lolrility of month, fjwe, and cvon <if thf* whfdc person, so often 
to itM by ancient writei-s along with the picture of 

10 ABNEIDBA [1 conttc— tenebant 

silence. Some of these pictures, viz., Aeii. 11. 120; 8. 520; 
7, 249, will be found cited above; another is Aen, 6, 469: 

*'illa solo fixos oculos aversa tenebat, 
nee inagis iocepto vultum sormone movetur 
quam si dura silex aut stet Marpesia cautes." 

Compare also Ovid, Mei. 13. 588: 

. . . ^'obmutoit ilia dolore, 
et pariter vocem lacry masque introrsos obortas 
devorat ipse dolor, duroque simillima saxo 

Ibid. 6. 301: 

. . . ^'orba resedit 
exanimes inter natos natasque virumque, 
diriguitque malis. nullos movet aura capillos. 
in vultu color est sine sanguine, lumina moestis 
stant immota genis. nihil est in imagine vivi. 
ipsa quoque interius cum dure lingua palato 
congelat, et venae desistunt posse moveri. 
nee flecti cervix, nee brachia reddere gestus, 
nee pes ire potest: intra quoque viscera saxum est." 

Philemon, Fragm. 16 (Anfhol. Pal.): 

Kyta Itd-or fifr tryi- Aio^rft; ^a lovq i^forg, 

(t)g Tovr^ fytvfT^ av&QWTiog' vno (ft roii' xaxoiv 
xtiiv avfiTtfaoiTtor rov Tf avfi^avtog Jin^ovg 
ov6fv Inlrjani SwafitPi} HQog ovdiva 
nQoarjyoQfvd^tj 9u< to /nrj (^tovHv Itihtg. 

Paul Silentiar., Anthol. Pal 7. 588: 

^i€tfjto/a(}tg fiot()rig nvfutrrji' VTtt^vattto aiyrj.v 
(ffv TO xaXoi' fiovai]g fttwfitToi' rjoffifti. 

In this last, however, the quiet, rest or stirring no more, which 
accompanies and completes the silence of the musician, is not 
the musician's own, but his instrument's. 

CoNTicuKRR "Conticuerunt, non tacuorunt, quia omnes," 
La Cerda. That conticuere expresses not that they were all 
silent together, but that the silence of one and all (of the omnes) 
was deep and perfect, appears fimitly, from '^conticuit" being 
the very word used (aj, in the last verse of the third book to 
express the silence of Aeneas — of Aeneas singly and alone: 



*rmiitnittt tuTidom factoquo fcic ixuo «|mevit; 

and \bu i» verso 54 of the sixth book, to express the tsilenc*:* of 
tlie Sibyl singly iind alonr? O^talia fata conticuW\\ m well a.s the 
very word used {r\y by Apuleius to express the mmilar silence, 
or ceasin^^ to speak, of Psycho, Met. 4. 87: *'Sir piofata vir^o 
Gf/niicuit" not tu insist on its hiring the very word {d\, by which 
Statins, Theh, 8, 28 7, expressi^s the silence on boai'd a ship at 
in the dead of ni^^ht: 

"""Hw ubi per fluctuN noo ratis obruta sorniio 
ri^ntimit, taritiqoe marls secura iuventus 
rimntlavere auimas, sohis stat puppe magister 
j*ervigii, inscnptac[ue cleiis qui navigat aino/* 

and the very word ie'u hy which Sevenis (see below) sets before 
us tho deep silence observed hy Ltitin Eloquence mourning the 
deatii of Cicero; Meconillj, from the well-known general use 
of the particle cotf in intensify the action of an individual; 
tiiirdiy. from tlie little occasion there w^?is that the idea ex- 
pressed by tlie very next word should be anticipated; »nit, more 
than jdl, from '^conticuere* bein^ the precise word used by 
Ovid iej- Po/ffo, 2. »;. 47 \ tu express the complete silence of 
his friend Salaous's one only mouth: 

"I'lim ta dosisti, moi'taUaqnf> ora quieniot, 
clausaque Don looga tmiiiruere mora/ 

But coNTicuERE is not merely they were entireit/ siJenl, it is 
aething more; it expresses the passage from the state of 
iking to the state of silenre: fheij hare hvronir futhrhj sUmt, 
ar, which is the same thing, thetj ham enUrely ceased to spml\ 
exactly as H. 718, ^'contieuit tandem/' at tpHtjth he tms imvme 
rut i ret y silrnf, or, which is the samt* thing, has putirely eeasett 
to speai\ Compare W/'//. in otnt, Marrefr 52: 

" p*jHtfitiaiJi viotrices vtntt inters tiOnw 

\aftef the trmnipetit hare entireiy nttstft lo i^aaii4\ Severus, de 
mortt Oi4^.ronis Fragm., Antltot. Lat., Burm. (ed, Meyer). 124. 


"abgtuht una dies aevi deciis, iutaqut; luolu 
conliniif Latiae tristis FiicunOia huguat; ' 

\ Lilt it* Kfoq nearer sad and aioanffffff. has nrtireltj ceased to speak\ 

IB AENEIDEA [1 contic— tbnebant 

Strong in itself, and no •matter where placed, conticuere is 
doubly strong owing to its position before, not after, its nomi- 
native: still stronger owing to its position, first word in the verse; 
and stronger still, owing to the verse in which it is first word 
being first verse of the book. 

Intknti. Not, with Conington and the commentators gener- 
ally "to be taken adverbially and as part of the predicate,'' but 
to be taken adjectively and as equivalent to a predicate: infent, 
i. e., being intent: the whole company censerl talking, and being 
intent was silent, exactly equivalent to was intent and silent; 
iNTENTi being as thoroughly in form and more thoroughly in 
sense an adjective than was ever any one of Horace's four un- 
questioned and unquestionable adjectives, "invidus," ''iracun- 
dus," ''iners'' and "vinosus.'' Settled the grammar, what is 
the meaning of the term? Of course, intent. Germ, gespannt; 
both of them, terms expressive of a state intermediate between 
the state expressed by lentus and ihat expressed by gnavus 
or sedulus; that intermediate state between slack and full- 
drawn, which a harper, speaking of his harp, might designate 
by the term strnng; that intermediate state between remiss and 
excited, in which, according to Roman historians, Roman sol- 
diers, prepared and on the (jni rire^ used to await the enemy; Liv. 
80. 10: "Parati atque intent! hostium adventum opperiobantur.'' 
Except for this word, it might have been supposed that Aeneas 
took advantage of a hush or lull in the conversation— a moment 
of accidental silenc^e— to begin his story. This word, informing 
us that when Aeneas began, the minds of the company were 
already in a fitting state to hear, prevents the mistake. All 
present had heard the queen's command, and perceiving it was 
about to be obeyed, had become silent and— not aftenti, tor, no 
word having yet boon spoken, there was as yet nothing to attend 
to, nothing to Justify an ad, but-iMENTi, intent, strnng, if 1 
may so say, not to nnikCy but to hear, the nuisic. 

.*^-6 iNF.vxDUM— Quis] BQOK II.. 13 



This word and the change from perfect to imperfect in the pre- 
coiling verse point out the precise time when Aeneas began to 
speak, viz., after the company had ceased bilking, and while they 
wei-e silent and on the qui vire. Had cfnn been used, as it 
might have been used by an inferior writer endeavouring to ex- 
press the thought which Virgil has expressed by ixnt:, the mean- 
ing might have been supposed to be that it was only when Aeneas 
began his narrative the company ceased to talk and became 
silent and intent. Inue makes [say rather should make, for have 

we not 

'^all were attentive to the godlike niao, 
when from his loftj* couch he thus began," 


"each eye was fixed, each lip compressed, 
when thus began the heroic guest "?J 

such misapprehension impossible: all hnrr cntirebj reased to talk, 
aufl ire re eoniinuin<i silent and intent; liiDK (then ^thereafter — 




]'AJ^. LECT. 
[pnurL] jK>LoKEM. TKoiANAs . . . HI— t^iis III Hueckerm. (Muetzel, 18o2); 

[ptturf.] iKiLOKKM, [oi:l TKoiANAS . . . vvi. gri> III All editors pre\ious to 

the appearance of Haeckormanu's observations in Muetssel's Zeitschr.; 
. Wagnor (1841), h'ct. TVr//. and Prarsf., tlie former containing the 

author's very weak d(»fence of the ancient punctuation. 
l/tNfirf.] iMu.oHK.\i. Tf?oiANAS . . . vvu ^ii'is [II Haupt; Rlbbcck. 

14 AfiNElDEA [^5 inkandum— daKai 



Haeckermann (Muetzel's Zeitschnff) separates troianas, &c., from 
the preceding by a period placed at dolorem, and Ribbeck has 
followed the example — a bad example, as I think. No doubt 
it may be urged in favour of his view that Aeneas's proem, 
thus cx)nfined to a single verse, becomes more empliatic, more 
modest, more graceful, and moi-e touching; and the woes and 
fall of Troy— beginning a new sentence and a new line, and 
in the objective case, preceding the tears of the Myrmidons 
and Ulysses' soldiery — occupy a more dignified position than 
tacked to the tail of Aeneas's grief Compare Silius's imitation, 
2. 650 (of the fall of Saguntum): 

'^quis diros urbis casus, laudandaque nioostra, 
et fidei poenas, et tristia fata piorum 
temperet evolvens lacrymis? \\x Punica fletu 
cessassent castra, ac miserescere nescius hostis/' 

where the tears and their object occupy the same relative posi- 
tion as, according to Haeckermann 's punctuation, they occupy 
in our text. But I strongly incline to the other punctuation 
given in the Tar. Lect. above, (1), on account of the monotony 
of three successive verses terminated each by a period. (2), be- 
cause three successive verses terminated each by a period are, 
when first verses of a book, worse than monotonous; disappoint 
the reader impatient to get on; make him feel as if he had 
stumbled three times on the threshold, or as if the door had 
been shut three times in his face. (8), because at 9. 66, where 
see Rem., "dolor" followed by "qua temptat ratione aditus'' 
affords a very exact parallel for dolorem followed by ut erue- 
RiNT danai troianas OPES, uot to spoak of the so similar struc- 
ture, 2. 120: 




12. 657: 

'*ob!*tujuiei>' aniNti, geliduKijuo per iiiia oueiinit 

' rmtj<&nl rex ipso l^tinuR^ 
guf^ generos vocet, aut (fiuir sese ad foedent llectAt/* 

And (4k because Statius's imitation, T/teb. 5. 29 (ed. Milller): 

. . "iminariia vulnera, reetor, 

integnire hihen^ Furias et Lemnoii ot atns 
arnia iiiserta toris debellatosque pudendo 
ense mares/' 

IS plainly an imimtion not i>t" doi.orkm sepamted fnirn tlie 
m^uol by ki period, but of doijokem explained by troiaxas ut 
on» — the ''imniania vulnera, rertor, iute^mre iubes'* of Statins 
corn*sponding dn exactly as pos^sible to Virfj^iFs isrANDUM, 
RROIKA, itBBS BKKOVABE DOLOR KM ; and the "Fuiias, et Lem- 
iion et arctis arma inserta toris debeilatosque pndendo ense 
mares'* of Statins being his explanation of 'immania vuJtiei-a," 
exactly as the tuoianas ut wes kt lamKxNtauilk Hi':<JNUii eruk- 


wm of Virgil is bin explanntion of jnfandum uolorem. 

IxpAxnuM. The English und (iernian translatoj-s; iwith the 
exception of DrydoD and 8ir J. Dtoham, wbu never even so 
much as attempt the true meaning of any of Yirgirs words) 
aj^ree in rendering infanoum, hieffaUe, ihnf cmmot fje toM: 
**unteUyble'* (Douglas); '^cannot be told'" (Surrey); *'past 
utterance Revere'* <Beresfordh '' una ussprech lichen" (Voss). So 
Iso Forbiger, in his note on the passage: ''Qui tantus t»st ut 
"verbis exprinii non possit." Such, however, is not the meaning 
of the word, but, primarily, that shouhl tfot he tokl, thai omjht 
not to Ik told; too horrit/le, too terrible, fa be tohl; and, therefore, 
sec^ondarily. horrible, cruel ^ agonhiug. Compare Aen. L 25 d: 
**navibus (liifandnm!) aniissis/' 2 132: 'Marm|ue dies in- 
fandft aderat/' 2, 84: '"insonteni, infando indiciu/' 4. 85: 
""intandum si fallere possit amurem/^ 4. (y\H: 'infandura 
caput." Nay, so little i^ infandus ineffahlr that it is even 
jiiined \*ith memo rate by AjhiI. Met. 10, 221: *' Vix*atoi|Ue 
tifiii it jiltfMo m' lirmdi^ pkuibus conservis, denionstrant infant 

1^ A£NBIDE1A. [3-5 infandum— danai 

dam meinoratu hebetis iuraenti gulam " [not, surely, ineffable to 
be told, but horrible to be told]. 

The Greeks— always so much less precise in their language 
than the Romans — seem to have used their aqqrixo^ and atpaTog 
in both senses, in that of ineffabilts no less than in that of 
infmiditui. ' Compare Soph. Antig. 555 (ed. Brunok): 

Ant. av fitv yag ^iXou ciyv* ty(a St, xnr&avuv. 
Ism. alV ovx tn aftorjToig yf rots fuoi<; loyots 

(where aggrivog is simply untold, unsaid). Soph. Ajax, 773: 

tot' (tPT&^4ovti. Stiyop u()oi}Tov 1 hnog. 

Soph. Oed. R, 464: aqq^r aqqriTiov qiovioig TeXeaav^a xeqaiv 
(in both which last instances aqqiffiog: is infandous), Eurip. 
Hec. 705: 

ovx* oquc r, ovd nvtxra 

(where it does not clearly appear in which of the two senses 
the word is used). Eurip. Io7i, 782: 

ntag (4>^i'>; atfarov k^ktov avavSriJov 
Xoyov ffjoi y^QOng. 

[quid ais? infandam infandam inauditam 
rem mihi narras]. 

Soph. Oed, R. 1313: 

w> axoTov 
vttpog €fA.ov anoTQonoVf eninXofAivov nnf arov 
aSafiarov n xnt dvaovgiarov. 

Soph. Oed. C. 1462: 

t(f* uala fAfyag fgeiTifTai 
XTV7iogf oS* aqaroi 

— in which three last places aifaxog is no less ambiguous. 

There are other Greek equivalents for infandus. (Ij, A less 
ambiguous one than either aqqriiog or aifavog is a/ro^^ijrog (forbid' 
den, renounced; therefore, to be regarded with horror\ aa Aristaen. 
1. 16: Egiori TteQifceaotv artoQ^QriTcOy 'asxv ifjavfov e(paaycov arto- 
Qiov. (2), Another is dvaorvvfAog, as Apollon. Khod. 2. 258 

:4— 6 INFANTUM— Qtisl BOOK II. 17 

(Phineus assuring Jason that the gods will not be displeased at 
his expelling the Harpies): 

. . ttfrta St Svatovvuog, r^ u^ f-Xtt/tv, xrj^, 
XM roS' f/i' oqS^nXutot' ukaov »'t(fo<;, oi •>* itn^vtoi^H' 
Siauovki, oi tir}d^ w<ff d^apopri ft to tvuhvtottv, 
oj> ovTti i^koihbv xoi.o^ haanKi fivtx^ ttttiayri^-. 

(8k Also dvacfQadijgj a7to(pQag, and dvofftjuogj as Eurip. Her. 
193 (ed. Person), (Hecuba to Polyxena): 

rcitfoi, nat, Sva(fi]uov<; tfttfjtt^;, 
ttyyfiiova A{iymav So'iiu 

And, finally, (4), another is (for the Greek language is as end- 
lessly rich and various as it is little precise) ovIoiaevos;, as Horn. 
CkL 11, 407: 

iuXit uoi jliyiabo^, itv^tt^; b^uvftrov rt- uoqov it, 
txTic avy ovkoutpti nko/to, otxovSt xnltaaus, 

with which compare Virgil, Aeu. 11. 266: 

"ipse Mycenaeus magnorum ductor Achivum 
coniugis infnndne prima inter lumina dextra 
oppetiit; devictain Asiain subsedit adulter/' 

where our author himself has very plainly selected infandus 
as the most fitting representative of the orkofuvog of hB proto- 
type, thus furnishing the hint — not, so fiar as I know, yet taken 
by any I^atin translator of the Iliad— to translate the ovkoiaenfiv 
of the second verse of that poem, not by pernieiosam, but 
precisely by infandam. 

The secondary meaning of in fan d us, viz., horribUt, cU^omiu' 
abky follows the word into the English, as Howell: ^''Biis ///- 
fandaus custom of swearing, I observe, reigns in England lately, 
more than anywhere else." 


l8 AEKBlbilA [h-6 QUAKQrF.— *l7i 



QuAKQUK is epoxegotic and limitative; the meaning of Aeneas 
being, not that he will describe the taking of Troy and the 
miseries he had himself witnessed, but that he will describe .so 
vnich of the taking of Troy and its miseries tts he had himself 

The view thus suggested by the grammatical structure of the 
introductory sentence is confirmed by the narrative itself; for 
Aeneas, having briefly mentioned the building of the wooden 
horse and the concealment of the Grecian navy at Tenedos, 
immediately proceeds to say tliat he was (me of those who 
issued out of the gates rejoicing, as soon as the news of the 
departure of the (ireeks was bruited abroad: that he saw the 
horse, and was present at the argument respecting what should 
be done with it; that he saw Laocoon fling his spear against it^ 
and heard it sound hollow; that his attention was drawn off by 
the sudden appearance of Sinon, of the whole of whose story he 
was an ear-witness; that he was one of those whc» agreed to 
spare Sinon's life; that lie saw the two sei-pents come across the 
sea, and destroy Ijaocoon and his two sons; that he assisted to 
break down the wall in order to admit the horse into the city; 
that Hector appeared to him in a dream, and informed him that 
the city was on fire and could not be saved— advised him to fly, 
and committed the Penates to his i^harge: that on awaking 
he saw, from the roof of the house, the cit\^ in flames; that, 
flying to arms, he met Pantheus, the? priest of Apollo, escaping 
from the citadel, with his gods' images and the other sacred 
objects of his religion; that Pantheus informed him that armed 
men were pouring out of the horse, that Sinon was a traitor and 
had fired the city, and that the whole Grecian army was enter- 
ing at the gates; that he united himself with a few friends 

BOOK 11 


whom lie happcnuil to meet, au«J^ falling in wirlj Anrlrn^oius uiul 
a party of Greeks, they slew them every one, ami vUitUml them- 
selves with tiieir t^oih*: that, thus dis^uiseil, tli«*y for w wliilr 
carried termr and cleath everywhere, but at lengtfi, in iittempt- 
iHg tu res^'iie Casaandra fn>m a party who were dni^^nn^' her 
fnira tiie tetttple, wei-e discovered to be Titijajis, antl attacked 
by the Greekg, while the Ti*ojan«, taking them for Greeks, 
oirerwhelmed tln^m with nussjleH from the top of the temple; 
that, the greater nnnibi'r of his party liavin^' thu?^ [lenshed, he 
with the small remainder wai^ attnicted by the tumult u* l^riam s 
palace, fn»m the roof of wfiich he beheld the dour forced, the 
building set on tire, the women and the aged king driven for 
Bbelti'r to an altjir in an int*Tior <'ourt. and the king hmitiieif 
slain at the altar in the blood of his son; ttiat, hi^ (Aimpanions 
having leaped in *le^puir to the ground, or given them*ielve8 up 
to the Wames, he was left alone; that, dt»Hiiending and happen- 
ing to iMx^ Helen where site was hiding, he was alxiut to barrifice 
ber to tiie Manes of his tountry, when his arm was >«tayed by 
Wmus, who eiinunanded him fri sj**ek out bin aged parent and 
his wife and eliild, ami with them fly instantly from Troy; and 
rho* at the *am«' timr taking off the \ei[ whii^h tlouded hi^ 
■ortal visjiin, ^^bowfri [tim rhi* god^ in*tivHy and personally 
engaged in the destnjetion of the city ; that, having retumcnl to 
hh fatherV honne, he »aw the encouraging om^n$^ of a tongue 
of tire un the head of IuIuh. and a star i^h<M«ting in the direc- 
tion itf Ida: tliat he escajxHl out of the city Iwaring his father 
on hiH ^huuldeni. and leading lulus by the band; that Creuaa, 
foUowing behind. wa>^ lo^ on the road: that, retuniing to seek 
hi-r. he found his father's house tilled with Gn^eks, and an tire; 
tiuil^ extending hi^ search ever> w berc% he returned to the citaflel, 
and «ttw Phenix and Tlyiise* guanUng raptiv^^?* and booty in 
the temple of Juno; that, a^ he eiil|i*d aloud upon Cnniipia through 
l#ie streets and houses, lier shade presr^ited it*i4*lf, and informing 
ini that she was provided for by the mother <*f iho godtK, en- 
jutfKMi him to aband<m all search for her, and pr«jH*ei>4l uiMm hia 
divine mission to found a new empire in Heii|ieriN^ where another. 
And a myal, spouse awaited him; that accordingly he returned 

20 AENJlIDfiA [5-6 QXTABQrK— rut 

to the place where he had concealed his father and son and 
domestics, and found there a great number of fugitives from the 
burning city, collected and prepared to share his fortunes; and 
that with them and his father and son he bade adieu for ever 
to Troy, and made good his retreat to the mountains. 

Nothing can be plainer than that this is a mere personal nar- 
rative of one of the principal sufferers; every circumstance re- 
lated, with the single exception of tlie concealment of the Gre- 
cian fleet at Tenedos, having been witnessed by the relator, or 
heard by him on the spot from Pantheus or Sinon. This is, I 
think, a sufficient answer to those critics who have objected to 
VirgiPs account of the taking of Troy, that it is by no means a 
full, complete, and strategical account of the taking of a great 
city; that many circumstances which may be supposed to have 
happened, and whicii indeed must have happened on such an 
occasion, have been either wholly omitted or left unexplained; 
and that, in short, Virgil in his second book of the Aeneid has 
evinced his infinite inferiority in strategical science to his great 
prototype and master. Homer. Many such objections have been 
urged from time to time by various critics; and, amongst others, 
by a celebrated personage whose opinion on any matter connected 
with military tactics must be received with the greatest defer- 
ence—I mean the Emperor Napoleon, whose observations on 
this subject are to be found in a volume published after his death 
under the following title: ''Pr6cis des Gueri'es de C^sar, par 
Napol6on, 6crit par M. Marchand, a Tile Sainte-H6l6ne, sous la 
dict^e de TEmpereur, suivi de plusieurs fragmens in6dits'': 
Paris, 1836; 1 vol. 8vo. 

It is not my intention to enter into a detailed examination 
or refutation of all Napoleon's objections (although I shall pro- 
bably in the course of these Remarks have occasion to refer 
specially to moi'e than one of them), but simply to state that 
the whole of his critique is founded on the assumption that 
Vii^gil intended to give, or ought to have given, such a full 
ana complete account of the taking of Troy as was given by 
Homer of the operations before its walls— such an account as 
might have been given by a historian, or laid before a directory 

6—41 ^ABQin— rtrr] 



by a commander- 1 u-ohiff. On the eonirary, it ts to 1>«> hurne 
carefully in miod that, Humer s subject being the misfortunes 
bfiiught by the wrath of Achilles upon the army besieging 
Tmy, that poet cctuld s*!areely have given tuu particular or 
sitrategical an mrcount of all tJmr hapfrenetl before tlie Trnjan 
walls; while, Vir^ifB subjei't being the adventures and fortunes 
af one man (m siiffitiently evidenced by the very title and 
exordium of hiK work), the takin^: of Troy was to be treated 
tif only so far as connected with the personal history of that 
hero. VirgiL therefore, with his usual judgment, introduces 
tlie taking of Troy, not as a part of the action of his poem, but 
as on episode; and — still nmre effeotnally to prevent the atten- 
tion from being toi» much drawn away from his hero, and too 
muGh tired upon that great and spirit-stirring event^puts 
tlie account i*f it into the mouth of the hero himself, whom, 
with the most wonderful art, ho represents either as a spectator 
or actor in so many of the incidents of that memorable night 
that on the one fmnd the account of those incidents is the his- 
tar\^ of the adventurer of his hero, and on the otlier, the adven- 
luiBNi of his hero fonn a rapid precis of the taking of Troy. 
Even if it had beerj uthen^ise consistent with the plan of tlie 
RlLoneid to have given a full and complete account of the taking 
of Troy, and to have <lescribed, for instance (as required by 
XapcdeonK how the other Trojan chiefs signalised in the Iliad 
were occupi»>d during that fatal night, and how each defended 
hiB own quarter of the city with the troops under his command, 
Huch a fidl account must necessarily either have rttntlere*! 
Aeneaa*ii narrative too loug to have been delivered '^^ inter 
jienaas laticemnue Lyaeumr' or, to make nwrni for That addi- 
itmal matter, some pail of thi* pn'sent story should have been 
left out: and then, I ask, which of the incidents would the 
reader be satisfied shoubl have been omitteriy— that uf Laoruon, 
the unceasing theme aoii admiration of all ages, that shudder- 
ing picturt* uf a religious prodigy?— that of Sinon, on which 
the whole plot hangs?— that of the vision, of the inimitable 
"tempuii orat;'* the **moestig»imus Hei'tor^y—that of the 
Priamoiao pricMtesb, '*ad caelum tendeus ardentia lumina 

22 ABNEIDEA [5 -6 quaeque— fui 

fnistrn (luniina, nam teneras arcebant vincula palmas)"? - that 
of Neoptolemus blazing in burnished brass, "qiialis ubi in 
lucem coluber"? — or Hecuba and her daughters flying to the 
sheltering altar, '* praecipites atra oeu tempestate columbae"? 
— or the good old king, cased in the long-unused armour, and 
slipping and slain in liis Polites' blood? — or Venus staying 
her son's hand, lifted in vengeance against the fatal spring of 
all these sorrows?- -or the innoxious flame which, playing about 
the temples of lulus, foreshowed him the father of a line of 
kings?~or the "tor frustra comprensa imago'' of the for ever 
lost Creusa? Which of all these passages should have been 
omitted, to make room for the additional matter required by 
the imperial critic? What reader will (consent to give up one, 
even one, of these most precious pearls, these conspicuous stars 
in, perhaps, the most brilliant coronet that ever graced a poet's 
brow? And even if the reader's assent were gained, if he were 
content with less of Aeneas and more of the other Homeric 
Trojans, with less of the romance and more of the art of war, 
would such an account have been equally interesting to the 
assembled guests and the love-(iaught queen? How coldly 
would a story in which Aeneas played a subordinate part have 
fallen upon Dido's ear? How would not her thought have 
wandered from the thing told to the teller? There was but 
one way to guard against the double danger that Dido would 
forget the story in thinking of Aeneas, and that the reader 
would forget Aeneas in thinking of the story; and Virgil adopted 
that way. He made Aeneas speak of himself— quaequk ipse 


he spoke, we learn iu the beginning of the fourth book 
C'haereut inlixi pectore vultus verbaque"), and Dido herself 
testitios — '*heu, quibus ille iactatus fatis! quae bella oxhausta 
canebati" Or, applying the words of another great master of 
the human heart (Shakespeare, Othello, 1. 8): 

. . "his story boin^' done, 

she gavr him for his pains a world of sighs: 
she swore— in faith, twas strange, 'twas passing strange; 
'twas pitiful. 'twa.s wondrous pitiful; 

6—0 qoucQrs — Fuij 



Hbe wr«h<»(J she bad not beard it; yet she'd 

that ht^veD had made her such a man; she thank'd him« 

and hade Kim, if Iw had a friend that lov'd her, 

he should but teach him how to toll his «itor\% 

and that wotild woo her.' 

Bnt let us suppose tiiat the niurleni »*ommaiidor is right, find 
th** ^reat ancient pu^t and pJiiUtsopljer wrong; that the error 
lies not in Napolefin s totaj aiist'ont'option, not only of Vir^iPs 
fieml scope and design, but of his lueimiii^' in th^* plainest 
es (as, for instance, in tfie account nf the situation of 
"Anchises* house, and of the number of men (*ontaiaed in the 
horsej; let us supipose, I say, that the error lies not in Napo- 
leon^s misconception of tlie poet> but in the poet*s ignorance of 
heroic warfare; and that the episode does, indeed, sin against 
military tacti(|ue {but see Rem, on verse 608 1: yet where, in 
the whole compass of poetry, iji thei*e siichnnother episode? so 
many heart-stirring incidents grouped together, representing 
one vivid pictur-e the fall of the most celebnited city in the 
rorld, and at the same time, and pari pmsff, the ft^rtunes of 
ooe cif the most famous heroes^ of all antii|uity, the son of Venus, 
tlie anet»*^tor i^f Augustus, the Ki'st founder of Imperial R(une? 
spnken, too. by the hero himself, at a magniticent bant[uet, and 
m presence not only of the princes of his uwn nation (the part- 
ners of his sufferings, and the witnesses of the truth of all he 
related), but of the whole Carthaginian i^ourt, aritl at tfie re(jnest 
of the young and artless <|ueen, vvhn, already admiring his god- 
like persun and beauty, lost her heart more and more at every 
word he uttered — at every turn of griefs, which, 

, , , " 80 lively showa, 
madf her think upm» her own/^ 

alas, for the CHld-hlo(»ded criticism whii-h i'lniUi delect, or, 
having dettH*te<J, Luudd dweil vij^uo, crrc»rs nf military tactitpie 
in this Hood of living |joetry; which wuuld chain the poet with 
fhe fett4.M> of the historian: which, frigid and unmoved, could 
occupy itself with the observation of cracks and tiaws in the 
seonie plaster, winle the must nnignihciqit tirama cvoj- presented 
to enraptured audience wjus being enacted! 

24 AENEIDEA [6-9 qum-frakcip. 



Quis TALIA FxsDO . . . TEMPERET A LACRYMIS? Compare Eurfp., 
Fragm. ex Aeolo, 23: 

Eurip., Her. 296 (ed. Porson): 

rjTis: ;'owj' nwi' xiti u(tx{t(av o^tft^njojv 
xlvovati \hot]i'ov<;, ovx (tv tx^akot Suxov; 

Eurip., Iph, in AuL 791 (ed. Fix): 

iig (iQa u tvTiXoxttuovg xoutig 

(>i',M« Skxqvoh' ruvvaag 

nuToiSos oD.vfxkvag ((jjokontfi 

ifuc at, ittr xvxrov doli/av/f-rog yovor ; 

Jaeoponiis, Sequpnlia cle seplem doloribn.s Mariae Virginis 

("Stabat mater dolorosa''): 

'^quis est homo qui non fleret 
inatrem Christi si videret 

in tanto supplicio? 
quis non posset contriatari, 
piam matrem contemplari 
dolontem cum filio?'' 

Metast., Giro. L 6: 

''chi potrebbe a que' detti 
P^tnperarsi dal pianto?" 

Also Sil. 2. 650, quoted in Rem. on 2. 8. 

DuRi ULixL Stubborn, hardened, and so indomitable. 

Compare 4. 247: "Duri Atlantis,'' and 3. 94: ^'Dardanidae 


in oceanum, cjuasi cursu per medium caelum ab occidente ad 




irientem facto/' Heyno. *'Sifl subit in rK'e«niini oceidentalem, 
'fiox ex eodem oceano occidental! oritur/' Peerlkanip. No, no; 
that in the opinion of the ant-ients the night tio less than the 
day rises in the ea^t find sets in the west is phii^l beyond all 
manner of duiibt by tlie reason assi fined by Sol tu Phaeth un why 
he could delay no longer, but must forthwith pmitn^d .*ri his 
journey, Ovid. Met 2. 142: 

*'duiii loquor^ Hesperio po^itas m littore nietius 

The picture presenrcHl by tiur text is tberetore not that uf the 
ni^ht setting in the east, in which case not only would there 
have been m^ flight of Nox before SoL bot there would <m 
be contrary liave been ihe very obvious dang-fir of a collision 
?tween the chariots of the tvv(» deitit*s— in plain terms you 
would have had day and nig^lit not succeedinfj;' each other, but 
meeting each other, and in the same place at the same time — 
but the picture is nf the niglit settinjj^ in the west, the ^reat 
hotel or sleeping quarters of day, night, Aurora, sun, and moon, 
and all the host of heaven. See Rem. on *'niit oe<^no nox/' 
2. 250 

Phakcipitat, /. f\, ''higit praeceps" {as explained by Virgil 
himself. 4. 565: 

*'IM>L fi/f/fs iiinc ^/'oeeeptt dum prtufrtpttatr potestas?*'), 
and equally applicable to duy and to niglit. LVimpare Cic. dr 
Orat. 3, 55: "His nutem dc rebus, sol me ille admouuit, ut 
!>revior essem, (jui ipne iaui prarcipthns, me quoque haec prae- 
cipitem paene evolvere coe^it/' Liv, 4. i>: "'Pntrti'piti%\n^ iam 
die cunm* corpora milites iubet'' (see Rem, <>n 1. 749). Caos. 
lU'li, f\r. 3. 25: '^Multi iam mensem transierant, et hienis iam 
prttnnpitnvt'mt'' (winter was alretwiy over). 

While NOX PKAiSi'irrrAT is ** night nets,'* *'nox ruit/' J. 250 
I where «eo K4?ni.)f and 6. 530. is "ni^ht risr,^,'' What a freakish 
tiling i» Ianf2:u*ige! No twi> words can come much nearer to 
mivh otJier in ^rneral meaning;, and yet they are used to express 
two things as directly opposed as white is to black, east to west, 
day to nigbt! Stay; have we not (dtutu mare and alium (ncluni? 

26 AEN£1D£A [13 inopiam 



Not / ivill begin, but / will undertake, or take in hand; first, 

because although it might, strictly speaking, be quite correct for 
Virgil — having just stated (verso 2) that Aeneas began to speak 
(oRsus) with the words infandum regina iubes, &c.— to cause 
Aeneas almost instantly afterwards to say that he began his story 
with the words fract/ bkllo, &c., yet it would be highly un- 
poetical, and evince a barrenness of thought and expression quite 
foreign to V^irgil. Secondly, because it is evidently the in- 
tention of Aeneas not merely to begin, but briefly to tell the 
trhole s'ory, as it is no less evidently the intention of Pliny, where 
he writes to Tacitus in the very w^ords of Aeneas, ''quanquam 
animus meminisse horret, incipiam," not merely to begin, but to 
give a complete account from beginning to end of what he him- 
self saw and suffered in the eruption of Vesuvius. Thirdly, 
because the very word begin involves the idea of a long story, 
and thus, however true in point of tax^t, contradicts the intention 
expressed by bkkviter (verse 1 1 ). 

I, therefore, understiuul incipiam to be here used (as in Aen, 
10. 876) in its primary and etymological meaning of undertaling, 
taking in handiin-eapio); so understood, it harmonises with orsus, 
with Aeneas's intention of telling the whole story, with brkvitek, 
and with the immediately pi-eceding words, quanquam animus 
MEMINISSE HORRET, &c. Compare Lucr. I. 50: **Disserero inci- 
piam" [not begin or commence, but undertake, take in hand, 
attempt, to discuns]. Also Tibull. 4. 1. I: 

. . . ''quanquam mo cognita vii-tus 
terret ut infirmae nG<|Uoant subsistere vires, 
incipiam tamen;** 

and Hor. Sat. 1. I. 92: 

"dem^iiie sit linis quaerendi ; <]uo(iue habeas plus, 
pauperiem metuas minus, ei finire laboi-em 
incipiasj paito quod avebas" 

13 iNciriAM] BOOK II. 27 

[in winch latter passage the difficulty pointed out by Mr. John 
Murray ("Original views of passages in the life and writings of 
tlie Poet-philosopher of Venusia:" Dublin, 1851) in the expres- 
sion ''incipias finire laborem parte" — hitherto somewhat ab- 
surdly understood to mean: "begin to end your labour now 
that you have gained your object''— is to be got rid of not by 
interpreting '^finire" and "parto" in the manner proposed by 
Mr. Murray, but simply and at once by restricting "incipias" to 
its genuine and legitimate sense of Hcttimj ahoftf, faking in 
hatidl. Compare also Virgil himself, Aen. 6. 4^)3: 

. . . *'inrppttu< clamor frustratur hiantes" 

[not begins with a shout and ends with a squeak, but attewpt- 
ing to shout, they only squeak]. Kel. 5. 10: 

Me. ^*'incipfy Mopse prior, si quos aut Phyllidis ignes 

aut Alconis habes laudes aut iurgia Codri. 

incipe; pascentes servabit Tityriis haedos. 
Mo. immo haec, in viridi nuper quae cortice fagi 

carmina desoripsi ot luodulaus alteroa notavi, 


(where we have not only incipere in the sense of undertake, 
but experiri used as a variation of or equivalent for incipere). 
Tacit Annul, IS, 15: "Britannico iussit exsurgeret, progres- 
susque in medium, cantum aliquem inciperef" [take in hnnd 
some song, undertake some song]. Also Ter. Andr. 1. 3. IS: 

**nam inreptio est amentium, baud amantiuin;'* 

and Id. ib. 5. 1. 17: 

**nuptiaruni gratia hacc sunt ficta at<|ue incfpta omnia;' 

and 3. 2. 12: 

. . **itane tandem idonciis 
tibi vider>r esse (|uein tain aperte fallore iufipifn* dolisV" 

Val. Flac<*. 6. 123: 

'^namque ubi iani vires^jue alia#j, notosqiie refutat 
arcus, et htrrptn^ iam lan<:ea temnit beriles, 
magDaoimis mos ductus avis, baud sognia mortis 
iura pati." 

2b A£N£ID£A [13 mapuji 

Coripp. Johann. 3. 52: 

^^ praecipitur placidis Liberatus dicere verbis, 
paruit ille celer, plena sic voce locutus: 

^Nitfjr, summe ducumf caussas narrare inalorum 
et iussis parere tuis. dum dicere fenio, 
tlamma nocens surgit, gelid us praecordia sanguis 
turbat, et attentae vix prodit fabula linguae.'" 

And, finally, Horn. //. 3. 99 (Menelaiis speaking): 

. . fTttt xaxa noXXd ntnooO-t, 

(where ag^ijc: is inceptt, in the sense of undertaking). 

Almost exactly corresponding to orsus . . . incipiam in the 
passage before us is ''adorta . . . orea," Aen, 7. 386. 

That our own English beg^m had originally and primarily a 
similar signification, and meant not to emnmence, but to under- 
take, appears both from its German origin (viz., "beginnen," 
to undertake, as Schiller, Die Piccolotn. 1. 3: 

'^er wtirde freiheit mir und leben kosten, 
und sein verwegenes begimten nur 
beschleunigen "), 

and from the use made of the term, not only by the earliest 

English writers (as Robert of Gloucester: 

'*that Eneas hif/nn hys ofspring to Lumbardie first bring"), 

but by Milton, no mean part of the excellence of whose poetry 
consists in the frequent employment of ordinary and current 
terms in primitive and obsolete, and therefoie extraordinary 
meanings; see iSanifi. Agonist. 274: 

. . . "if ho aught fMyin, 
how fro(iuent to desert him, and at last 
to heap ingratitude on woi-thiest doods!'' 

LvciPi AM --first word of the verso to which it belongs, sepa- 
rated from the remainder of the vei-sc by a complete pause, and 
constituting alone and by itself the apodosis referred to by the 
whole of the long preceding protasis si . . . rkfuoit— is in the 
highest degree emphatic. See Rem. on 2. 246. 

13 1? FBACTf—VAOATm] BOOK II. 2d 



Practi bello FATiSQtJE REPUi>si. **Cura vorba FATis REPUi^i alio 
mode idem quod fracti beij.o exprimere apertum sit, quia 
intclligendac sint calamitates uc cladcs belli quibus fatigati 
Danai tandem ad dolum confugenmt, dubium non est,*' Dictseh 
{Theolog,, p. 21). This is not the meaning. Fatis repulsi does 
not express in different terms the thought expressed by fracti 
BEux) (in other words, is not a variation of a theme), but ex- 
presses the totally different, independent, and additional thought 
that the repulses which the Greeks received before Troy were 
the work of the fates; that the ill-success of the Greeks was 
not owing to want of skill, or bravery, or strength, but to the 
supreme ordinance of the fates. 

Fatis repuijsi, a metonymy of the same kind as (5. 709) 

... . ''quo fata trahunt retrahuntque, sequauiur," 
and (5. 22) 

. . . ''superat quoniain fortuna, se<iiiamur." 

Tot iam labentibus annis. The translators refer labentibus 
to the dim and faded past, instead of the vivid and continuing 
present; for instance, Surrey: 

. . . '*all irked with the wai", 
wherein they wasted had so many yeai's;" 

'•whan all in vaine so many yeeres had past;" 

and Alfieri: 

. . . ^'da niolti anni indarno 
Htringevan Troja i condottier de* Greci." 

Yet the present and continuing force of labf-ntibus is doubly 

30 AENBIDEA [13-1? practi— vaqatWi 

evident; because the verb labor expresses a continuing action, 
and the present participle a continuing time. It is this con- 
tinuing sense (observed by Wagner, Quaest. Virg. 29, 1) which 
(constitutes the poetical beauty of the passage before us, as well 
as of Horace's exquisite 

''eheu, fugaces, Postume, Postume, 
laJbuntur anni.' 

Drv'den, according to his custom, blinks the meaning altogether. 
IxsTAR MONTIS EQuuM. Evcn iu uiorc modern times, cities 
have been sometimes taken by a similar artifice; for instance, 
Breda in Holland, in the year 1590, by means of soldiers con- 
cealed under turf in a turf-boat, and so introduced into the 
city; and Luna in Italy, by means of soldiers performing the 
part of mournei-s, priests, «tc., at the pretended funeral of Hast- 
ing. Compare Wace, Roman de Ron, 687 (ed. Pluquetj: 
"li mestre cler cante Tollfice, 

]i Eveske canta la messo, 

des Pacnz fu la turbe espesse." 

DivrNA PALLADis ARTK. Tho commcntators make Pallas a 
party in the Grecian stratagem, an accomplice of Epeus and 
Sinon. ^^Paij.adis arte, ivfo^ij^/ocxtTijcxt/' Heyne, quoting Od. 
8. 498: vov Eneiog ekoiriaev arv .^^k>j. "Pallas fabros in ox- 
struendo equo consilio suo et praeceptis adiuvit,'' Forbiger, 
quoting, along with the same passage of the Odyssey, Eurip. 
Tfoad. 9: 

o ytco na{ivaaio^ 
*i>tftxtv^ K/rno^' a r// ((yaiai Tl (t}.},tt So > 
hyxvuov tnjiov rtv/twy avv(^^uoati<; 
nv()yvjp tntuil'tv trjos, oltif-oiot' fiui)o^\ 

*^DiviNA, ergo non sua, sed ea quam dea Pallas iis monstra- 
verat,'' Wagner (1861), quoting, along with the same passage 
of tho Odyssey, //. 15. 70: 

Puof uinv hkoiti' ^1\^r^i'(urii Sut ,iovkti^. 

Nothing could be further from the meaning of Virgil. 
Pallas has nothing whatsoever to do with the building of the 

t%-\7 ritxcn 

BOOK n. 


honsQ. The ioaiiui-s of tlje Dariai are its biiilrlfrs (ductori<is ua- 
XAUM AKDiFiCANTK and built it DtvrNA ARTE PALLAJUs. Now, wiiat 
18 ftiTiNA ARTK PALLAOis? <»r mtlier, leaving out pfvina lus im- 
essentjal. aniJ taking artk palladis by itself, what i^ ahtk pau.a- 
Di8? Ovitl. f's PottffK .V. 8. .*/» usts thi* identinti rxproi^sion in 
thu sense r»f ^^/rA ^>/ Iktll/hH, i, e., Palladia n art: 

' vellera dura teruut pecuden, et Patladia iid 
ai'/f Tomitanae non didk'ere riiirus.' 

'*tht» daughters of Tumi havr not learned tu use the Palhidiun 
Jijt;" and so prt'eisely Mur author ; ''the leaders of tlie Danai 
birild with Palladian art/^ Xnt that the art of I'allas, the 
I^nlhulian art, with whirli the leaders of the Danai build is the 
fsame art of Pallas, the same F^alladian art, \vhi<d» the daughters 
of Tonii have not learned, but that— rlu-rp bein^^ many arts of 
PaUiLS, many Palladiaii arts [Ovid, Fast, 3. SS}i: ''milie dea 
i?st operum." Idem, Art. Amat. /. GUI: 

ijiiid facis, Aeacida? non sunt tua muin'ra laiiae, 

fii titul*js alia Palladia arte pr^tas] 

the one with whieii the [aeTOKRs danalm build is tlie building 
art, wliile the one vvhieh the duu^diters of Tomi have not 
t*-irn»>d \h the weaving art. Cunipare \n), Proptu't. :i 2(1 7: 

*©sl tibi [Cyuthiae] forma potons, sunt ra&tae Pfitht,i,< ntt*s 
Hfjleodidai^ae a docto faina refulgot avo 

(where the ''Palladts artes" — the Palladian arts— of which 
Qyi^thia y^n% mistress art* the ait of weaving, exactly as in our 
test tlie PALi.Ai>is ARTE -the Palladian art^with which the 
urcTiuiKs DANAUM AEi«FiCAXT IS the art of buildiug). {hi Kiirip, 
Tro€id. 9 < quoted above): 

f< ytio IfiU/vuOiiii 

^HHitHs f^ft^lO^ f* t^/ii Viii Gt Hit I /. K 6 f* > 

[where fo^x^vatot llaklitdo^ is the Palladian art, th*' ai1 in- 
^©iit<Mi and patronized by Paltas, with whirli p]|>eus nnistructed 
the horst\ i'\arrl> jik In i»Mr r<*xt cai.laois ai^tk is the Palladian 

32 AENEIDEA [Ifi 17 f-racti- vAOAtuii 

art, the art invented and patronized by Pallas, with which the 
chiefs of tlie Danai build the hoi-se). (c), Aen. 9, 303: 

. . . "ensem 
auratum, mira queni fecerat arin Lycaon 

(where it is with "mira arte," wonderful art, Gnosian Lycaon 
had made the sword; exactly as in our text it is with divina 
(PALLADis) .vRTE, diviuc (supercxcellont : see below) art (Palla- 
dian), the ductores danaum build the horse), (cf), Juv. 14. 34: 

. . . "quibus arte benign^ 
et meliore luto fiiixit praecordia Titan" 

(where it is with benign art Titan moulds the '^praecordia," 
exactly as it is with divine (superexcellent) art (Palladianj the 
DUCTORES DANAUM build the horse), (e), Tibull. 1. 3. 47: 

. . . '^nec ensem 
immiti saevus duxerat arte faber." 

And (/), Mart. 7. 55: 

"astra poluinque tua cepisU mente, Rabiri; 
Parrhasiam mira qui stniis arte doinum.' 

What, then? are the expressions Palladia ars and ars 
Pal lad is always and everywhere Palladian art used not by 
Pallas but by somebody else — here by the chiefs of the Danai, 
there by the w^omen of Tonii, elsewhere by some other agent? 
Far from it. On the contrary, those expressions— occurring, as 
they occasionally occur, where there is no agent by whom 
Palladian ait can be used— are to be understood not as signi- 
fying art invented and patronized by Pallas, but as signifying 
art used on the particular occasion by Pallas herself, ex. gr. 
Mart. 6. 13: 

''quis to Phidiaco formataiii, lulia, caelo, 

vol quis Palladiae non putet art is opusV" 

Stat. Silr. 1. 1. 5 (to the equestrian statue of Domitian): 

"an te Palladia^ talem, Germanice, nobis 
ef&nxere niafius?" 

— the Palladian art (art of Pallas) of the former of which pas- 
sages is as nearly as possible the Palladian hands (hands of 

13—17 FiLicn — v\r,AnrRl 



Pullasu of tht' lntt<T. The mistake of the eorumeutators von- 
sistiJ in their confounding the ^'art of l^nllas'' iPaliiidiaii artj of 
VirgiJ, equivalent to art invented ami pati-oniased by Pallas^ with 
the "Palhidian art" (art of Pallas) of Martial, ctiiiivalent tu art 
of Falhi*;'s own hand.s. Instances^ indeed, occur in wliicli it is 
extremely difficult, if not impossible, to determint* in which of 
these it& two sensea ttie expt^ssion Palladia ars or ars Pul- 
led is is to be understood, ex. ifi\ Propertius, 3. 9, 41: 

'*moeiua cum Graio Neptaum pressit aratro 
viotor PaHadiac lignoua artin equus, 

where— there being on the one band as total absence of agent 
to ns»e art invented and pati-oni2i*d by I^allas, m there is on the 
other of indication that the art spoken of was used by Pal bis 
hereelf — the '*ar3 Palladia'' spoken of is with equal probabi- 
lity art invented and j>atronized by Pallas, and ai1 practiced by 
Pallas herself on the particular occasion: an ambiguity which 
does not exist either in our text or in the parallel text of Euri- 
pides quoted above^ in both whi«'h places the exprcs?< mentii>n 
of the agt»nt by whom the Pailadian art is ii»ed ^huctorf^ 

iXAim piLUiUis ARTK AKinKicAXT: 0imtv^ Eutioc tifj^avaim 

^ Gvvaquomt^) as per*/mptorily forbids uji to under- 

the Pailadian art spoken of by those authors to be art 

[iployed by Pallas bers<4f in the building of the horne, an (I) 
the m^ ^ihiyr^ of Homer: (%) the 

of Tryphiodorus jverse 2); (S) the. 

of tJie same author * ver^* IIBk i%\ the toy Enetot a /xn ^(hjra^ 
iui^oy of Phiio&tr, Heroir. ted. Boi^on.)^ p. llCf . mad iHi (he iu»> 
instop toy yuaiio^t ^^ vi^Anty ^iv Enuog frr ^^^wa t^ytv^io of the 
«une Philostr. Hrrme. (ed Boiifioo.X p* 16^i f#rlbM iia to imdor- 
sland the Trojan bane uf \h/(Ms aulhofs to have \}^n btitit with- 
•mi Pallas is pti^iOBal MdaHacA and co-op«/nitiuf) ; mw^ «^ ^Hi^t 
tfao ^^ivutr^ Wf'CNft flf ApoUoiL RhiMi. 4* M2: 

34 A^NBIDEA [13—17 fractt— VAGATtJK 

(7) the y(,aleaaaf.tevrj enevellero TQizoyeveiri of Orpheus, Argofi, 


xtti oa xalfaaufievri [Juno] (niTfXlfTo TQiToytvuij, 

xat 01 (frjyivfrjv tiqvjtov TfxrrivtcTO vrja, 

f] X(u vn fi).nTtvot^g foftfioii tc).iuv()fft (ihv&ii 

and (8) the ^^va evriQ^ioaev of Apollodorus, 1. 9: xava 8e xriv 
7CQ(jjQav €vriQi^ioa€v ^^rjya (piovriev q>rjYov vrig Jiodtovidog fiAov, 
forbid us to understand the Argo of those authors to have 
been built without the personal presence and co-operation of 
the same goddess. 

But, it will be said, this is to ignore Homer, who informs 
us, 0(1. 8. 493 (quoted above), that the horse was made by 
lipeus aw ^d^iT^; and Homer is not to be ignored in the dis- 
cussion of a Virgilian passage which treats of a subject already 
treated of by Homer. True: but however excellent a guide 
Homer may be to the meaning of VirgiFs words in a case in 
which those words allow such meaning to be put on them and 
present no better of their own. Homer's guidance is none at all, 
or worse than none, in a case in which VirgiFs words not only 
do not allow the Homeric meaning to be put on them, but, well 
considered, present a meaning more appropriate in the mouth 
of Virgil than the Homeric meaning had been — the very case 
we are considering, in which not only does pall^vdis arte, 
according to the use of the expression elsewhere (see above), not 
allow itself to be interpreted as it has been interpreted by 
various commentators — all *taking their cue from the Homeric 
auv ^d^yvrj, either vnoO^^i^toovvrjai (na).Xa8og\ or "consilio et 
praeceptis (Palladis)," or ''ea [arteJ quam dea Pallas iis 
monstraverat,** bul any of these meanings had been as little 
proper in the mouth of Virgil — writing for the highly cultivated, 
little romantic, almost sceptical, age and court of Augustus — as 
it was proper in the mouth of Homer, writing for an age so 
much less cultivated, more simple, and more ignorant And 
Virgil— in not copying the Homeric myth to the uttermost let- 
ter, in bearing in mind the Horatian "nee deus intersit" and 
representing the horse as built by the chiefs of the Danai, not 

ruAcn— vagattr] 

BouK rr 

with the ftsmatmie€ of or by the hands o!' Pallas, but cmly with 

the arf of Pal!«s, /. e., with Prilladiaii nrt — 1ms only shown his 

UAUal preference of comuiun sense tu nn net'CSbary, diildish, iind 

I even absurd extravaganVe, and protecte*! his Tnjjan horse from 

i TOproachee ^iinilai' tu those which have been sn Justly heaped 

[{compare Gland, (ie BeU. Get. 14: 

, . . ''hct4 cjiimra vaf^s 
to maiug celebrata feraot, iiisaiuque se^^atidis 
Argois trabibuH iactent Badasso 31inervani ; 
ncr nemoris tantum iunxisse carentia serisu 
robom* sed, oacso Tmarii lovis augure laoo, 
arboro praeaaga tabiilas animasse loriuaees'') 

P«pmi tlie Argi> of Orpheus, Apulh^niiis Rhodius, ami Apollo- 

nlonis: the Ar^o, another myth in which another Koman poet 

' almost coeval with our author, exercising a similar discretion, 

I represents tliat still more wonderful structure, the first ship, as 

constructed neither by Pallas with her own liands nor by Ar^rus 

with the pemmal ai^sistance of Pallas, but by Argus ^Vf*aMadiii 

opere," as nearly as possible mir author's nivi^A mrj,Ai)i.s autk 

(Phiietlr ! ^ G): 

^^atiaam um um^uam Pulei udnioris iugo 
pmus bi[)enut uoncidij^s^t Thessala, 
noc ad piofessat^ mortis audat'em viaai 
fabricasa^t Argua opere Pailadio ratem." 

If I am correct in these observations, artists skilled in arts 
rumniimicated to mankind by the respective inventing L'tnls 
wert* able under later polytheism to execute works which unfler 
primitive polytheism could not be executed without the personal 
prenCfnce and assistauci^ of the respective inventing gods them- 
wolves; exactly as under modern monotheism men perform daily 
with Cfod*ft mere will ur Uud's mere providence — ^' Deo volente/* 
,,r "providentia Bei** — acts w^hich under primitive monotheism 
jv'ijuired tl^e personal presence and co-openvtioii either of the 
one God Himself or of the one God's special messengcn*: war- 
rant for the sceptic dogma that the world as it advances in 
knowledge Icsss and less either seeks or requires heaven's assist- 
imce; cxemphfying so, in the eoilectivej the truth of the proverb 

36 AENBIDBA [13-17 fracti— VAOATtTR 

so true in tlie individual: "Help yourself and God will help 

DiviNA. The meaning of pall.vdis arte remains the same 
whether we understand divixa literally or figuratively; whether 
as meaning dirine, i^eiog, in the sense of derived from a god, 
as Georg, 4. 220: 

^^esse apibus partem divhiae mentis et haustus 

or as meaning diviney d^uog, in the sense of supremely excellent, 
as Cic. Pit Hipp. 12: "Ipsa ilia Martia, caelestis et divina legio, 
hoc uuntio languescet et mollietur/' Compare the application 
by Cic(To, de Nat. Dear. (ed. Lanibin.), p. 227, of the same 
term in the same sense to the cognate and similarly wonderful 
piece of workmanship, the Argo: "Atque ille apud Attium pas- 
tor, qui navem nunquam ante vidisset, ut procul divinum et 
novum vehiculum Argonautarum e monte conspexit, primo 
admirans et perterritus hoc modo loquitur/' Pallas, therefore, 
unless 1 greatly err, is no more personally present and helping 
liere in the building of the wooden horse by the chiefs of the 
Danai divina i'alladis ajjtk, than Phoebus is present and 
helping in the curing of the sick by physicians "Phoebea arte," 
Ovid, Fast. 3. 827: 

. . . "Phoebea morbos qiii pellitis arte." 

Grave, however, as are these mistakes of modern com- 
mentatoi-s concerning our author's meaning in this place, 
the mistakes of the ancient commentators are graver still, 
Servius (ed. Lion) doubting whether arte (joined though it 
be with the highest term of praise it was possible to bestow) 
is not to be understood in its bad sense, viz. of dolo ["aut 
ingeniose aut dolose; ac si diceret 'consilio iratae deae, quae 
fuit inimica Troianis'"]; and Donatus (proh, pudor!) sepa- 
rating palladis from arte and connecting it with equtjm: 
"Ec(*e in bellum factum [lege "in bello fracti"J verterunt se 
ad insidias, ut desperatam in aperto Marte victoriam admini- 
culo fraudis obtinere potuissent. Proinde ad instar montis 
KQUTJM palladis aedificant, et divina arte costas eius IN- 

13-17 FRAcn— vaoatur] BOOK 11. 37 

TEXuxT. Cur autem Palladis nomine aedificatus sit, datiir 
color quo possent homines ab insidiariim suspicione transduci'': 
a perverse interpretation, by whomsoever made — for it could 
hiirdly have been made by Donatus — and unparalleled in the 
long chronicle of perverse interpretations, unless, indeed, by our 
own Pope, of Homer's (//. 19. 126): 

nvTixn (f' fiA' ^-trrjv xftfaXrig kintt{)07ikox(iuoio, 


"from his ambrosial head, where perched she sate, 
he snatched the fury-goddess of debate." 

Aedificant, theme; sectaque ixtexunt abiete cost as, variation: 
in other words, not two ditt'erent acts are described, but C)nly 
one, viz., the building of the horse; which, described as usual 
first in general terms (aedificaxt), is then described in particular 
(SECTAQUE rxTEXuxT ABIETE cosTAs). Hcync therefore is right, 
and Tumebus wrong. 

Sectaque ixtexuxt abiete costas. It is a different tree in 
the almost repeated description, verse 112: 

. . . ^'cum iam hie trabibus contextus acernis 
staret eqnus." 

Costas. Not, by synecdoche, the sides, but literally the ribs 
of the horse, those strong timbers which we may suppose to have 
extended in an arched form transversely from the longitudinal 
spine, so as to surround the interior cavity and support the outer 
boarding; such timbers as in the ship are called "statumina" 
(Tumebus), Ital. costole, Fr. les rarantjttcs, Engl, futtorhs^ and 
wliich form the substantial framework of the ship, the skeleton, 
or as the Italians call it, the osmtnra. Tkxunt expresses that 
these costae were not merely simple parallel ribs, but were 
supported by cross pieces so as to form a crates. The costae 
or internal framework of a ship are well di.stingui.shcd fnun the 
tabulae or outside boarding by Corippus dr UukL Instin, 

4. 35: 

•'protinus omnigeni caeduiitur robora hgiii, 
quaeque sois aptanda locis. dorissiina coslcutf 
mollia daat tabuku,'' 

38 AENEIDEA [18-20 uuc— comi'lent 

VoTUM. Not (with Scrvius) the verb, but ihe substantive, 
for wo find in Petronius, 89: 

. . . "stipant graves 
equi reoessus Daiiai, ct iu voto latent/' 



Let not the too prosaic reader, interpreting this sentence 
according to its literal structure, suppose it to mean that, 
besides the delecta virum corpora whicli were inclosed in the 
hollow sides of the horse, the vast caverns of its womb were 
tilled with armc'd soldiers: or that a considerable vacancy, 
remaining after the selected chiefs were inclosed, was tilled up 
with a large body of common soldiers. On the contrary, the 
latter clause of the sentence is only explanatory of the former; 
ARMATO MILITE informing us that the delecta virum corpora were 
armed warriors; caverxas ixgentes uterumque, that by caeco 
LATERi was meant the whole interior cavity or chamber of the 
statue; and complext, that the cavity was completely filled by 
the persons who were inclosed (ixcluduxt) — in other words, 


LATKRI is a theme of which picxitusque cavkrxas ixcrEXTES 


SORTITI FURTIM LNCLUDUNT. That this is tlic truo aiuilysis and 
interpretation of the passiige appeal's from the following consi- 
derations: (1), that it is according to ooi- author's usual habit 

IS-^tO HU*: — COMFLENt) 



tiiui? Ui present in the first riause of liis sontenfe na more than 
tlie sketch or skeleton of his thought, and then in tho subi^eqiieiit 
duvise to fill up and clothe with flesh and life such previous sketch 
or skeleton. (3), that, in tlie sci[in'h uuly dklectv virim cor- 
pora, uz., Thcssander. Srlienclus, Ulysses, Aciunris, Thuas^ 
Neoptolemus, Machaon, Menelaus, and Epeus come out of the 
horse. (8), tJmt even in tlie account given by Trrphiodorus^ 
an author so much more likely than Virgil to disi-egard verisimi- 
litude, wc find (vei^es 152 et f<fif/fi.\ the ambush insisting uf nn 
more than twenty-two individuals, every one of them imme(i, 
and all of them collectively styled (vej^e 522) ui-x^iaim fiaai- 
hfi^^ corr<3spondin^— i:?n(j/lt/fcc, tn VirgiFs oklkcta vmrM cok- 
k*ka; and ntyi^tnm, in Virt^iPs mlmato mujte, (4), that it is 
aft plain from Ci(*ero's {Phiiipp. J. Vi): '^In buius me consilii 
socit^tatem tanquam in equum Troianum cum principibus in- 
dadiH?** that neither Gicero himself, nor the audience Cicero 
was addressing, viz., the Roman 8c*nate, had any other notion of 
tlio ambush than that it consisted solrhj of '^principes'' (- dklecta 
vmrsr corpora): aa it is plain from a comparison ^f this same 
passage of Cicero with Cicero's still mure remarkable {de OraL 
2. 22): ^*Exoitius est Isocrates ma^ister istorum omnium, cuius 
e ludo^ tanquam ex equo Troiani)^ nieri principcs exicruut,'* 
that the selectness of the society inside the Trojan horse had 
beeomu a proverb, at least with Cicero: and (5), and lastly, 
that a satisfactory answer is thus afforded in the very obviuus ob- 
jection to the whole story as cumnnmly undemtnud (Napoleon, 
uhi supra (see Rem. on 2. o-iii, p. 22^: ^'Kn supposant que 
OS chcva! contint sculement i^ent ^uerriei*s, il devait etre tl'im 
piiids <*^norme, et il u'ost pasprubablerjiril ait pu etremen^du bord 
dt» la mer sous U's murs dlliou eu uo jour, ayant surtout deux 
rividres & tniverser''). viz.. timt the hoj-se. i^^n far frnm containing 
one hundred individuals, did not even, the story being rightly un- 
derHloud, contain one-tenth of that number. Against all which 
if Mr. Coningtt»n*s djfticulty be urged, viz., that the pxpn>Hsions 
■•WTiiatos fundit equus'' (vei'se H28) and "pais ingentem for- 
midine turpi scaudunt rur*sus equunr' (verse 400 1 are indicative 
of multitude, I reply, first, that no conclusion as to number can 

40 AENEIDEA [21-23 kst— cawnis 

be deduced from the word fund ere — applied by Virgil him- 
self, Georg. 1. 12, to the production of a single object: 

. . . '*cui prima frementem 
fftifif e<iuum tellus;" 

and secondly, that even if fundere always implied either con- 
siderable number or considerable quantity (which the just-cited 
example proves it does not), still no conclusion as to the number 
of persons actually contained in the hoi-se can be drawn from 
either of the passages cited by Mr. Conington — the expressions 
of Pantheus in the one being exaggerated by fear, and of 
Aeneas in the other by hati'ed. 

Dklkcta. Compare Cic. Tififc. Qiiacst. 1. 20 (ed. Orelli): 
'^ea [navis] quae est nominata Argo, quia 'Argivi in ea 

. . . dclc^^ti viri, 
veoti, petebant pellem inauratam arietis.'" 

Cavei^xas lvoentes uterumque == "cavenias ingentes uteri." 



FIDA cAUixis. Compare Aesch. Pers. 445 (ed. Schiitz): 

j'tjaog n^ tort nooafH ^ecXauivoi roTiaw, 
litcitt, Svaoo/jo<; i-Kvatr. 

Tenedos, as it was before the Greek invasion, viz., dives 
oiTM, is contrasted with Tenedos as it is now (xuxc), viz., a 
mere bay attbrding an unsafe roadstead for ships. The conti'ast 
serves the purpose of an explanation how it happened that the 
(rreek fleet could ensconce itself in the statio or roadstead of 
TencMlos, without its coming to the knowledge of the Trojans 
that it was there, viz., because, the island having been deserted 




an iho first appoamnce o\' the Greeks before Troy, there was 

now no one on it (nunc taxtum sinus et statio; huc se pku- 

VBCTi DE^EKTo IN i.iTTORE LOXDUNT) to briug the intelligence to 

that city tliat the Greek fleet (supposed to have taken its depiu- 

tore fiir Greece) was actiinllT riding at ant-hnr in the roadstead 

of Tenedosi. The eontrast, therefore, of Tenedos i>ivk8 oririi 

whh Tenedos TAJ«TtrM sixrs ct statio carinis is to be carefully 

inguisbed from the contrast (Sil. 14, 201, ed, Rup.): 

'"ct insti 4aoridam portos, uiinti littore solo 
suhsiiliuni iriiidum fugientibus ae<iaom, Myliie,*' 

of Mylae a port, and therefore affording (viz., by means of 
land on one side, and a mole or moles towards the sea) ci>mplote 
dter, or shelter on every side, to ships, with Mylae no longer a 
but only (the mole or mules having been desti-oyed by 
storm or allowed to go to ruin) a mere statio or roadstead, 
and therefore ^aflbrding shelter to ships on the land side only, 
i\ e,, by means of the land or shore alone c^littore solo''). The 
latter contrast, or that of a regular port (^Musti portns/' Sil.) 
with a mere statio or roadstead, has been repeated by VelL 
Patei'c. 2. 72: *^ex5tialemque tempestatem fugientibus Mtatio pro 
fH)t*fn foret/' 

Ha rar» then, is the iiiformatiou wliich our text gives us of 
the desciled state of the island of Tenedos, at the time the (freivks 

Jed themselves of its roadstead, from being gratuitous and 

ring the mere purpose of ornament p'Ea vastities in insula 
facta, ut ea hoc uno nota sit^ quod naves tempestate iactatae in 
Itttorum recessu, qnem Htnum appellat, stntmrnUj etsi parum 
tutani^ habeant,'' Heyne. ''The island is said to be a siKrs, a 
bay forming a doubtful roadstead, being all tor which it was 
tijcn rt^niarkflble. , . . DKsEino t\ Mflviiu: shows that the change 
in tlic fortmies of Tenedos had already 'begun," Conington], 
111 At it is pR>ciselv this piece of information which imparts 
to tliis i>art of the narrative verisimilitude and plausibility— a 
verisimilitude and plausibility so marvellously inci*e.ased by the 
epithet by which the statjo is characterized, \iz,, malefida; see 
next paragraph. 

}lMMWiDx = infi(ia; fajthless, unsafe. But why this character 

42 AENEIDEA [30 34 class.— fereb. 

of the roadstead so especially put forward? Was not the faith- 
lessness, tlie insecurity, of the roadstead the very reason why 
the Greek fleet, if it had any care for its own safety, should 
avoid it? On the contrary, the danger of an accident happening 
from tlie weather in the short interval for which the fleet was 
to be there was exceedingly small, while the danger of the 
Trojans learning they where there, had the statio been fid a, 
and on that account, of com-se, a favourite resort for vessels, 
had been great. The statio was the very statio for the Greeks 
to choose above all others, no less on account of its con- 
venient distance neither too near nor too far from Troy, and 
its position (if the information obtained by Heyne on the sub- 
ject be correct: "Nunc autem per eos qui haec loca adierunt 
in compertis habeo, ex locis illis, (juae Ilii vestigiis assignari 
solent (Bunarbaschi) Teuedum baud dubie prospici, et esse in 
eius littore australi stationem navium, quae earum conspectum 
oculis ex Ilio prospicientiura eripiat") out of the view of that 
city, than on account of the loneliness of the shore (deserto 
L\ lhtore) and the small probable, perhaps even no, resort to 
a station so little in repute (malefida). 



Classirus hr' locus. In this passage Virgil, according to his 
custom (see RemuL on 1. 500; 2. 18 and 49), presents us first 
(vei*ses 27 and 28) with the general idea, the deserted appear- 
ance of the places lately occupied by the (ireeks; and then 
(verses 29 and 30) supplies the particulars, in the words of the 
Trojans pointing out to each other the various localities. 

30-34 CLASS. -KEKKH.] BOOK II. 43 

The reader, however, must not be misled by tlie words 
CLASsiBUS Hic LOCUS to siipposB that there was a phice sot apart 
for the ships. Innumerable passages in the Iliad, and especially 
the account of the battle at tlie ships (//. 13\ render it peifectly 
clear tliat, the ships being drawn up on the shore, the tents were 
ere<*ted beside and amongst them; the ships and tents of one 
nation forming one group, those of another nation another 
group, and those of a third nation a third group; and so on, 
along the entire line of shore occupied by the encampment. 
CluVSSLbus means, therefore, not the ships, as contra-distinguished 
from the tents, but the ships taken together with tlieir depen- 
dencies, the tents; oi- in other words, it means the Greirian en- 
campment, called classes by Virgil, and ai rr^eg by Homer, from 
its most important and, especially from a distan(^», most conspi- 
cuous pai-t, ///e ,v///yM-. 

Not only Dry den and such like translators, but even Alfieri 
("Qui, fitte eran Tancore lor''j renders clas-sibls hic uhvh^ 
''here the navy rode'' — with what understanding of the Iliad, 
or of ancient naval expeditions (s*,*e Aen. :j. 71; fJ. 00, 70)^ 
or of the Grecian encampment and mode of warfare at Troy 
and especially of the battle at the sliijw, let the rearh.T judge. 


MiRAXTUR Egui, Variation. Both clauses together =- ''parH .stu|x;t 
admiratione ingentis equi. qui dono datux Minerva^.* allatuniM 
erat Troiae exitium." These word« ha^l not embarranwjd and 
misled so many commentatoi-s. and mys^.-lf among the nuniU;r 
r Twelve Year's Voyaire." and '•Advers. Virg/'*. had it U*<?n 
|K^rceivc<l that not ^niy the word- rheniH^rlvi*:* but th'; <rfitjre 
|)iissiige is almost nt».-rally rnin'^lat^,*'! from Kiiripid<-^. who in 
the pei-son of the choni-, Trfxnf ',:',:, i-A. Oindorf , -^iivn: 

.mat'. 4*- ; *JTfr 'ft, I yHft 
1 tjO^ .11 it'., fr»*BUf > f . 

xt't . U:*t4t'.^**' . t'fft 

where in ioqiw '4'7<V (lu.'^^iosi^^^jt w«? ^uvi: iji>i;piAr. i//*';* 

44 AENEIDEA [30-34 class.— ferkb. 

mineuvae; in JaQdaviag avav, exitlvle; in O^ea dioamv, duci 


ixsiDiAS; in 7c€iy.a ev ovQeta, abiete; in tcqci; 7vvi,ag cogjtia^, 
PANDUNTUR poRTAE, luvAT IRE; and in /caaa yevva Ogiyiov, 


DoxuM AiLVERVAE, Mmena's present^ in the sense of the 

present made to Minerva^ not the present made by Minerva. 

And so Servius, rightly: "Non quod ipsa dedit, sed quod ei 

oblatum est." Exactly so, verse 189, of this same present to 

Minerva; ''si vestra man us violasset dona Minervae" [Minerva's 

present y i. e., the present made to Minerva]; and 11. 566, 

^'donuni Triviae'' [Trivins present^ i. e., the present made to 

Trivia]. Also Ovid, Met. IS. 510 (Hecuba, of herself): 

"nunc trahor exnl, inops, tiimnlis avulsa meorain, 
Pcnelopae numu^^' 

[a present for Penelope]. Claud. Epith. Pall, et Celer. IS: 

''scrutantur [Amores] nidos avium, vel roscida laeti 
mala legunt, dofium Veneris'' 

[a presoit for Venus]. Eurip. Ion, 1427: 

Ckeusa. S{)t<xovTi tuttQfiaioovTf 71 tty/()rab) ytvvt. 
Ion. (fwo/;^' .^i>(erag, f) rtxv trTQti^nv Xfytt; 

\a present for Minerva]. Eurip. Orest. 12 S : 

anitvxf^ r7iia/rov vforto m r 6(0 (> rj fi « t « , 

not presents snitable to be received from, but snitable to be 
offered to, the ^^inferi.'" See Rem. on "ercptae virginis ira," 
2. 413, and compare Eurip. Orest. 1434 (ed. Paley), of Helen: 

axrXtov ^i»n\ yunv tJii ti'uiIop uytd- 

uura GvmoktOfu /otjCoraa Xivm, 

if (t<)tti nooif I'otic S(o o a K ), v riti ti ptf a t oa 

[o/ferinys to Clytcmnestra ; funeral dress for corpse of Clyleni^ 
ncstra]. Aesch. Again. IS 8 5 (ed. Davies): 

. . XtU 7lt7IT(t)XOTl 

Tomii' f-Jiii'd't^Mui, roi' xaiu /'H)vog 
.It o g rtxoMP aontjoog nxxdiav /tif)i »'. 

Quint. Smyrn. 12. 235: 

oi (f* (tl):Oi Ttvtqbio iioog itoov aarv aokovxtg, 
fAifivtTt, iiaoxtv Mfifji€ noil jiToliv fioraaowi 
6ri'Coif ilnofxivot T{)noivi6i 6faiiov ttyeaO^ai. 

30-44 CLASS.— FEtlKB.] 



Epigr. Meleagri, AnthoL Pal, 7. 468: 

[prentfit for Hod€s\. Pinil. Xiuh. IfK S6 fed. Boorkli): 
lot d' uHtt'tH ctiuiftP rvu^ui imT{tuit^t a^tiov 

(where Dissen: ''donarium Plutunis, k, e. cippum ciim ai-te do- 
latimi Plutoni Siicruin. Confer Jiog tgonaia, Pausan. 5. 22, 
fiiL; porro ueko*^ ^i<)tu //. f*. d'^fjvog, quereln Plutoni sacm, 
Kurip. Ekrtr\ 143; Sitppl. 7HH, udov uoLrui, ot ^^fidit yotK\ 
Aristoph. The^maph. lOaiV^y. Compare also the application by 
Homer of the terra ^EX/aii^iov fkuov (delemmeutiim deorum) 
tM the same wooden liorse, Orf, S. 509: 

ij nun' itty aytdpAt Utt^t* IktXnxmitoi' t-ivnt. 

ExmALK Altogether by prolepsis, and expi*essive of rha 
{.resent feelings of the speaker. Ct>nipare verse 237, *'fatali8 
machina/* and verse 245^ ^^nionstrnni infelix''— both of this very 
horse; also 1. G, *'Lavina littora/' wliere D, Hienm. in fh€eh. 
BO: '4uxta illud Virgilianum 'I^vinaque venit Httora': non 
quo [qu? quod] eo tempore quando venit Aeneas in Latium 
LAvinia dicerentur, sed quae postea Lavinia nuncupata sunt" 

Wagner (1861 ► reminds bis reader that the donvm wfus not a 
rtil but only a pretended donum (^'per simulationem datum''), 
and Kappes (Zur Erklarawj von VirgiVs Aeiieide: Constanz, 
I86B) finds Aeneas's words full of the bitterest irony: "Gerade 
darin lie^t der schmer/ untl die irunie ausgedrilekt, dass Aone»is 
daa pferd naeh des Sinn angiibe ein der Minerva dargebrachtes 
gesehenk nennr, naehdem er es als die verderben bringende 
nmchhm keunen gelernt hat/' Aeneas's words are, on the 
contniry, a siniple statement of the fact, without either allusion 
\o the untruthfulness of the present, or irony. The horse is 
equally oonum whether it contains an ambush inside or not 
(rense 49: ^^timeo Danaos et donu ferentes"). 8ee Attiu» 
fquotcd by Servius): "'Jlinorvae donuni nrmiputenti iJanai 

46 AfiNEll)E!A [30-34 class.— ferkb. 

abeuntes dicant" Hyginus, Fah. 108: "Danai Minervae dono 
dant/' PetroD. (ed. HadriaD, p. 325): 

. . . "hoc titulus fero 
incisus, hoc ad fata coinpositus Sinon 

And how little irony enters into the feelings of Aeneas is clear 
both from the severe gravity and even sorrow of his expres- 
sions (as verses 54, 55, and 56), and from the circumstance that 
he was himself one of the principal persons imposed on, and one 
of the principal sufferers by the fraud (verses 105, 106). To 
be ironical Aeneas should have said not exitiale, but prao- 
clarum, or egregium, should have described the gift not by 
its real character, but by the character in which it was viewed 
by himself and his friends at the time, by some character the 
yQvy opposite of that which it merited. 

Of the five places in which our author makes mention of the 
hoi-se as a present, three (viz., verses 86, 44, and 49) expressly 
state who where the givers of the present, viz., the Danai; and 
two, viz., our text and vei"se 189, to whom the pre^sent was 
given, viz., to Minerva. 


verrath, sei's weil schon nahete Ilions schicksal," Voss. Troiae 

FATA is not "schicksal," the destiny (i. e., final destiny) of 

Troy, but the series of fates appointed to Troy from the 

beginning; and ferebant is not "nahete,'' approached, but 

brought, occasimiedy was the cause of, Compai-e 2. 94: "fors 

si qua tulisset;" Ovid, Met. 3. 174: 

"ecce! nepos Cadmi, dilata parte laboruni, 
per nonius ignotum non cortis passibius crraiis, 
pcrvonit in lucum: sic ilium fata ferebaiuy 

^-44 AT— danaitm] book It. 4^ 



IxsiDiAS, appropriation of the Homeric figure applied to this 
same horse, Od. 4. 277: 

T«i> df nfotarn^K,; xoilov ).oynv (eu(f ((tfowoa. 

Ibid. 8. 515: 

innoH-tv hx/vuivot, xotlov koyov txiinohnovThg. 

Ibid. 11. 525: 

fiun' (ti'uxXivat ;iixii'in' luyav rjS* fntff^nvta. 

SuBiKGTiSQUE URKUE FLAMMis. The advicc of Capvs consists 
of two alternatives: either to destroy the hoi-se. (by fire or 
water as they might prefer), or to explore its contents. Tlie 
copulative que is used to connect together the two parts of 
which the fii-st alternative consists. The English language does 
not admit of a similar structure. 

Primus mi ante omxp^^ . . . laocoon AUOEys summa dfx^urrit 
\i\ arce, et procul: miseri. Compare Li v. 1. 12: ''Mettus 
Curtius . . . princeps ab arce decucurrerat . . . nee procul iam 
a porta Palatii erat, damitans, 'vicimus ....'" 

Aut ulla putatis dona careke dolls danaum. Admirably 
translated by Schiller: 

"ein Griechisches geschenk und kein betrug verl>orgcn?" 

8uch masterly touches, promissory of the future splendour of 
Schiller's genius, occur every now and then in his "Freie 
Uebersetzung " of the sec'ond and fourth books of the Aeneid, 
which is, however, on the whole, an inferior production, evincing 
not merely immaturitA' of poetical power, but a considerable 
want of perception of the delicacies of Virgil's expressions, and 
even some ignorance of the Latin language. 

48 AJSNUlDiA [49-63 qviDQ.— catrrn. 



QuiDQUiD ID i-ST, TIMEO. So Ovid, Heroid, 19. 203 (of an omi- 
nous dream): "quidqiiid id est^ timeo/' 


sentiment there is nothing new except its application to the 
Danai: Ex^qtov adioQa dioqa aovtl ovriaifta was a proverb even 
in the days of Sophocles. See Ajax, 665. 

Validis inoentem viribus. The great size of tlie spear, and 
the forc« with which it is hurled, are not matters of indiffer- 
ence, but absolutely necessary to the production, on the huge 
mass of which the horse consisted, of the considerable effect 
described by the words 


Of the five terms most frequently used by Yirgil to express 
the casting of a spear, viz., iacio, coniicio, torqueo, intor- 
queo and contorqueo, the two first are the weakest and 
signify: iacio, simply to throw; coniicio, to throw unth the 
collected force of the individual^ which, however, need not be 
great, for the term is applied, 2. 544, to Priam throwing his 
"imbelle telum sine ictu." The three latter signify to hurl: 
torqueo, simply to hurl; intorqueo, to hurl forcibly; con- 
torqueo, uHth all the collected strength of a powerfully strong 
7nan—con^ when applied in composition to the act of ofie, being 
no less intensive than when applied to that of a number of indi- 
mduals; in the former case indicating that the act is the result 
of the whole collected power of the one, in the latter that it is the 

4d— 53 yrniQ. — tTAVKRx.] 

BOOK n. 

rev^att of the mllected powrr of the several indlHdimb rrmeertmi. 
ScM?. Rem. on ''rorripiiuit spatium/* 6. 634; and on ^-roii* 
elajimt/' 9. 375. 

Impello, although interpretod by Hmne in his gbss on 
Aen. L SO intorqiioo, immittu, is neither theni nor any- 
where tfls© (except under tijo purticuUir cirtnunstances mentiunod 
in Rum. on Aen. 1. 85 lusod in that sense, but always in the 
sense of pushing — either physically pushiny^ as Aen. L 86; 
r, 621; 8. 239, Ac,; or metaphoncatly ptishmy, as Aen, i. 15/ 
2. 55, 520, &. 


is not, as niauitained by Thiel, and after him by Forbiger, into 
the afrus; fii-st^ be<.!ause there is mui;h harshness in inteqiret- 
iug the IN before al\tjm so very differently from the l\ before 
LiTus, of which it is the mere repetition. Secondly, because 
the word recusso, vei'se 52, implies that the interior of the 
horse waj^ only conenssed, not perforated. Thirdly, because the 
aj(prC!^ion fki?uo foed^uie, vei-se 55, almost expresses diat the 
interior hnd not been jjreviuusly **foedata ferro." Fourthly, 
JbiK&use the words "tergo intorserit/' verse 231^ limit the lesion 
made by the cuspis, vei-se 230, to the terfirnni, a term never 
applied exc^ept to the exterior c>f tlie body. For all these rea- 
j*0Q» I reject Thiers interpretation, and understanding (with 
Wagner) quE to he taken epexegetic^Uy (see Rem. on Aen. 
L 500; 2, 18) render the passage, mjainst that part of the Hide 
which was the alvius or belly. Thus the precise position of the 
wound is determined to have been in the hinder part of the side, 
corresponding to the cavity of the belly, not of the chest; and 
in the lateral pait of the belly, not the under part. Virgil 
chooses tliia position for the wuuud with great propriety, be- 
cause the portion of the horse's side corresponding to the belly, 
beiBg mucti larger than that corresponding to the chest, not 
only afforded a better mark to Laocoon, but was pi^cdsely the 
part where the enclosed persons were principally situated- 
Compare Aen, 7. 499: 

''peniit« utenirii iiomtu perque ilia veait aruodo;" 

Biamt, AZXUDIA, TOU u. 

60 AUNEIDBA [4^-53 QuiDQ.— cAtEto^. 

through that part of the litems (belly) which was the ilia (loin 
or flank). 

CuRVAM, bowed, bent outwai*d; the opposite of cavam. 
Compare Oeorg, 1. 508: *'curvae falces." Aen. 6. 4: "curvae 
puppes/' 7. 184: "curvae secures." 3. 564: 

"toUimur in caelum curvato gurgite." . . . 
Silius, 6. 522 (ed. Ruperti): 

^'ac legimus pontum, pinaque immane cavata 
aequor, et immonsas curra trabe findimus undas," 

in which last we have the two opposite notions in contrast with 
each other — "cavata" expressing the hollow of the ship in wliich 
the passengers were safely lodged, and "curva" the exterior 
curved or bowed form (bow) which divided the water. There 
is a similar and even more striking opposition between curt^cd 
or bowed and concave or hollowed out, in Synesius, Ep, 4: 
ovTog [vent us] acpvco jrQoaTteawv, to taridv efHTtaliv w^ijac, Ttai 
va '/.vQTa AOtla 7tenoiri'/£v (Lat. transl.: "quae «//Ta erant, 
cava reddidit"); and we have only to put verse 53, 


in apposition with our text, to have a similar contrast of our 
own making, between the convex exterior and concave interior 
of the belly of the wooden horse. 

CuRVAM coMPAoraus, put together (viz., with straight pieces 
of wood) so as to form a round, convex, or curve. The form 
was bowed or rounded, though the pieces of which it was put 
together were straight. 

CuRVAM coMPAGiBUS ALvuM = rouuded belly. 

Insonuere cavae gemitumque dedere cavernae. "lunge: 
CAVAE INSONUERE, i. P., cavum quid sonuere; s. ita ut res cavae 
solent," Wagner (1861). Certainly not. To express such sense 
it should have been not insonuere cavae, but insoftuere cavum, 
as Georg. 4. 370: "saxosumque sonans Hypanis;" Cal- 
purn. 4. 149: 

. . . ^'quae imparibus modo concinuistis avenis, 

tam liquidum, tarn dulce sonant, ut non ego malim," &c. 

49-53 Quri>Q.— CAVERN.] BOOK 11. 5i 

Nay, it should have been not even iiisonuere cariinij but only 
sonuere cainnij had the intention been as assumed by Wagner to 
express not the intensity, but the very opposite of intensity, the 
hollowness of the sound. No, no; cavae is the ordinary eke, 
of which Virgil here, as so often elsewhere, does not scruple 
to avail himself. Compare 10. 475: 

^S'aginaque cava fulgentem deripit ensem," 

where, all sheaths being necessarily hollow, "cava*' adds nothing 
to tlie sense, and is added merely for the convenience of versifica- 
tion; exactly as in our text, all caverns being necessarily hollow, 
CAVAE adds nothing to the sense, and is added mei*ely for the 
ease of versification. The kind of sound produced is expressed 
not by CAVAE, but according to our author's usual manner by 
the added clause, oemitum dedere; the loudness or intensity 
of the gi'oaning sound, by the ix of ln'Sonuere — cavae caver- 


Cavae caverxaj:, the cavas latebras of verse 38, and occu- 
p\ing it will be observed precisely th(^ same position in the vei*se: 


Gemitum, not at all the groan of any one inside, but the 
groan of the (ravity itself, the resonance of the cavae caverxae, 
as 3. 555: "gemitum ingentem pelagi;" 9. 709: "dat tellus 
gemitum." Compare Quint. Calab. 1. 615: 

>; o>s Tis 070 1'OtvJii fidkcjp tv ookGGiv axoviu 

and our own "gi'oaning axle." 

FoEDARt:, to spoil, to put out of its normal state; defor- 
raare, viol a re. See Rem. on 3. 241. 

Latehras. \Vc have no corresponding word in English. 
The Italians have na^condigli. 

gg AliNlilDBlA (56 TROUQti— kAlneRts 




STARRS* — MAXEREs I i?ow.; Pal.', Pieiius: "In antiquis omnibus codd. quot- 
quot habui mankrrs legi." II 4. Ill Princ; Mod.; Mil. 1475, 1492; 
Brcsc; P. Manut.; La Corda; D. Hoins.; N. Heins. (1670, 1671, 1676, 
1704); Phil.; Heyn.; Brunck; Wakof.; Pott.; Dorph.; Lad.; Haupt 

STARKT — MANERKs I Mcfi. (a T being placed over the Sam. ser.) II -^. 
III Scrv.; Ven. 1475 (Jcnson); Voss; Wagn. (1832, 1841; I^ct. Virg. 
and Praest.)\ Ribb. 


STARES MANERET II Y*j} • 1^ ^^^' 1470. 1471. 

Vat.. Ver., St. Oall. 

Stares — maneres, the reading of the great majority of the MSS., 
is to be preferred not only on account of the life which the 
sudden apostrophe throws into the passage, but on account of the 
apparent original from which our author drew, viz., Eurip. 
Troad. 45, where Neptune similai-ly apostrophizes Troy: 

TluXkni;, J log nuig, r/ffi'f' av tv /:/«.'/(>o/v ^Tr 

and of the apparent copy by later authors, as Silius, 10. 658: 

'•haec turn Roma fuit, post te cni vertero mores 
si stabat fatis, potiiis, Carthago, maneres.'' 

Id. 7. 563: 

'^nullaque nunc stares terranun vortice, Roma." 

* Victorinus {Ars Oram.) gives this reading also, but does not cite the 
end of the verse. 

69—70 QUI— acopeke] 



Thou QUE xu^c stares, theme; phluii aiix ,aTA M-vxERist, 

III the same way as the Greeks used jvyxapei*^ and rrtfiMvm 

as varieties for eira*— the fomier adding to the simple concep- 
tion of existonce that of chanre or tbrtuno, as the causae of such 
existeace, and the latter that of nature or birth^so the Romans 
used stare and man ere, the former adding to the simple con- 
(•eption tliat of uprightness of position, the latter that of con- 
tirman»'e in respect of time. In either languag^e, according: to 
the particular circumstances of the case, it was sometimes the 
simple conception, sometimes the superadded, which predomi- 
nated. In the case before ns the superadded is sti'ong: ''thou 
Troy siiouldst stand upri^^ht, and thou citadel of Priam siiouldst 
mulinuc in existence/* Compare 6. 300: *'stant lumina tlam- 
rua,'* where ^'stant'' is statul fired aufi trifle open, or, as we 
say^ atare. At other times the superadded conception is whoUy 
mwk and lost, as Manil. 1. 0-13 (Jacob): 

**atQue ulii se primis extoUit Phoebus ab uadis, 
itlis tH3xta matiei, fjuos turn premit aureus orbis," 

wheit? there is no notion of contmuanco ut all, and '^manof' 
is no more than est. 



K tpsraj UT sTRTTEnET. — "Vol ut cupcrohir. vol qnia rmnHi 
iiimulahant/ Servius. "Ft iiddurcretur aA VQ^vxn^ H«\vne, 
By HOC IPSCH is nut nicant rithur nieroiy ^'nt ruperetur'' <jr 
merely **ut ad regem adduceretur/' but both together, viz., 
tbiit he should be taken into custody and brought before the 

54 AENBIDEA [59-70 qui— accipkhe 

king, viz., as the first step or move towards his ultimate object — 
TROiAM aperiro achivis. 

Hoc IPSUM, this very thing which I have just presented 
to my readers, viz., maxus post tekga revinctum ad reoem tra- 
HEBAXT. Compare Ovid, Met. 9. 723: 

''I phis aniat ({ua posse frui dosperat, ot auget 
hoe ipsum flam mas" 

[this very thing, viz., that he loves one whom he despairs of 
over enjoying]. Ovid, Met. 11. 384: 

. . ''sod Alcyone coniux excita tumultu 

prosilit, et, nondum totos ornata capillos, 
disiicit hns ipsos'' 

[the very hair she had just been dressing]. 

Ultro. Taking the initiative, doing what he need not have 

Troiamque apertret Acnivis. '^And open Troyds gates unto 
the Greeks,'' Surrey. No; not literally open the gate^ of Troy, 
but procure au entrance for the Greeks into Troy; make Troy 
accessible to them. Compare Aen. 10. 864: '^aperit si nulla 
viam vis." Statius, Theb. 12. 293: 

"Theseos ad muros, ut Pallada flecteret, ibat, 
supplicibusque piis faciles aperiret Athenas.'' 

Sil. Ital. 18. 49: 

. . . ''caeleste reportat 
Palladium, ac nostris aperi't mala Pergama fatis." 

Venant. Fortun. Poemat. 1. 5. 3 (in cellulam S. Martini): 

"exul onim terns, caeli iucola, saepe solebat 
clausus Martinus hinc apcrirr polos" 

[open heaven, /. e., guide to heaven, show the way by which 
heaven might be entered]. Iscan. de hello TroianOj I. 47: 

•'haotenus haec; tuque, oro, tuo da, maxime, vati 
ire iter inceptum, Troiam<jue apcrire iacentem ' 

(in which latter the action of opening Troy is figuratively as- 
cribed to the poet who describes it). 

Daxaum iNsmiAS. Those words are plainly repeated from 
Dido's request to Aeneas, Aen. 1. 758, 

^70 gn— 1 


BOOK n. 


I-VERMis, As arm a means not merely weapovHy whether 
affensive or defhmve, but all kimls ami means of offence and 
defence, so its eompoujid inermis means not merely without 
frmpons, but without any means of offence or defenee; help- 
ksH, defcneelmH, The latter is the sense in which I think it is 
used in the passage befoi-e us; because, first, it is not to be 
supposed that Vii^il, having told us that Sinon was a prisoner, 
with his hands bound behind his back, would think it necessary 
t«j inform us almost instantly afterwards that he was unarmed 
or icitkouf u'vapons. And, secondly, because even if Sinon had 
not been bound, weapons could have been of no avail to him 
aMt tiie .vaMiNA by whom he was suixoiuided, and therefore 
ttc want of them made no real iliflerence in his condition, and 
could nut have been assigned^ even by poetical implication, as 
a reason for his emotion or conduct. It is in this strong sense 
of utierbj without nieafu of offenee or defence, and not in its 
literal sense of treaponksn, that "inermis'' is to be understood 
also. Aen, L 491: 

'' tendentemfiue mantis Priamum ooaspexit inermes;' 

although it might have contributed to the pathos of 
picture to have represented a youn<j warrior*s hands as 
Ktrotched out ireoponless^ it could have had no such cfTect to 
have so represented tlie hands of Priam, who was so old as to 
he unable to wield weapons, and was equally '4nerrajs'' (kelp' 
fciw and defenceless) whether li*' had arms in his hands or not. 
See Aen. 2, 50!), 510, et seq,: and compare Tacit Ann. fJ, 
SI: ""Et senectutem Tiberii ut inennem despiciens/* The simie 
raeanlug follows itiermis into the Italian, as Oerus, Lib, 3. 11: 

*'^i seniplici fanciuih, e i vecchi inermi, 
e1 v(y\%o delle doone sbiggottite/' 

Quae ^\rsc tkllcs . , , acoperi:? Compare Quinctil De^ 
clam. 12, 28: ^*Quomodo me a scelere meo divellcrem? in 
qua;3 ultinias teiTas, quae inhospit^ia maria conden^m?" 

56 AENBIDBA [76. quidvk— capto 



QUIDVE FERAT * MKM. 1 Pal. Ill D. IXcins. ; N. lleins. (1670). 
[punct] CRKTUS, QUIDVE FERAT; yi¥M. Ill Hcyoo; Wakef.: Wagn. (1832, 

1841, 1861); Lad.; Haupt. 
[punct.] atETUs, quidve ferat, mem. Ill P. Manut ; D. Hoius. ; N. licins. 

(1670); Brunck; Voss (*'Nach fekat ein komma"). 

[punCt.y &C.] CRETUS QUIVE FUAT, MEM. Ill Ribb. 

Vat, Hom.y Ver., St. Gall. 

QijiDVE FERAT. What news he brings, /. e., what he has to say. 
Compare iletast. La Clemen xa di Tito, 1. 11: "e ben, che 
rechi?'' [what do you bring? /. e., what news? what have 
you to say?]; Metast. Achille, S, 2: ^'si turbato Arcade! che 
recasti?'' [what news have you?] 

Quae sit fiducia capto. '^Qua fidueia se ipse captivitati 
obtulisset," Burraann, Forbiger, Kappes. ^*Quid illud sit quod 
illi fidueiam apud hostes capto pariat, ut putet a Troianis sibi 
esse parcenduni,'' Servius; after much trifling, Wagner (1861). 
In both explanations both fiducia and cai»to are understood 
in a stronger sense than, as I think, has been intended by our 
author. Capto has just been used, and exactly in a similar 
position in the verse, in the simple sense of the prisoner; and, as 
it would seem, for no other reason than as a descriptive substi- 
tute for the pronoun {ef\ always when possible avoided by 
poets. Why is its sense difTerent, more special and emphatic, 
here only eleven lines later? Fiducia was the word com- 
monly used by the Romans to express the contidence, expecbi- 
tjon, view, object^ which a person had on any occiision in his 


or performed any, 
[compare Martial, 

•quae te causa trahit, vel <iuae fidiu-ia Romain, 
Sexto? quid aut siieras, aut potis inde? refer." 

mind, or with which ho went anywhere, or performed any, 
even the most trifling and indifferent act [compare Ma 

3. 38. 1 : 

Ovid, Met. 9. 720 

. . . '^sed erat fidncia dispar. 
coDiugii pactaeque oxpectat tempora taedae, 
quaniquo viruni putat esse, suuiii fore credit lantho. 
Iphis amat qua posso frui desperat, et auget 
hoc ipsum flammas: ardetquo in \'irgine virgo"]. 

What reason is there why its meaning here sliouhl bo more 
einpliatic and special? The question, ''what is the prisoner's 
case? what has he to say for himself, on what does he rely?'* 
[compare Tacit. Annnl. S. 11: '*Post quae reo [Pisoni] T. 
Arruntium, T. Vinicium, Asinium Galium, Aeserninum Mar- 
cellum, Sext. Pompeium patronos petenti, iisque diversa ex- 
cusantibus, M. Lepidus, et L. Piso, et Livineius Regulus adfuere, 
arrecta omni civitate, quanta fides amicis Germanici, quae ftdu- 
cia recj, is perfectly appropriate; and according to our author's 
custom, completes the meaning of the Trojans, not sufficiently 
fully expressed in the preceding questions: guo sanguine cke- 
Tus? QumvE FERAT? procisoly as the self-same words (*'quae 
fiducia'') in the passage just adduced from Martial complete 
the similar inquiry: "quae te causa trahit?'' 

Caito, the captive. Compare Sil. 6. 492 (ed. Rup.): 

. . . "(juae [Poenorum cohoi's] moesta repulsa 

ac minitans cnpio [Regulo], patrias proporabat ad onuj." 

58 AENEIDEA [76 ille— fatub 



ILLE— KATUR III P. ^lauut. ; D. Ileins.; Phil.; Pott; Hcyne; Wagn. (1832, 

1841, and 1861); Haupt; Wilms. 
iLLK- FATUR OMITTED I Pal.; Med. (but tho verso written in red ink at 

bottom of page). 

Peerlk; Ribb. 

Vat., Rom.. Vcr., St. Gall. 

I cannot agree with the Leyden octavo edition of 1680, the 
younger Heinsius, and Burmann, in enclosing this vei-se be- 
tween crotchets, and still less with Bninck in expunging it en- 
tirely, on the ground that it attributes fear to Sinon, whom 
Virgil but a few lines previously has represented as fidexs 
ANLMi, ATQUE PARATUS, &c., and must therefore be supposititious. 
Neither do I plead in its defence, with Heync and some other 
commentators, that Sinon fii^t pretends to be agitated with fear 
(TUKiJATus), and then pretends to lay his fear aside (''Fingit 
Sinon et hoc, quasi deposuerit formidinem," Heyne); on the 
contrary, I think that Virgil, having represented Sinon as enter- 
ing upon the execution of his plot with boldness and confidence, 
represents him as renllji turbatus [agitated and friijhtejtedX when 
he comes to be actually confronted with the danger, and then as 
reattij recovering from his agitation when he finds that the im- 
mediate danger is over, and that the Trojans, instead of putting 
him to death instantly on the spot, are willing to hear what he 
has to say. 

Turbatus means reatly agitated, and deposffa FORMmiNE, 
really recovering self-possession, because (1), if Virgil had in- 
tended to express by these words only simulated emotion, it can- 



not be cltiubtod that he wuiild have afforded some ^l^l^ by which 
his intention mipht have been discovered; but he has not only 

I ni»t iiHbnliHl any sia'h duo, but has acttuilly asi*i^ned s^uftieient 
oiitij^e for real omr>tiou: SiiiMn is turbati^s, because he stands 

I i5iviuiis in the midst of the phhyom a'imixa : and DKPosm 


i iMPCTL's. (!l), if tlie words nieum only simulated emotion, then 
Tini^il reprt^ents Sinou as of sudi heroie oonntancy and resolu- 
tiuu as to look upon instant vjnlont death without blenching: 
vvltich is to hold him up* for m far at h-»u8t, as an object of 
n^pei't and oven of ndinirution to Aeneuss hearers m well as 
to Virgil's readors^ and thus to eontmdiet tlie intention (evi- 
deiiCfxl by the terms ooLrs. Airrn* rNsimis, rnunxK, scKt^i'si 
TJLVTouuM, I'KKiuki) of representing' him as a mean-minded man 
eoterifip upon u dishonoui-able and dan^erouH entei'prise* w^ith 
an aurloeious confidence (fidexh amjwi* AtgeK pjhiatcs, 4c.) in 
\m own eunninir and dnplidty. (»), it is alto;:,'ether unlikely 
U»i Virgil should hen* employ to exprest» Mffudukd, the 
very eame wonis whieh be employs, Aen, H, 612, in a similar 
context and similar circumstances, to express real, emotion. (4), 
ttiore !» a perfect harmony between fjdetcb JiNfui ATgrr pa ba- 
ths. Ac. and tirbatus understood to mean rral agitation, be- 
cause a man may enter npon a dan^^c^rouA undertaking with 
tfonfideiiee, and even with coiira^ < which latter quaUty. how- 
over^ it will be obsened, is not expnsH^^i either by rxhrsH 
iMin, or luieiTCs* 4c,), and yet quail before the instant im- 
minent dani^er, as eiqnisitely sliown by Homer in hi« moiit 
imtunil and touching ArcHiant of He<5tor^« flig^ht before Ai'hillea: 
liow much more, then, tb»- wr»7teh Sinon? f5>. rekuiTts mean^ 
^Ki/ not mutuiatrd ni^iUdum, h*H*mi^t^ mil agitation wa« niiire 
Ijkdy tt* move tht* Tnyan* to pity than any Kimnkitimi of It, 
Virgil. theTefora, taknifr th© rnott effeftual metl^i^i iif niovjnif 
th« Tn)jsn«, an4 rw^oHwtJnjr perhap the adrlni* 

nt I.. 

2 vn nr Here. 4akadttm aa 

pre^fiu :>uiuQ to tbi«in in a fftate of rnii a^itiiuuti, {»!» adoi^ for 

60 AENEIDEA [76 ille— fatuk 

his life with all the eloquence of unaffected fear. So Davus 

(Ter. Aful, 4. 4\ instead of acquainting Mysis with his plot, 

and instructing her what answei's she should give to Chremes, 

prefers to place her in such a situation that — speaking the truth, 

and in entire ignorance of his design — her answers must yet 

of necessity be the very answers which he desired; and when 

Mysis afterwards inquires why he had not schooled her as to 

his intentions, replies: 

"pauUum interesse, censes, ex animo omnia 
ut feri tiaiurn facias, an de industria?" 

It was inconsistent with Virgil's plot to make Sinon speak the 
truth, but he could with peifect consistency, and therefoi'c did, 
represent him as actuated by real emotion; which real emotion 
is in express terms contrasted with his false words at verse 107, 


The reader will, however, observe that Virgil, always judi- 
cious, carefully avoids ascribing extreme fear or agitation to 
Sinon; he is turbatus {agitated), pavitaxs (in a fititter\ but he 
does not, like Dolon, his undoubted original, become xkioqoi^ 
vTtai deiovc, nor do his teeth chatter (aQa^ioi; de dia axof.ia yivti 
odoviioi'i Such extreme degree of terror, although beautifully 
consistent with the simple undisguised confession of Dolon, 
would have been wholly incompatible with the cunning and in- 
tricate web which Sinon, almost from the first moment he opens 
his mouth, begins to wrap round the Trojans. It is, therefore, 
with the strictest propriety and observance of nature that Virgil 
represents Sinon at first bold and confident; then disconcerted 
and agitated at the prospect of immediate death; then re- 
assured by the encouragement he received; then again, losing 
confidence when the Trojans manifest the vehement impatience 
expressed by the words tum vero ardejius scitari, &c., and 
with renewed fear and trembling (pavitaxs) pursuing his 
feigned narrative; and then, finally, when he had received an 
absolute promise of personal safety, going on, without further 
fear or hesitation, to reveal the pretended secret of his com- 

Throughout the whole story the reader must never forget 

Hi u^y — ft 




that, altliuijgli it was Virgils ultimate ahjt^ct U\ doeoivc thi? 
Trojans, by raeans of Sinon, with ifspe*! t(* thv liurwo, yet lio 
bad another object also to ettect iprior in point of time, und not 
leffi important than Im ultimate object, because absolutely indis- 
pensable to the attainment of that ultimate objet-t), \iz., to save 
Sinon s life, or in other words, to as4>ign to \m reader suffi- 
ciently probable and natural reasons why the Trojans did 
actually spare his life, and did not, m mij2:ht have been expected, 
e3tecuto such summary jud^'ment upon him an Diomede and 
Ulysaas exe^-uted upon Dolon under buniJar circuniHtances, Ac- 
cordingly, the first woni8 which he puts into the mouth r)f8inon 
are a thrilling exclaniation uf de^spajr* a piteous cry fur merRjr: 
mecl gi'AK NTJNc T£ij.cs, &i\ Tlus hM« the efftvTt nf titayin^ 
the uplifted sword, of averting tiie first and in^^tant danger, 
ixufPBKssis ET oMNis uo'KTtns; they encoumge him to ttpeak^ to 
tell who he is, and why he should not mee^ the captire*» doom; 
Siaon respires, recovers his self-po$i8eii^ion, and — i^fid* l^ to 

make good his gi-ound, and strengthen the favountbl* ^ ^lon 
produced by liij» first wi>rds — myn tliat be wsm tlie triettA of tbttt 
Palamedes of whose unjust condemiuition and death they mjgfat 
liave heard, and tlie princiiiat amm of which wan fh* Ftion 

given by him to the undertaking ««f ilie war aipiin^' md 

that he bad not, like the oilier tir^^kit, eome to the war out of 
faositilitT to the Tmjanv or even voluntarily, ♦wit bad, wham a 
mcie boy (and, tijerefore. trre!»ponsih]e i, been aent h' ' ' *^Hrr^ 
who was ISO pwr a* oi«t ociierwtM* to be able to |if' Ilia 

mn^ He tliea eoten opQii an acirouirt «i Im i^uMmi witb mil 
pemecutioii bj Ulyiee*^ tiietr oioat flnsa<M and jropturrabli* 
enemy; but pmodwiag that ibef bef^ to taka ao iaimmi im 
w\M be i& aaftD^ andilaitT ^opa abort, and flftfisfljr h^ nf 
them to pot bim oat of pais mt ooca^ m he knew that, no maltifr 
kow grmi or mwtBMfreJ hb ■■liwinn^i had htm^ Ihejr eouU 
kaire mi pity or fbigmncaa iir on^ who itaa gnUtjr of the etkm 

of bdn^ a (ireek, Tbm Tnqaa 
tmiil to kjMW the aOfOoL Bb 
cause be had ooc ret emmty 

vhetfaer abimei dbmk by Ihs ti 

Md fhiy 


Trojans, or whether from both these causes conjointly), and 
relates how by the villanous concert of the priest Calchas with 
Ulysses he was selected to be offered up as a victim to appease 
the offended gods; how he escaped from the altar, and lay hid 
during tlie night (the preceding night) in a morass; and then 
lamenting that his escape from death by the hands of the 
Greeks had only led him to death by the hands of the Trojans, 
and that he was never more to see his country, home, or rela- 
tives, concludes with a pathetic adjuration, in the name of the 
gods above and of inviolable faith, that they would yet pity 
such unexampled, such undeserved misery, and spare his life. 
His tears, his agony of fear, the plausibility of his story, their 
sympathy with the object of the hatred and pei-secution of the 
Greeks and of Ulysses, prevail; they grant him his life; and so 
closes the first act of the interlude of Sinon. 

In nothing is the admirable judgment of Virgil more re- 
markable than in the skill with which he has all this while 
kept the wooden horse, as it were in abeyance. No act has 
been done, no word uttered, which could excite in the Trojan 
mind, or in the mind of the reader, ignorant of the sequel, the 
slightest suspicion that Sinon has anything whatsoever to do 
with the horse, or the hoi-se with Sinon. So careful is the poet 
to avoid every, even the slightest, ground for a suspicion, which 
would have been fatal to the entire plot, that it is from a dis- 
tance, and by the agency of the Trojans themselves, he brings 
Sinon into the vicinage of the horse; and that, in the whole 
course of the long history which Sinon gives of himself, and 
which the reader will observe is now concluded, the horse is 
never so much as mentioned or even alluded to, except once, 
and then so artfully (as it were only for the purpose of fixing a 
date), that the mention which is made, while it stimulates the 
Trojans to question him on the subject, seems less remarkable 
than absolute silence would have been, inasmuch as it proves 
that Sinon does not de industria eschew all notice of an object 
which must have attracted his attention, and of the purport of 
which he could not but be supposed to have some knowledge. 
In the second act of the interlude, or that part which com- 

76 nxi— fatob] 

BOOK 11. 


meni'es with verse 152, we find Sinoti tot^illy changed; *'iiow 
more bold, the tempter . . , new part puts on;" Ms life 
secure, guaranteed by the king himself, ho is no longer the 
ftbjeet^ cringing, hesitating, trembling wretch, but the Buceessfiil 
and exnlting villain. He toudly and ktldly invukefci the gods 
tu witness his abjuration of the Greeks and acceptance of the 
Trojan covenant: and makes his revelation uf the important 
secret which is to be the rich reward of the Ti*ojan clemency, 
not, as he had pleaded for his life, in broken passagev^, leaving 
(iff at one place and commencing at another, but una tenore — ex- 
plaining in uninterrupted sequence the absence of the Greeks, 
their intended retiini, the object for which they built the hoi^e, 
and why tiiey built it uf s<> large dimensions; the evil conse- 
cjuences to the Trojiuis if tliey offered it any injury, and to the 
Ort^eki* if it were received into the city, &c. The impostor is 
fully credited; the generous, unwary, and fiite-devoted Trojans 
are caught in the toils so delicately woven and yn ludselessly 
drawn around them, and the curtain falls. 

If die reader happen to be one of those critics who think tiie 
stoiy of the wooden horse deficient in verisimilitude, lie will 
retvive with the greater favour an interpretation which tends to 
increase the verisimilitude, by representing tlie falsehood and 
cuntiing of Sinon as united, not with that quality with which 
blsehood and cunning are so inconsistent and so rarely united, 
heroic fortitude, but with their very compatible and nearly allied 
quality, audacity. 

It is impossible to leave this subject without remiu^kirig how 
favourably to Trojan faith and generosity' (as might be expected, 
Virgil being the poeta ami Aeneas the narrator) the conduct of 
the Trojann towards Sinon contrasts with that of liie Greeks 
towards Dolon. Ulysses iuid Diomede encourage Dolon, and 
tell him, not t<» think of death, on which ambiguous pledge he 
tells the whole truth; they reward liim by coolly cutting off his 
bead, as the last word of his revelation passes his lips. Sinon 
lallii the Trojans a tissue of lies, and not only hius his life 
spared, but is treated with kindness and hospitality. 

That most rigid and territic of all tiie dispensers of tiio so- 


called divine retributive justice, Dante (see Inferno^ 30, 46, et 
sqq.\ punishes Sinon in hell with an eternal sweating fever, in 
company (according to the great poet's usual eccentric manner 
of grouping his characters) on the one side with Potiphar's wife, 
whom he punishes with a similar fever, and on the other with 
a famous coiner of base money at Brescia, whom he torments 
with a never-dying thirst and dropsy, and between whom and 
Sinon ensues a contention in none of tlie gentlest billingsgate, 
which of the two is the greater sinner. 

( i. 


FiTKRiT QDOiMTNQUK I Mcfl. II ,^,.. Ill Serv. ; Venice, 1470, 1471, 1475 

(JensoD); Mcxlena; Brescia; Milan, 1492; G. Fabric; D. Heins.; 

N. Heins. (3 eds.); Ileyne; Wakcf.; Pottior; Dorph.; Wagu. (1832, 

1841, 18G1); Ilaupt; Ribb. 
FUERiNT QUAECuxguE I PoI. (tbus: FUERInT, the N being, although very 

pale and almost indiscernible, apparently inserted by original hand. It 

is omitted by Ribb.) II ^ {} (found by Pierius and N. Heins. in the 

greater number of their MSS., and by Bunn. in almost aU his). Ill 

Venice, 1472; P. Manut; Philippe. 

Vat. Roirt.y Ver., Si, Gall 

FuERiT QUODCUNQUE. *'Quicanque me sequatur eventus," Ser- 
vius. ''Quicquid evenerit, mihique oxinde accident," Heyne. 
"QuoDCUNQUE referendum ad cuncta/' Wagner. Arguing 
against which interpretation of Wagner, and in favour of that 
of Servius and Heyne, SUpfle says (^'Yirgilii opera: mit an- 
merkungen zur Eneide versehen von Karl Fr. Siipfle: Karis- 

W cuKCM— iTArtkm] tidOlC It. 65 

robe, 1847"): "Aiich haben schon die alten, wie Phaedrus ini 
prologe znm dritten buche, die worte anders und wohl richtiger 
ge£Eisst, namlich: 'was audi daraus werden mag, wie is niir 
auch ergehen mag, wenn ieh in allem eueh die wahriieit sage/'' 
I agree entirely with Wagner, and think the meaning is: "I 
will confess all whatever it may have been, whatever there may 
have been in it" The words are not less obscure in the quotation 
and application made of them by Phaedrus (see the twfM;oiumn 
note on them in Schwabe's edition) than in Sinon's original 
use of them — a notable proof of the almost hopeless obscurity t>f 
the Latin language: an obscurit}' arising from its brevity, and 
especially, as it seems to me, from its almost constant omission 
of pronouns and pronominal adjectives. I am. however, in- 
clined to think that in Phaedrus's quotation of the words "quo^i- 
canque fuerit" stands in apposition to -librum exarabo tertium." 
and that the meaning of them there, as in .Sinon's original us^; 
of them, is, such as it />, grxjd or hful, of irhatevfr hi ml it 
may turn out to be. It is as if Phaeiirus had said: Bur now 
as to this third book of mine, ye >liall. a< Sinon told Kin^ 
Priam, hear the whole of it such ai? it is. ^>e it good or U- it 
bad. See Rem. on 1. H2. 

CrXCTA . . . FUERTT QUODCTXi/CE- FATEBOk. As W#f mijrht 

say in English: I will tell you the whole of it. Vd it hi: how 
it will — meaning, not how it will be with me. but how it wjU 
be with the matter. 

Cr5CTA QCODcrxQUE. ejiactly •«» well remark^,''] by Wagrier. 
Praestab.) the Greek /rarrir, o ii. Compare h. 427: "Fulmefi- 
qoae plurima." It may further be alleged \u -upfy^rt of ih*: 
aboTC interpreUitian, and against the "quicunque ui*: vq'jator 
eventns" of Senilis (an interpretati'in. how^-^rr. not xirhotit 
the sopport of Corippus Johannes. 7, 510: 

Tcrta mihi i&iertiUL same^i Vkojx, '.r:.z,j^ l.^.arr. |. 

that this fliird alloson Vj yh^z 'ikfiZ^r of 'J^^fa /-^h wf../rh •jir*/^: 
was threatened »eeiit^ t>. t:^ a -i*.^.*** r<r5^i*ior. of ^ f^^r of 
A danger already sofficKfit;? <Aeo uja>t?^f»^4. rlz.. is» 3^:u/Mf. 
■Borr, jJBnBDBA. roc =. f 

66 AilNBlDBA (79-8? hoc— Airtfte 

every line of the preceding account beginning with certae 

pccuMBERE MORTT, versc 62, and ending with infensi poenas ctjii 
SANGUINE poscuNT, veise 72. 




asserts what is not the fact, from ignorance, folly, or mistake; 
Gr. uaiaiov, IriQov (as Soph. Aj, 1161 (ed. Briinck): 

. . . x{(uot yat) tuaxiarov x).vfi.v 

Diog. Ijaert. 2. 140: KazefpQoveiTo [Menedemus] Kvwv yuxi 

yfi^Qog V7C0 ziov EqexQUwv axorttiy): mendacem, one who 

asserts what is not the fact from a desire to deceive. In other 

words, and less specially: van^'m, one who is deceived himself; 

mj^s'dacem, one who desires to deceive others. Compare Aen. 

1. 396: 

"ni fi*usti*a augurium vani docuere parentes" 

(where ^^vani" is ill-informed on the subject, and therefore 
teaching erroneous doctrine; teaching erroneous doctrine, but 
believing what they taught to be the truth). Also, Liv. 6. 14: 
''Vera an vana iaceref' — things conformable to fact, or things 
not conformable to fact, no matter whether he believed them 

7^^-Sl HOC— AK 


or not Verus is an ambiguous word, sometimes moaning 
true in point of fact, f\ e., conformable to fact, and sometimoB 
meaning true in the opinion of the speaker; on the coutraiy, 
tiliere is no ambiguit>' either in vanus or mendax— vanus 
being always untrue in point of fact, /. c, not conformable to 
Uict, and mendax being always untrue in the opinion of the 
speaker, i\ e., not conformable to the opinion of the speaker. 
Similar to the Latin of ran us is tbs Italian use of its 
derivative raneggiarej as Metast La Clemenzu di Tito, 2, 7: 

"eosi coDfuso io sono. 
che ison k> feo ratteijfiut o f*0 ragioiio/* 

Metast ZenMa, 3. 2. 

■^'quil rifiofio aTer j«oss' io, 
se nme^^ a tutte Fore?'' 

PORTITKA . . . Fixxrr . . , DfPROBA FTKOET, See Rem. on Aen. 
2. 552. 


xoMEN auquod; pa.ndo being taken intnin^itivelT, is Orid, Met. 
15, 497: 

*'fando, nlfquem \i\\ ; 
erediiliute patns. ^. 


Politian's Heitidian (ed Boeder), 1. 15: "^oeqiie tmquan] fando 


Fakdo, inler femditm, in eontermiion, tm Atisouitii&. EpUf, 

16. 36: 

'^qaea mbo fimdo dixer«t 
qui ooe pom Indsvedt** 

Tb» report or mmoitr wUdi so came fanda waa the ^€rri^ of 
Euripides^ HippoL 126 (ed. Stokei): 

M^mrm ^t^H \^^, iteatM^mm 

wbflre a^m^ pm tfmtg igiu^e : y: ffom wtmn the fiirt 

fojfing came to me, #. € , from *«iM/m 1 fiml bairl 

gg AllNEIDEA [l9Sl hoc— akhiK 

Falsa sub proditioxe, "A. e, sub falso crimine proditionis," 
Senius; followed by Heyne, and all the other commentators and 
translators. To this interpretation I object: Firstly, that no 
authority has been adduced to show that proditio may be 
used for crihien proditionis; the aet committed, for the 
charge founded upon the commission of the act Secoridly, that 
if Virgil had intended to say that the Pelasgi had condemned 
Palamedes, on or by means of a false charge of treason, he 
would more probably have used the words falsa PRonmoNE in 
the same manner as infando indicio, without a preposition. 
Thirdly, that this interpretation represents the whole Greek 
nation at Troy (pelasgi) as (conspiring against Palamedes; 
which is {a) contrary to all verisimilitude; {b) deprives infando 
ixDicio of its force, because, if all were conspiring against Pala- 
medes, it was of small consequence how *'infandous" the infor- 
mation or informer was, or, indeed, whether there were any 
information or informer at all; and {c) contradicts the state- 
ment (verse 90j that it was through the machinations of Ulysses 
that Palamedes' condemnation was accomplished. 

Rejecting, for all these reasons, the received interpretation, 
I render fai^a sub proditione, during y or at the time of, a false 
or feigned treason; i. e., when there was an alarm (whether of 
accidental or concerted origin it matters not) of treason in the 
Grecian camp. The words being so interpreted, the meaning of 
the passage is, not that the Pelasgi brought a false charge of 
treason against Palamedes, and condemned him, although inno- 
cent; but that the Pelasgi condemned Palamedes on an infan- 
dous information, which, being brought against him at a time 
tvhen there was an alarm of treasan in the camp, was on that 
account the more readily credited. In support of this interpreta- 
tion, I beg to observe— (1), that it restores to proditione its 
simple grammatical signification. Compare Caes. de Bell, Oall. 
7. 20: "'Haec', inquit, 'a me, Vercingetorix, beneficia habetis, 
qnem proditianis insimulatis'''; and {ibid,) "Vercingetorix — pro- 
ditionis insimulatus— respondit." (2), that the use of sub in the 
sense of during, or at the time of, is familiar to every scholar; 
thus, sub nocte, sub somno, sub profectione, sub ad- 

7&-^7 no:— ANTHs] 



ven ru^ Occ. Livy (26. 16) has even JuiiKi'd ^stfh to the close ('<>;Lrnate 
<>f proditio — deditio; only putting lieditio in the accusative, 
beoauso he wishes to express^ not the prechse timtf, but ahonf thv 
time of thp deditia. (8), that, this interpretation being adopted, 
DfSONTEM is no [(Migor a taiitohjgy of Fvf.sA: the hitter express- 
ing only the falsehiiud nf the general rumuur of treiison, not of 
the particular charge bniught against Pidamedes. (4), that tliis 
interpretation repr(3sents the Pelasgi, not^ iinnatumtly, in the 
triple character of conspirators, accusei-s, and jud^^es, but natu- 
rally, in the single character of judges prevailed uihiu jmrtly 
by the prevalent alarm of treason, and partly by the offence 
they had taken against Palaniedes, qui\ beij.a vct.vbat, to give 
credit to an infandous infiMination against him. (5), that a 
greater degree of verisimilitude is thus foi^ferrcd on the words 
NUNC CASSOM LUMiNE LUoENT, bocauso it is moro probable that 
the Pelasgi would lament PalaniedeiN (as soon as experience had 
taught them the groundlessness of their dislike to him on account 
of his opposition to the war) if they had themselves been <|p|nded 
into convicting him on an "infandum indicium," than that they 
would, under any circumstances, lament him. if their hatred to 
him had been so great as to induce them to crmvict him on a 
charge wliich they not only knew to be false, but of which they 
wen? themselves the concoctois, Aoil (B), that Ovid draws an 
express and strong distinction between the party who nremed 
aod the party wlio roNfleiinied Palamedes {Met. 13, 308): 

. . , ''an falso Palametleu riiniino turfj© 
nrctiM^ic mihi [m. Ulyssi], vobis [rix. PeiHSfj^s] fftjmmiMsr dooorum ost?" pboditionk. Not only was Palamed(*s iniiv>cent of the 
crimu laid to bis charge, but the crime itself hail no existence, 
had not been committed by any «mc: the ^^proditio** was '^falsa," 
a mere concocted proditio, which had no existence whatever; 
just as, Tacitus, AnnaL L .?.9 (^^Utque mos vulgo, qimmvh falsh 
ream subdere, Munatium Plancum consulatu functuni, principem 
legationiB, auctoi*em senatus-consuiti incnsant''), the senatiis- 
constiltum which was laid to the charge of Mimatius l^lancus 
had no existence whatever, had nover been passed at all, w^as a 

70 AENEIDEA [79-87 uoo— annis 

feigned (falsum) senatus-consultum. Compare also Ovid, Met, 

15, 154: 

"quid Styga, quid tenebras, quid noinina vana timetis, 
materiem vatum, fnhiqne piacula mundi?" 

[a norld nhich h(iJ< no existence at all, a feigned world], 

QuE3i (vei-se 83). This word (quext, and not ilium) suffi- 
ciently shows that Sinon has not yet begun to give any new 
information to the Trojans, but is employed, as far as the word 
NECi, in recalling to their recollection facts with which he knew 
they were perfectly well acquainted ("incipit a veris,'' Servius). 
The words nunc cassi.m lumine luoent (see below) are thrown 
in parenthetically between the exordium in which he thus re- 
minds them of known facts and the new information which he 
begins to convey at verse 86, illi me comitem, &c. Hence a 
plain reason why Sinon does not specify the precise charge 
made against Palamedes, his object being not to give a history 
of that individual, but merely to recal to the mind of the Trojans 
what they already knew respecting him. 

Xeci. — Xex, not merely death, but death by violence, and 
of the nnresistinf/; slaughter, butcher}^, as Georg, 3, 478: 

'*hic quondam morbo caeli miseranda coorta est 
tempestas, totoquo autumni incanduit aestu, 
et genus omno neci pecudum dedit, omne ferai-um, 
corrupitque lacus: in fecit pabula tabo. 
nee via mortis erat simplex;" 

therefore, in our text, neci, execntion; and, Liv. 34, 44 (quoted 
belowO, "necatus," executed y put to death as a criminal. 

Demisere, sent doun. DEMistmE neci, scut down to death by 
the hafuls of the executioner. But why down? why the de? 
Simply because nex is a form of death; and death, i>avavog^ 
Orcus, Pluto, Hades, the inferi, the umbrae, the manes, are 
all, in relation to this world, down, below. Accordingly, 5. 691: 

. . . ^Mnfesto fulminc morti, 
si meroor, de mitten 

10. 664: 

"obvia multa virum demiUU corpora morii.'' 

7^-87 soc— a^sib] 



2, 398: *^multos Danaimi demittimus Oreo, 
12, 883: 



, . . *'o quae satis ima •leliis^at 
terra miki, martesqwe deain ffemiitut ad imoaf" 

(where we have the (hwu fovco of the d e twice intensified by 

imus). Also, Stat. Theh, I, 658 (of Choroebus challenging 

Apollo to shoot him with his arrow): 

"proindo move pharetras, arciwqofi inteode «onoroa, 
irisigneniqao an imam frto ttrmktry 

The same verb is used both by Salhist and Livy to express 
the letting down of a condeniiied prisoner into the ^*Robur'' ur 
underground dungeon in which he was to be exenitod — neua- 
tus [Sallust, BrlL CufiL 5S: ^'^Est h)cus in carcere, quod 
TulUanum appoUatur, ubi paululum asoonderis ad laevani, circi- 
ter xiL pedes humi depressus. Eum muniunt undique pnrietes, 
atque insuper camera lapideis fdrnicibus vincta, sed inciilta tene- 
bris, odore foeda, atque terri bills eius faeies. In eum locum 
poetquam demissns est Lentulus, vindices rerum capital ium, . . . 
taqueo giilam fregere/* Tiv, 34. 44: **Pieminius in inferiorem 
demifstis carcerem est^ necatusque'']. In Rome I lutvo myself 
visited tliis lower cell or ''Robur/' and a horrible place, indeed, 
it is — less horrible, however, at present than when it received 
unhappy Jugurtha or St Peter; for it has now, for the convr*^ 
nience of visitors, a second opening (viz., a door on the level uf 
tlie floor), and to enter it is no longer the same m never to 
loare it 

The notion of descent to Hades contained in oe-wsere skci 
IS repeated, verse 00, in sreKius coxcenj^it mi oris wliero there 
seems to be a mforence to the expression previously used. The 
aucioDt idea of descent in death— as expressed in the I^fitin 
demittere neci. demittere morti, demittere Oreo, 
demittere leto,— seems early to have been lost, or, at, 
mislaid and forgotten by the Italians; for we liavo in very old 
Italian the simple *^missono a morte;' p/ft ht fkath. See Leo- 
pardi*s Marti rio de* Saf/fi Prtdrt, cap. 2. 

XiTKL" CASStJM LrsiiN'K LuoENT, thrtj ftow (viz., convinccd by 
experience that it was unwise to have underUikon the war: see 

72 ABNBIDBA [79-^7 hoc— annw 

verse 108) lament the loss of the pnulent counsellor , who bella 
VETADAT. But this is not the sole force of these words: they 
servo also to excite the Trojan sympathy, first and directly, for 
Palamedes (not only innocent, but lamented even by his execu- 
tioners); and secondly and indirectly, for his friend and com- 
panion Sin on, afflictus (see verse 92, and Rem.) by his fell; 
like him, persecuted to the death by the same Ulysses; and (by 
implication) like him, innocent. 

Cassum i.umine. — Literally irithont light, dark; compare 
Tjucret. 5. 718: 

"ncc |)otis est coiui, quia rassitm luminc fertur;" 

and see Rem. on Aen. 1. 5 50. The use made of cassum by 
the Romans seems to correspond nearly with that made by us 
of the particle less in composition. Cassus lumine, lightless,, 
i. e., lifeless; cassus sanguine (Cic. de Divin, 2. 64)^ bloodless. 

Primis ab axxis.— "^i initio belli, bene Burm. post Ser- 
vium,'' Heyne; and so Wunderlich, Wagner (1845, 1849), 
and Kappes. '-Heyn. recte interpretatur: ab initio belli. Alii, 
velut (rossr. [and Voss|, in iuventnte prtfna (queraadmodum 
Aen. 8. 517), cui tamcn cxplicationi obstare videntur 'dulcea 
nati' qui vers. 138 memorantur,'' Forbiger. 

The opinion of Burmann, Heyne, Wunderlich, Wagner 
(1845, 1849), Forbiger, and Kappes (I do not say of Servius, 
Servius not seeming to have any opinion at all on the subject), 
that the "anni" here spoken of are the anni of the war, and 
not Sinon's own, is, I think, sufficiently disproved by Aai, 8, 
517 : "primis et te miretur ab annis," where the same word in 
a similar context can by no possibility mean anything else than 
the anni of Pallas. See also Aen. 4. 30, and compare Val. 
Flacc. 1. 22: 

"Haemoniam primis Pelias frenabat ah annis.'^ 

Ovid, ex Ponto, 2. 5. 43: 

*'tn comes antiquus, tu primis iunctus ab annis'' 

(wliere obserse that it is, as in our text, a comes who is 
spoken of). Ovid, Met, 13. 595: 

70-^7 Boc— Aia«i8j 

BOOK n. 


, . . "ijin [MoimiuD] fortia trustra 
pro patruo tulit arma suo, prfmiMiXie sub antrts 
occidit a farfi (sic vo8 voluiatis) Achille'* 

(where observe that it was to these very ariiia of whkli Siiron 
h speaking that Memiion wont). And, Hnally, Ovid, FasL 
5. 517: 

'^S|uaef|ue puer [Hyiieus] ^aomlam primU dilfuderat anm^, 
prodit fumoso coudita vina cado/' 

It 51 to be remarked, however, that the vuimib xksxh spoken of 
are not the first years of Ninon's life {t\ e., Sinon's childhood), 
but the fiiTst years of Sinon's manhood (/. e., his tii*st adult years, 
hiB prime), because such, and no iithor, must be tlie meaning of 
the term in Uie jnst-quoted examples Pallas not beinjt,^ a ehild 
but a grown man when he was sent in command of Kvander's 
troops to assist and take example by Aeneas: Telias not being 
a child but a grown man when he ruled (^^fremibat") Haemonia; 
Memoon not being a child but a grown man when he wiis killed 
at Troy by Achilles— nay, being expressly styled *'vir fortis" 
by Ovid himself, ver^e r>lt>: and Hyrieus not being a child hut 
a grown man when he barreled \he wine with which in his (dd 
age he entertained the three divine visitors, the explanation of 
die words being in Hyrieus 's C4ise given by no less an authority 
tlian Ovid himself, who at vei*se 525 informs us that Hyrieus 
had a wife who was the care of his ''prima iuventa/' If 
Hyrieas had a wife who was the care of his '* prima iuventa" 
(^PRiMis AXNis), why might not Sinon also? and, if a wife, why 
not children? Compare also Ovid, Fast, 4, 9 (of hmiself): 

"qane docuit, priniis sine crimine lusimus amnV 

[the first ye-ars, certainly not of his life, but of Ids manhood; 
tha timo when he was a young naan (Virg. Aftt. 7, 162: 

, . . *^pueri et primaevo fiore iuveotaa'*), 

prodsely ol the age described by Sinon in uur textj. Ovid, 
Met 12. 182 (Nestor speaking of himself): 

, . , **tniaravis obsiot mibi tarda vetiistj^a, 
muftai|ue me fugiaat primi» speutaiA ^tb annis" 

74 AENEIDEA [79-87 hoc— annib 

[observed in my early days, i, e., in my youth]. Silius, 2. 68: 

"haec ignara viri, vacuoque assueta cubili, 
venatu et silvis primos defendorat annos^' 

[certainly not her infancy, but her early years of maturity]. 
Cic. ad AtL 2. 3 (ed. Orelli): 

" interea cursus, qiios prima a parte luventae, 
quosque adeo consul virtute animoque petisti, 
hos retine atque auge lamam laudesque bonorum." 

Id. ad Fam. 6, 12 (ed. Orelli): "quod ego non mirabar, cum 
recordarer te et a primis temporibiis aetatis in re publica esse 
versatum.'^ Sil. 10. 13 (of Paullus): 

''atque, ubi cei*tamen primi ciet iinmemor aevi, 
foetus Gradivo mentem Cato fertur in hostes." 

And especially Sil. 6. 127: 

"vix puerile mihi tempus confecerat aetas, 
cum priytio malas signabat Regolus aevo,'^ 

where the time of boyhood, "puerile tempus," is directly con- 
trasted with the first time, "prime aevo,'' /. e,, the beginning 
of manhood. 

Primis ab annis is thus neither more nor less than the 
poetic equivalent for the prosaic ab meunte aetate. Compare the 
inscription in honour of Stilicho, Gruter, p. 412: "Ab ineunte 
aetate per gradus clarissimae militiae ad columen gloriae sem- 
piternae et regiae afifinitatis evecto," where the context places 
it beyond doubt (as a similar context places it beyond doubt in 
Tacit. Hist. 2. 77: "duo iuvenes, capax iam imperii alter, et 
primis militiae anin's apud Germanicos quoque excrcitus clams"} 
that the age spoken of is the military age, the age at which the 
youth is first regarded as a man and fit for military duty. 
Compare also Find. Neru, 9. 41 (ed. Boeckh): 

7i«£(ft roi'T* Ayr]at^auov (ffyyog fv nkixui homtk, 

and our own ililt(m, Par. Lost, 11. 245: 

"his starry helm unbuckled showed him prime 
in manhood, where youth ended" 

79—87 tioc— AKMs] 



(wht'if, liiiwever, youth is disnngiii^beJ from raauhood, iiur 
identiiied with it, as uivontus m by the Latin writers). 

Such is the general notion expressed by prirai nani, viz., 
"prima iuventa'' fas Tacit Annnl. 4. 1 (of Ael. Sejanus): 
**Getiitu» Vulsiniis, patre Seio Strabone cqiiite Romano, et 
prima iuventa C. Caesaroni divi Aug:usti nepotoni seotatus''), the 
[age of cumniencinf^ manhoorl, the a^e wlien tite individual is 
rijganled no longer as a ehild, hut as a man, and is entiilod to 
wear the toga virilis (Tac. Am*, 4. 4), Now. what was this age 
in the Roman polity? Of eoujse, the age of puberty, /. c, four- 
twn years complete. Up to rliis age the individual was not a 
man but a spes, and his death diuiug this perio<l was acerba, 
or iramature, and ceh'brated neither by funeral |»rocession nor 
panegyric. Ci>nipare Aen, (t. 426: 

"L'OtiutiUM aiidita« voces, vagitus et irigeos, 
iufrtntuinque animae fleates, ia liniiiie iJiiaio, 
rjuos diilcis vitae exsortes et ab ubere l'apt^>s 
ahstiilit atm dlos^ et fiinere rn+M-sit artrho,*^ 

*T5ic. Ann, IS, 15: ''Turbatus his Nero, et propinquo die^ 
quo quarfnw decimttm aetatis annum Britannieus explebat, vo- 
lutare seeum," &e. Ibid. VL 17: *'Festiuationem exsequiarum 
adicto Caesar defeudit, id a maiuribus institutum referens, ^sub- 
traherc oculis acerba funera. neque laudationibus aut pompa 

This interpretation of PBtMis ab \nxis, and that whit*li I 
have given of '*Tu Marcellus eris/' AeiK 6\ S84, confirm each 
other. Sinon, who lives to be a man, reaches his prinii annl 
and is sent to the war, becomes a soldier (prbos ah axnis in 
AK3U snsrr); but Mareetlus, who dies in childhoofl without 
reaching his primi anni, does not beermie a soldier, dtfos nt>t 
fight, only would have l>eeome a soldier, woHhi have fought ("tu- 
liaset/' *'iret/' '^foderet"), if lie had lived to be a man, if he had 
reached his primi anni, if he had come to be Mairellus. We 
thus gCit rid, not only of Forbiger's (and my own furmer— see 
'^Twelve Years' Voyage*') objection to refer akxis to Siuon^ but 
of Peerlkamp's proposed wholeside emendation. 

76 AENEIDEA [79-87 hoc— anws 

The expression '''primis ab annis" is preserved in the Italian, 
as Agnese di Morania, del Visconti di Arlincourt (traduzione 
di G. Pagan ucci): ''II detto Olburgo b stato la sola guida dei 
di liii primi mmi/^ Ibid.: "II barone di Valdsburgo si era im- 
posto il pill assoluto silenzio sugli anni primi della sua vita." 
Metast. Regolo, 1. 1: 

"ah! rammenta 
che del tuo genitore emulo antico 
fu da' prim' anni." 

La Naxione, Firenze, 7 Aprile, 1862: "Fino dai suoipnW aiuii 
mostro grande propensione per la caccia, si esercitd nel maneggio 
deir armi, con tanta attivita, che acquistossi nel suo paese fama 
d' iufallibile tiratore." 

In arma, "//. c, ad bellnm,'' Heyne. I think the meaning is 
rather, to the profession of arm^, to seek a military fortuite. 
Compare Terent. Heaiit. 1. 1, 59: 

'^sed in Asiam abii hinc propter pauperiem, atque ibi 
sinml rem et gloriam armis belli repperi." 



KKCMJM 1 Pal (REONU, the M torn off; Ribb. has omitted theN); Pierius 

("reuum coNciLiis ego nus<iuani in his veteribus Icgi exemplaiibus "). 

Ill P. Manut; D. Heins.; Philippe. 
REeuM 1 Med. (REGVM), Ver. (verj' indistinct). Ill Donat; N. Ueins' 

(1670); Heyne; Brunck; AVakef.; Peerlk.; Wagn. (1832, 1841, 1861); 

Lad.; Haupt; Ribb. 

Vat., Rom.y St. Oall. 

coNsiuis 1 Ver. (CONSILIIS, very indistinct, except the superscribed C); 
Pierius. lU Rom., 1473; P. Manut.; D. Heins.; N. Heins. (1670); 
Philippe; Wagn, (1841, 1845, 1861). 


BOOK n. 


1 1 Pal, Med, il cod. Canoo. (Butloi). HI Ileyne; Bruack; Wakef,; 
,; Wagn. (1832); Poerlkp.; Lad.; Haupt; Ribb. 
Vat. Rom,, St. Gall 

Compare Henler, Ikr Cut nnter Fenl. d. (frossen, 2: 

"lo Astmriens g^birgeo 
zablet Gormatz tausend freunde, 
er if* koefii^'s rafh tier trste^ 
or der ©rate in der scblacht" 

Also Claud. BrlL Gild, 46 (personified Rome speaking): 

'^armato qaondam populo, ptHruntque pigtbam 

Darf« Phryg, IS: ^'Diim Agamemnon consulit de tota re, ex 
Conuo adveuit Nauplii filius Palamedes cum navibiis tri^nta. 
Ule se excusaiit; morbo affectum Atlienas venire non potuisse; 
quo advenerit, quum prinium puhierit Gmtias agiint, rogautqu© 
euiw in consiiio esse." 

Query: should not the reading both in Claudian and Tii^il 
be ^'coocilus?-* Compare Oeorg, 1, 24: 

^'turjue adeo, i|uem mox ^uae sint babitura deonun 
tanrilia inc^rtvini mi." 

Afpuchis (verse 92), Not sarrowfuL for that meaning is 
contained in uucrr; but dashed to the ground, Uaten doivn 
frt>m his prosperity, viz., by the deatli of his friend and patron. 
It is used in this its primitive sen^e on the only otlier ocoasion 
on which Virgil has used the word, Aen. L 456; also by 
Milton, Par, Lost, I, 186, **afflicted powers;'' aiid 2, 166^ 
"afflicting Uiunder." 

B«fitl0y, ad Hor. Od, 3, 6, reads ^'■conciliia*' bam: 

^'amiacis quondam pnapuli putrumque vigebiiA 

?6 AENEIDHA [96-99 PROMisi— JiRiiA 



Et VERBIS ODIA ASPERA MOVI. — Et is opexegetic, and verbis the 
words in which "promisit se ultorem;" as if Virgil had written: 
''et movi odia aspera verbis, quibus me promisi ultorem," or 
"me promittens ultorem." 

CoNScms affords the key to the passage hinc . . . arma. 
Sinon having mentioned no names, but merely threatened the 
authors of Palaraedes' ruin, Ulysses had no reason to believe 
himself to be the object of these threats, except liis own con- 
sciousness that he was the guilty person. Moved by this con- 
sciousness (coNscius), he met Sinon's threats by a recourse to 
arms (quaerere arma), viz., by making accusations against 
Sinon, by spreading ambiguous reports concerning him, and 
finally by procuring Calchas first to declare that a Greek life 
must be sacrificed to Apollo, and then that that life was Sinon's. 

CoNScros means conscius sibi, as in Ovid, Trist, 5, 4, 18: 

"nee fore perpetuam sperat sibi numinis iram, 
conscius in culpa non scelus esse sua." 

Also Tacit. An?ial. 13, 18 (of Nero): "sceleris sil/i conscio, et 
veniam sperante, si largitionibus validissimum quemque obstrinx- 
isset," as if he had said: "veniam quaerente largitionibus." 

The mistake of the commentators is twofold— first, the con- 
necting of coNscius not with the whole three clauses, but with 
the last only; and secondly, the confounding of quaerere 
coNSCius ARMA with quacrore conscia arma: "Quidam 
coNSCius ARMA hypallagcu putant, pro consdeutia arma, ut 
(5. 595): 'et quondam patriis ad Troiam missus in armis,^^^ Ser- 
vius (ed. Lion) — an aliter of Servius which, like so many other 
of Servius's aliters, shows the extreme modesty of that critic, 


a— ajiua] 

fiooK n. 

how ven^ little confidence he had in that better judgment with 
which he had just interpreted cokscrts ("ant peracti soeleris et 
de noce Palamedis, aut duiuruui siiorum , . . ant certe sciens 
hunc meuni animunr'). ^'Arma esse possunt consiiia, quae 
agitaibat Ulysses ad depellendum ieimineus sibi a Sinune peri- 
cuJum, sic coNscirs, sc. pericnli immiuentis; possunt etiam esse 
fraudes et insidiae quas in Sinonem parabat, coxscnis, tacite 
intra se; aut coxscitrs est cum aliis, communicato scilicet cum 
alijs consiUo. Hoe vernm videtur, cum statim Oalchantem con- 
giliomm socium assumpsisse dicatur/' Heyno. ''Nempo ilhid 
qFASRERE ABMA vagum est et ambiguiim h. I nisi addatur 
aliquid^ quo appareat^ quani notioneai his inesse roluorit poata; 
adiectum est igitiir coxst-njs, quo indicetur communio rjuaedam; 
. , . coNsctrs ARMA QtTAEREiu: igituT poeta dixit^ et cnni Ulixia 
nomine adiectivum copulavit, quum, si raetrum pateretur, nihil 
mutata seutentia, etiam qu^ierere consdosj quae est communis 
r»tio, dicere liceret," Wagner (1832)^ followed by Ja(^ob, Qttargt, 
Epic. \x 121, **Diese stelle nmchte von jeher grosse schwierig* 
keit. . . Die zwei bedeutendsten, aber fast entgegengeHet;5ton, 
erklarungen sind: *er zieht noeh andere in sein geheinmisfi, 
sucht vertraute, und rait diesen und durch dit^se die weiteren 
feindlichen mittel (arma) geyen Sinon;' oder, **Die wafleo, die 
er beimlich im zelte des PaLamede^ tiickisch ver^teekt battOi 
sucht er nun mil mitwissern offen auf^ um damuii die klage 
des rerraths gegen denselben zu begriinden, und so ouch dm 
Sinon zu verderben/' Siipfle. **QrA£iti3w: (x>5r«aiw aama, Ut neA 
allies as a conspiratJir—nearljr equivalent to quaerero arm a 
consciorum, or quaerere eongcioa, aa Wa|pEier grvoa it,'^ 

Akma, armSf in tiie aenae of war^ aa "^ama ftiunuiiie caiMi/' 
QtiAEREEE AjuiA, seeks war, sets himself to nmke teuft vijs.^ 
with me; has reeoume ia war. We have the preciJie expreaiiion, 
Tacit Hist. L 51: *Titm advefsoa Vindicem eonlraL'tae l^fmrn^ 
aeque et Gallias expertae, quaeivre raima tnnAt mrmqm dla- 
conliaa; nee socirn, nt olim, aed hostes et fkstaa vocabfifit'^ 
Compare Ovid, Amor. 2, 9, 45: 

**«! shmIo HaarflBte tfiaH; flio4a imipm tgssmmi 

80 AfiNEltoEA [101-lOd SED^poiNifi 

[have recourse to reproaches]. Propert. 1. 7. 5: 

^^nos, ut consuemus, nostros agitamus arooros, 
atque aliquid durani quaerimus in dominam'' 

[I seek for something— some weapon — to turn against, to use 
against, my hard mistress]. Tacit. AnnaL 13. 18 (of Agrippina): 
^'Nomina et virtu tes nobilium, qui etiam turn supererant, in 
honore habere, quasi quaereret ducem et partes," viz., against 

QuAERERE ARMA differs both from poscere arma and 
sum6re arma; while poscere arma is to call for arms 
when you are ready and determined for the tight, and sum ere 
arma, actually to take up arms, to arm — quaerere arma is to 
go in search of arms, to turn towards arms, to have recourse 
to arms. 

Quaerere conscius arma, conscious that he is the person 
whom I have threatened, has recourse to arms, i. e,, to war; 
makes war against mo as the best means of defending himself, 
in self-defence begins hostilities. 






Heins.; N. Heins. (1670); Heyne. • 


1861); Forb. (1862); Coningt. 
Vaty Rmn.y St. Qall. 

101-163 8iD-^poRXAs] bOOK tl. 8i 

VAB. LECT. (vs. 103). 


Schol. in Palimps. Veron. (ap. Maium); P. Maiiut.; D. Ileins.; N. Hcins.; 
Oesner; Voss; Heyne; Wagn. (1832 and 18(51); Ribbock. 


interpretets cited in the following words by Schol. in Palimjis. Vcroii. 
(ap. Maium): "Plerique tamen sic distinguunt: idquk ai.dikk sat est 
luioudum;" also Donatus (^'Professus sum iamdudum me vcstrum 
esse inimicum, sumite de confesso supplicium*'); Catrou. 

I do not at all doubt that the construction is: ".si hauktis uno 
ORDiNE OMKES ACHivos ct (si) SAT Ysi vobis ad nicuni danina- 
tionem me audire Graecum (i. e., me esse ex Graecisi, slmitk 
IAMDUDUM POEXAS dc Die;" and the meaning: ''If ye |)ut to 
death all Greeks without distinction, merely because they are 
Greeks, here, I am a Greek, put an end to me at once." In order 
to indicate this construction and meaning the punctuation of 
Jahn and Thiel should be adopted. 

Idque AUDffiE = idqiie we nufUrr - (irwcinnqnc inc (tiifllrf 
= Graeciimque me esse. Compare Hon fJpisf. 1. 10. 17: 

"tu recte vivis. si curas esse ^i/'W au/IiM.' 

Ibid. 1, 7. 37: '•rexque paterque audiati foram/* Diogen. 
Laert 2. 140: KaTKfQOviiio (Menedemusj Kutv /.ai yli^qty^ i/to 
%iav EQevQittuy a'Aovvjv. Theocr. IdylL 10. 'SO: 

Philostr. Heroic, p. >i «e<L BoLsVyn.i: t/xiyov 'W/in tov tr^a 
^aodafiuag' xotii ycLQ X^Q*^ uyjtiuv. And f-sfi^Hally. Oio 
Gaasias, 72. 16: oiio^- oir o jst^oot;;, otto^ o H(in/Xf^j, oKifu 
^eog (xcr* ya^ Toti* r/xoier.. where we have in toi.i' the 
Ydiy ID of oar text. 

I shall not take on nof; w fiay in wtat i^:ui^t the \tH:<*.Hic*r wa«» 
understood either by .Senia- '/r H^yr^e, rhe ;(!'/->. of the Pfrrit'ir 
("iDQUE AUDIRE. etc: me Grau,-/.''j«j *>w^r*'; i^:ihif ait o^/v-ure on 
account of its brevity a.- ^mx of t,V- lAitf^r (vj/. -pl;*/'/;*, \- tfUft 
m, esse me unam ex Achivjj^: *,^. a^j itrw^^an* *'unt**i'A^i'tuy< \tht' 
tern refero: » »at 4*7. Ao *|^r'i'/^jii t^tXi..^^: ^i'U.^tt ^.^f.-t 

82 AUNEIDBA tl01-i03 SKD— poiD^Ari 

ut sit, vel haec audire satis est, nil ut amplius ad- 
dam necesse. Sed id et que et audire pro audivisse valde 
duram orationem efficerent. Manendum adeo in prima inter- 
pretatione, quam et Servius agnoscit'*) is obscure, notwith- 
standing its length. Cynthius Cenetensis ("audire pro awrfi- 
rme"), Ascensius ("Si sat .i. satis est vobis audire id *s. quod 
dixi*'), Voss ("und das allein zu horen genugt'*), Thiel Cali* 
quern ex numero Graecorura esse"), Wagner (1832), approved 
doubtingly by Forbiger ("Si ad cognoscenda principum Achi- 
vorum ingenia satis est, id, banc unam rem, audire"), Supfle 
("idque, namlich, dass auch ich ein Achiver bin"), Gossrau 
("idque, sc. me Argivum esse"), Conington ("id, that I am a 
Greek, v. 78"), all agree in understanding the structure to be 
mguE [vos] audire sat est — Wagner alone correcting his error 
and interpreting (1861): "m, h. e. Achivum . . . audire, h. e. 
appellari;" and, of course, then at last understanding the ac- 
cusative suppressed before audire to be not voSj but me. 

QumvE MOROR? "Yestram, scilicet, festinationem ; vel mortem,'* 
Servius. No; the verb is here intransitive, and the sense is: 
"What am I dallying about? why am I tedious? why am I 
talking here when there is no use in talking, you having 
already decided on punishing me with death?" Compare Ovid, 
Met, 13. 516 (of Hecuba lamenting Polyxena): 

. . . "quo ferrea resto? 
quidre moror? quo mo servas, damnosa sonectus?" 

Idque audire sat est iamdudum sumite poenas. — "Iamdu- 
DUM hie est quamprimum, ut: ^mmdudum erumpere nubem 
ardebant,'" Schol. ad Falimps. Ver. (apud Malum); and so Ser- 
vius, Ascensius, Heyne, Voss, Thiel, Wagn. (1861). Iamdu- 
dum is not quamprimum, but the very contrary; refers not 
to the future, but to the just past time, and is equivalent to 
the English already, at last, the German schoii. Compare 4. 1: 
"At regina gravi iamdudum saucia cura'' 

[not quamprimum, but fiow, far some time, already — 8dian[, 

5. 26: 

. . . "equidem sic poscere ventos 
iamdudum f et frosti'a cerno te tendere oontra.*' 

lUi-iUli siri) 'Vfmk9 


5, 513: 

''txini rapidus iamdudum arcii contenta parato 
tela ten ens" 

[nlrmdy]. Also (the very passage quoted by Wagner |1S61] as 
example of ianidmUini used in the sense of (juaniprinium), 
Ovid, Met. IL 482: 

**''ard\ia' iaintiudutn Memittite oornua* rector 
olamatr *et antennis totiira subnectite velum**' 

(where the structure is not (with Wagner) ^Mamdudum demit- 
tite,** and the meaning quamprimiim demittite; but the 
structure is *' iamdudum elamHt,*' and the meaning, already calls 
out — x\\Q sense of the whole passa^^e being: They are not more 
than half across tlie sea when the waves begin to swell and sliow 
white tups, and the captain ab'eady shouts out, ilc). Compare 
Also Georg, I 212: 

**nec QOD el Imi segetem et Cereale papnver 
tompos humo tegero, et mmdudtan iiiciuiibeie ftratris, 
dum sicca tellai'e licet, dum oabila pcudoot'' 

[now at la^t to press the plough]. Ovid, MeL 13. 4'p7: 

"^utere uimdudum generoso saaguine/ dixit; 
imllfl aiora est" 

— a passage which is tlie exact counterpart of our text, and m 
which the meaning is not ''shed my blood as hist as possible/' 
but '*iiow at last shed my blood; shed my blood already, my 
blood is re^dy to be shed." 

Iamdudum, therefore, so far from being tJie rquiviilent of 
quamprimum, is almost the very opposite, — q nam prim urn 
looking foi^ward and signitying as soon as all tliffJcalties shall 
Aare been remored^ iamdudum lookmg backward and signify- 
ing that all difficulties have beeu already removed, that all is 
roadv r* nulla rnora'^i. 


84 ASN^IDEA ilOi-106 hoc— oAtmAs 



Hoc . . . ATRIDAE. Compare Ovid, Her. 9. 7 (Dejanira to Her- 

^^hoc velit Earystheus, velit hoc germana Tonantis." 

is left, as he is occasionally left elsewhere — ex. ffr. 1. 86; 
4. 668; 6. 77; 6. 529; 12. 603— to conclude the actual feet 
from tho context. We have an exact parallel in Ariosto, Orl. 
Fur. 4. 28: 

"la donna di saper ebbe desio, 
cho fosse 11 negromaDte, ed a che effetto 
edifiCiisse in ([uel luogo selvaggio 
la rocca, o faccia a tutto '1 mondo oltraggio. 

"'ne per maligna intenzione, ahi lasso/ 
disse piangendo il vecchio incantatore, 
^feci la bella rocca in cinia al sasso, 
n6 per aviditk son rubatore/" 

whore the desire to ask the question is, without any question 
being asked, followed by the answer. Compare 9. 303, where 
tho actual giving of the sword to Euryalus is omitted, and left 
to be deduced from the context; and Oeorg. 4. 459, where the 
actual death of Eurydice, and Aeu. 12, 603, where the actual 
death of Amata, is omitted, and left to be similarly deduced. 
The sentence seems to be both in structure and sense a very 
exact translation of Hom. Od. 10. 249 (of Ulysses and his 
comrades fiill of anxiety and curiosity to hear some further 
account of their companions who had been turned into beasts 
by Circe): 

«>IA* OTk drj f4iv nnyTfg ttynaaafAid-* e^iQiovres, 

where the text continues: 

x(a rote rtov itkktov tTa(>wv xarfXf^v (y)'eS-Qov. 

107 ncTo fectore] 

BOOK n. 


and where ayaaaa^ed^a is interpreted by Heliodorus (see Apollon. 
Lexic, where, however, the reading is not aymjaauefha, but, by 
a manifest error, aya^a'<^out^a) ayav ^T^oaeytetfieOa, exactly equi- 
valent to Virgil's ARDE3IUS, See Remarks on 1. 80; 0. 77, 529. 

Ttm vero, ^^Then indeed we are alJ on fire/' They were 
curious before to hear his history, see verse 74; but, having 
beard so far, are now doubly curious. See Rems. on 2. 228; 
3. 47, and 4. 396, 449, 57L 

AfiDEtfus. The force of the verb ardere is infinitely more 
intense than that of \t^ English derivatives; which, having first 
lost their literal, have at last, as a consequence^ almost wholly 
lost even their nietaphoricnl sense. The Latin word, on the 
contrary, where it is not literal is fully metaphorical Compare 
Cle. de Orat, 2, 45: *'Tantum est flumen gravissimorum opti- 
moromque verborum. tarn integrae sententiae, him verae, tam 
novae, tam sine pigmentis fucoque puerili, ut mihi non solum 
tu [ncettdere iudicemj sed ipse ardere videaris/* Argum. ad 
Terent. AdeJph,: ''tanta iracundia iricitatus est, ut arderet/* 



'^Pectus pro verbf}i posuit. Nam nunquam fingitur pectus," Ser- 
ving (ed. Lion), ''Ad fraodem composito aninio. //. i\ subdole 
ot fmudulenter," Heyne. ''Subdolo animo, h, e. subdole et 
fraudulenl^r. Contrarium est ^apertum pectus" apud Cic. Lael. 
26. 97,'" Forbiger. ^^Subdole,'' Wagn, (1861). ^^Mit heucheln- 
der eeele," Voss, According to this interpretation, pectore adds 
Qotbing to the sense, which, had the metre allowed it, had been 
fuUy expressed by ^^ficte fatur,'*-- speaks with a feigned mean- 
ing, a feigned mind, a feigned purport, i. e,, falsely. Let us see 
wbetber this be not a mistake, and whether pectus— always 

SB AENEIDEA [107 ficto pectoiw 

elsewhere the breast, either literally or figuratively — have not 
here, too, its own proper and peculiar meaning; be not here, 
too, breast, either literally or figuratively. That it is not breast 
literally being perfectly plain, inasrauch as it is not with the 
literal physical breast, but with the mouth, we speak, our in- 
(juiry immediately limits itself to the question whether pectus 
be not hoTO used in its usual figurative sense of emotion, feeling, 
heart, as we, using a similar metaphor, sometimes say (see 

9. 275: 

*^to voro, niea rjuem spatiis propioribus aetas 
insequitur, venerande puor, iam pectore toto 

[receive you with my whole feeling, my whole heart]. Auctor 
Dml, (/e CI. Oraf. 28: "ut sincera et integra, ot nullis pravita- 
tibus detorta, uniuscuiusque natura toto statim pectore arriperet 
artes honestas'' [take to itself with its whole heart]}. And, 
fir sty the meaning: ^'speaks with feigned emotion, feigned 
feeling, feigned heart,'' is in perfect accordance with the fact 
that it is with feigned feeling, feigned emotion, feigned heart, 
Sinon speaks all through, as, verse 145: 

''his lacrymis vitam damus, et miserescinius ultro;' 
verse 195: 

"talibus insidiis periurique arte Sinonis 
crodita res, captique dolls lacrymisque coactis 
quos neque," &c. ; 

and, secondly, it is in this sense our author uses pectus 
in the precisely parallel passages, (a), 1. 525: 

"maxiinus Ilioneus placido sic pectore fatur" 

[not, surely, with placid words or meaning, but with placid 
animus, placid feeling], (6), 9. 740: 

^'olli subridens sedato pectore Turnus" 

\vot, surely, with sedate words or meaning, but with sedate 
animus, sedate feeling, sedate heart]. And, especially, (c), 

10. oo.'): 

. . . "truncumque tGi»entcin 
provolvens super liaec inimico j)€etore fatur" 

in? nrro pictojie] 

BOOK n. 


[lix/l savs these words with hostile meaning, bttt these words 
with hostile feeling, liostile heart, hostile aiiimas|. Compare 
also (d), Ovid, Tnsi, 2. 561 (Ovid suppliciitiiig the clemeacy 
of Augustus: 

^*aspidas, qunutum dederis mUii }we(or*s ipse; 
quoqtto fa^^ro animi teque tuos^ue canam*' 

rith how much feeling, how much love, how much affectum 
you have youi'self inspired me), (e), Ovid, Amor. 3, 3, 42: 

*'di *|uoqiie habont ooiilos;jdi quoque /f^^/iwr habeat, 
si deua ipse forem^ mioien sine fraude liceret 
foemina meadad faUeret ore meum" 

rhere ^'pectus'* can be nothing else than feeling, susceptibility 
of the ipipression, made by beauty, of the passion of love). 
(/), Ovid, Ep, 16. 305 (Paris to Helen, of Menelaus;: 

^himooind tu speres homiiiem Bine peetort dotea 
posse satis formae, Tyndari, aosse taae?" 

[man without feeling, without sensibility]. \g\, Ovid, Md, 
13, 290 (Ulysses, of Ajax): ''rudis et sine p^'ctore miles" 
fmthout feeling, without sensibility], (At), Ovid, ex Ponio, 


"da mihi, si quid ea eat, hebetaotem peeiara Lethen** 
[Letho, tliat dulls the feeling, the sensibility], (i)^ Catidl 

Epith. Pel eL Thef. 68 (of Ariadno): 

*^8ed aequo tain mitrae, neque turn fhiitiiotis aiuictos 
ilia vicem curans, toto ex te prctorc, Theseu, 
toto aaimo, tota pendebat perdita inente*' 

^m (where '*pectoi^," being placed in the same category with 
" "animo** and '^mente/' cannot be the literal breast, can only be 
feeliug), \J), Hor. Ep. L 4. 6: ^'ndn tu corpus eras sine 
pectorv^' fa body without feeling, withruit sensibility], (fc), 
Luean, 7. 701 (of Caesar, after the battle of Pharsalia): 

'^quo li^ekfTt Romam 
iQtrahit, tiictus carnpis felicior istis'* 

I with what feeling? with what emotion?] (Ij, Val. Flaco, 

yS AENEIDEA [107 ncro pectobb 

5. 533 (of Aectes moulding the passion ('^pectora'') which Jason's 
demand of the fleece has excited in him): 

'•interea quoniam belli pugnaeque propinquae 
cura prior, fiiigit placidis fera pectora dictis" 

[moulds his fierce feeling, his fierce passion]. (i#»), Claud. 4 
Cons. Honor. J p. 60 (of the unbought aflfection of the army for 
Honorius) : 

^'pordurat iion einpta fidos, ncc pectora iiierces 
alligat. ipsa suo pro pigiioro castra laborant." 

(H), Val. Flacc. 1. 042 (Xoptune speaking of the Argo): 

. . . ''-hanc [Argo] mihi Pallas 
ct soror banc,' iiniuit, 'nuilcens moa pccfora fletu 

[soothing, softening my feeling]. And, above all, (o), QuintlL 
Inst. 10. 7. 15: "Quaro capiendae sunt illae, de quibus dixi, 
rerum imagines, quas vocari (pavraoiag indicaviraus, omniaque 
do quibus dicturi erimus, personae, qnaestiones, spes, metus, ha- 
benda in oculis, in affectus recipienda; pectus [feeling] est enim 
(|Uod disertos facit, et vis mentis. Ideoque imperitis quoque, 
si modo sunt aliquo affoctu concitati, verba non desunt." The 
commentators, therefore, are wrong in their interpretation, and 
FicTO PECTORE is uot fictc, /. ^., vorbis fictis, but ficto 
affoctu, with feigned emotion, with an aflfectation of emotion. 
But with what kind of feigned emotion, what kind of "fic- 
tum pectus," is it that Sinou speaks? Are we left to conclude 
from the "his lacrymis'' and "miserescimus'* of verse 145, the 
'Mncrymis coactis" of 196. and the kind words of comfort ad- 
dressed to him by Priam, verses 148 and 149, that Sinon's 
feigned emotion is that of a heart-broken man, a man bowed 
to the ground with affliction and sorrow? Xo, we are not. 
Oiu- autlior is quite precise and particular. Sinon is pavitans, 
all over in a flutter of agitation and apprehension; and this 
flutter not being real — for he is 

. . . "fidens aiiimi atque in utriinique paratus 
sen versaro dolos seu ccitao occumbere inoi'ti" — 

FICTO PECTORE is added for the purpose of reminding us that 

ild— 115 arM— lOTTIMTS] 



it is not: he proreeds ffitrn'ed, and speaks with friguid emotion; 
the feigned emotion witli wiiieh he speaks being the flutter 
(PAVITAXS} with whieii he proceetls. Cuaipure Ovid, HerokL 
Uh 191 (Hero to I^anderj: 

"'s^d mihi, caeniloas quoties obvertor ai uodas, 
nejjcio <juaG intriihtm fngora prHn^ baboiit, ' 

where *'pectiis,** directly an immediately connected with 
**pavjiJiim" is (although somewhat mor»> literally breast tlum 
the **i>ectiis" of oar text) still the sentient, feeling breast, not 
all the meaning:, intending breast; not at all the thoughts, 
mtiments, or ideas. 
FiCTO PECTORE is thus the complement uf favitaks, and the 
entii-e sense of the two sentences, prosequitur pavftass and 
jIt'Tu PECTORE FATUR, is prosequitiif ficto pavore, or ficto 
p*vore fat II r or prosequitur tic to pavitans, or ficte 
paritaos fatur— the second verb contributing nothing to the 
sense, and being added solely for the purpose of making up the 
|d of the two sentences into which the author has thought 
for the stike of rhetorical eftect an tlie more easy com- 
pletion of his verse to divide the thought prosequitur ficto 
pavore^ or ficto pavore fatur, or prosequitur fiete 
pavitans^ or ficte pavitans fatnr. 



kiVM 1 MetL (thiui SCiTANTVM). lit MiMl.; \\ MauuL; I). Heins.; 

N. Hein8. (l»;»70); nnlipi>e; Heyue; BruDck-, Wakef.; Pott. 

* 'iClTivntM I Pnl. 11 '*Iti Loagobnr<iii*o cod. .sctTANTKM iDgimus/' Pmius* 
III lioh. Stf|)fi.; AVau'h. [t}± Huyn.. ed* 18<]1); Yoss; IMr, Haupt; 

90 AENEIDEA [112-116 cum— Mrrrnirs 

Tho reading of the Modicean, saiAiUM, is confirmed both by Liv. 5. 15: 
*'Quidnam oo dii portendorent prodigio, missi sciscitatum oratoros ad 
Delphicum oraciilum;" and by Iscan 4. 254: 

"hie patriae et propriis sc it a turn oracula regnis 

Staret.— ^'Staret, esset," Heyne, Forbiger. This is neither to 
interpret Virgil, nor to undei'stand poetry. Stare is, indeed, 
one of those verbs which are used in the Latin language in place 
of esse, but it does not on that account lose its own proper 
meaning. Staret places the horse before our eyes, not merely 
existing, but standing there, a remarkable, striking object. The 
object is the more striking, the picture the more vivid, not only 
on account of the position of staret — first word in its own verse, 
and preceded by an introduction raising expectation, viz., tra- 
BUius coN'TEXTus ACERNis (sco Rem. on 2. 247)— but on account 
of its being itself placed before its nominative. The same verb, 
in the selfsame position in the verse, preceded by a similar 
introduction, and preceding in tho same manner its nominative, 
will be found applied to a real living hoi"se, 4. 135: 

. . . *'ostro<iUO insignis et auro 
stat sonipes," 

and with the same effect, that of placing before our eyes, if we 
only deign to use tliem, the hoi*se, not merely being or existing, 
but standing there bodily; exactly as the same verb in the same 
position in the verse and similarly preceding its own nominative 
places so livelily before us the three hundred hoi'ses, not merely 
being or existing in the stables of Latinus, but standing there, 
7. 275: 

^^stafmnt ter centum nitidi in praesepibus altis." 

It is in the same way the urn is said not to be or exist, but to 
stand, at 6. 22: "stnt ductis sortibus urna;'' the tower is said 
to stand, 6. 554: „stat ferrea turris ad auras;'' the altars are 
said to stand, 4. 509: '^stant arae circum;" the silex is said 
to stand, 8. 233: '^stabat acuta silex;'' and this very wooden 
horse itself is said to stand, Horn. Od. 8. 505: oc, o fiev eair^vLei. 
And such, 1 believe, will invariably be found to be the use made 

\ ]ri r1 W - Mtl 1 l\if si 




\ irgil ul itaru, viz,, to express either, as here, literal, or 
im 2, 162: 

'^^ornnis gpes Baoaum el uoepti Bdoc'ia belli 
Palladls mixiliis semper nietitj* 

where si>e Rem ) figurative standing, never to express mere 
existenoe or esse. 

The use of stare in the sense assigned to it in unr text by 
Ueyne is happily not to be found either in Virgil, or, as far as 
my memory at this moment serves me, in other first-class Ijatin 
mrriters. To the great disgust of the Latin .-scholar, it is ver>' 
frequent in Itiilian writers, even of the first uhis^ (as Dante, 
InfenWj 34. 13: 

^'aJtrt* Mtaimo a giatiere^ altre »iamm <*rt^, 
cjti^ila col eajK), e 4tiella con le piante'*)^ 

in Italy jai-s on his ear many times every day in the ordi- 
nary salutation: *'Come sta?" Then there is the Sp. estar, 

SirspKNsi, ''Sollidti, dubii quid facerent," Heyne, The 
lattej part of the definition is nearer to the truth than the for- 
mer. Suspensus is not sollieitus, anxious, uneasy, but 
finspended^ at a loss what to do, and, because at a loss what to 
do, doing nothing; suspended, nut merely mentally, but in acti 
at a nonplus, a/ra^m /x'/Qt^^teroi^ as Euripides ilphitj, AuL 89) 
says of tJie same persons in that precisely similar situation at 
Aiilis wlijch w referred to at ve!*se 116. Comparer (dj, 4 9: 
quae roe sHsiicjisam insomnia terrent?'' [not sollicitam, but, 
is plain from the context, irresolute, undecide<l, taking no 
suspeudetl from action by the terrifying dreams ('insom- 
nia ten-ent"), the eftet^t of which upon her is so great that it is 
anly after her sister has encoumged her^ 

**]iifi itictis tricensum antmum ioOAmmavit attiore, 
spftrn^ue dcdit dubiao meiiti. solvit^nje |»ii<iorem ''— 

that she betri'n*^ ^a >uf r*principio tlehibra iideimtr &c*)J, Also 
tft), 2. 72^ 

*Mmac omucd terroot aitrae, soDua oxvitat oum'is 
HitHiiTtt^mH ft paiiter couiiii^ue onc^rinno tiin^otom' 

ii\n»tis, but irresolute, undecided whether to go on or 

92 AEXEIDEA [11&-126 abool.— secto. 

stop— the poet has failed to convey the full picture, 
anrl the words "omnos terrent aiirae, souus excitat omnis" are 
without their most ordinan' and natural consequence]. And (c), 
Sil. 15. 400: 

•'illo, ulii Hitsi}ensi Patres, et curia vocein 
poscerct, ut cantu duccbat corda Seoatos" 

[where the fatliers were at a nr)nplus, did not know what step 
to take). That susponsus is not sollicitus, but suspefidedj 
luDiyiiuj amMcrmincd, appears further from the marked distinc- 
tion made by Cicei-o between the two terms, ad Ait. 2. 18 (ed 
Orelli): 'Mntellexi, (juam snspcnso animo et .W//»Yo scire averes, 
quid csset novi:" de Laj, Aymr. 1. 8, led. Orelli): ^^soUiciiam 
mihi civitateni suspicione, .sttspcfusam metu, perturbatara vestriB 
legibus et concionibus et seditionibus, tradidistis." Compare 
Manil. 1. U6: 

^^nam rudis ante illos, nullo discrimine, nta 
iu speciem convci-sa operuin ratione carebat, 
et siuitrfacta novo pemiefmf luuiine mundi," 

where "pendebat stupefacta," htnifj/ stnpefiedy is equivalent to: 
i\'main<>d stupefied, not aible or not knowing how to advance. 



AR(ioi.K'A, the emphatic word of the sentence. It was this word 
which tille<l the minds of the heai'ci's with horror. No matter 
how mucli bli)ud was to be shed, if it had not been ArgoKc blood 
tliore would liave been no liorror. To aid the effect of the 
word and point out the precise meaning and import, our author 
lias plactHl it in the most emphatic position, viz., at the end of 
the sentence to which it belongs, and in the beginning of a new 
line, from the rest of which it is separated by an abrupt and 
complete pause. See Rem. on 2. 246. 

Ud-126 ijwou— mcDiw] 

BOOJt ll. 



dieine; quem poscat apollo, variation; quem corresponding to 
cui, P08CAT to PABEXT, and APOLLO to FATA, OS if ho had said: 
who it is for whom the fates are pi'^pai-ing ruin; who it is whom 
Apollo, the oracle of tim fatos, demaD<ls, That thU is the true 
structure is placed beyond doubt by Stat. Theb. 3, 700: 
*^hic ceiie est, quem £ata dabaut, quem dixit Apollo/' 

where we have not only the same fata and the same Apollo, 
but the same repeated relative, the same rhythm, and the same 
theme and variation, and where ^^fata'' is the nominative. Who 
is there who, observing that the two relatives in the line of 
Statins have one and the same antecedent, does not at once con- 
clude that the two relatives in the line of Virgil must have one 
and the same antecedent; and that, therefore, the received read- 
ing Ctrl is not to be ejected to make room either for Peerlkamp's 
conjectural Qum, or for Dietsch's no less conjectural quod or 
guA£^ each of the thi-ee requiring an antecedent of its own? 
Who is there who, observiu|^ that *'futa'' in Statius's line is 
the nominative to *'dabant," and varied in '^Apollo,'' does not 
immediately conclude that fata in VirgiFs line is the nomioa- 
tiTe to PARENT, and varied in ai*ollo^ imd that the alteration 
proposed in tlte MLsc. Olmerv., p. 86, of parkxt into paret is as 
little called for as it is little in accordance with Apollo's recog- 
nized office and mission— that of announcing, not at all tliat of 
ordering or disposing of, the future, as in 3. 251: 

**quae Phoebo pater omuipoteiifi, mihi Phoebus Apollo 

Thus, as I am fain to hope, is set at rest a question so long at 
Bue among Virgiliau students; and not only the reading of the 
"nianuscripts justified, but the opinion of Seivius and the majo- 
rity of commentators, viz., that fata is in the nominative, es- 
tabliahed as against that of Freudenberg {Spicil. Vimiic, Vinj,} 
and those who, quoting Ovid, Mi^t. 14, 213: 
^'tnlia fingebam miseio mihi fata parari,'* 

tnsist that fata is tlie accusative, and the sense either cm illi 
rkMxm FATA (an interpretation to which there is the special 

94 AEINEIBEA [lid— 126 ARGOL.— MCITS. 

objection that there was as yet no suspicion of foul play), or 
cm ea verba (verse 116-119) parent fata, to which there is 
the no less strong objection that the plural ea verba cannot con- 
sistently be supplied after the singular quae vox immediately 

The verb par are has been {a) repeatedly joined >vith the 
nominative fata by Lucan, as 2. 131: 

"ille fuit vitae Mario modus, omnia passo, 
quae peior fortuna potest, atque omnibus uso, 
quae melior, mensoque, homini quid fata pararent,^^ 

and 6. 783: 

. . "quid faia pararent 
hi [//*>, Weber] fecere palam;' 

(6), once with the same nominative by Seneca, Oediptis, 28: 

"iamiam aliquid in nos fata moliri paratit:'^ 

(c), once with the nominative fortuna by Valerius Flaccus, 
1. 326: "sin aliud Fortuna parat;" (c?), once with the nomi- 
native superi by Silius, 1. 186: 

"magna parant superi; tonat alti regia caeli, 
bollantomque lovem cenio;" 

ami, {e\ once by our author himself with the nominative 
"[vos, o] di patrii," 9. 247: 

"di patrii, quorum semper sub numine Troia est, 
non tamen omnino Teucros delere paratu'' 

— instances to which, might be added very numerous others, 

but slightly different in construction, in which either the fates 

or the gods are said para re, to prepare, whether good or evil, 

for men; as Lucan, 2. 68: 

"'non alios,' inquit, 'motus tunc fata parabatU 
quum,'" &c. 

Ibid,, L 642: 

"*aut hie errat,' ait, 'nulla cum lege per aevum 
mundus, et inceito discurrunt sidera motu; 
aut, si fata movent, urbi generique paratur 
humane matura lues.'" 

IbkL, 649: 

"quod cladis genus, o superi, qua peste paratis 

119—126 AJM30L, — RRt^S,] 

Ihid. 2. 4: 

BOOK n. 


'i-ector Oljrnipi. 

ait sabttum, ♦jiiodcunque paras." 

inant.. Mil. Qloi\ 725 (ed. Ritscbl): 

. . "ae<juam fuit 
dc^os fittntii&se, uno exemplo ne omnes vit&m viverent/' 

Xen, 5. 14: *'qui(Jve, pater Neptune. pRras?'' 

Fata parent, the fates may be preparing, as Cic. ad Quint. 
fruit, 3. 9: '^Pompeius abest; Appias miscet; HirruH paraV 
[Hirrus is prepariug]. 

QcAE siNT Ki NTMiXA Dm?ir, FLAOiTAT. ''Qui siot 11 dii, sdlii!et, 
qui tara atrocia postulent. ut, quasi dubitans nee credens id 
fieri posse, cjuaerat LTlixes, num dii sint, qui talia postulare 
possint," Dietsch {Theolog, Virg,, p. b). This is not the meaning. 
Dlysges merely demands an explanation of the xNtmika— will ur 
pleasure of the gods as announced by tlie oracular response— 
tiret, because it is to give this explanation Calchas refuses; 


■nd secondly, because the exactly corresponding expression 
6. 100: "cuncti quae siut ea moenia quacTunt,*' contains no 
reprobation of the ''moenia*' spoken of, but only the sample 
inquiry what those ** moenia*' are. Senrius, therefore, is per- 
fectly right in bis gloss: '^quaeritiu' mode Don quid dicant 
(nam planum), sed quis debeat imaiolarL'^ 

NrMiNM, the will or pleasure of the gods oonceale^l under 
the mysterious omcular announcement See Rem* on ^pervenio 
nnmine/' 1. 584; and on *'haud numioe nositro,*' 2, 3tf6. 

Airrrpins scaurs. Precisely the converBe expression x» ii^ 
by Euripides, Med. 410 (ed- Pore.): 

Tectcs. That tectta is here used, not in tts deriTad senno 
of secret^ but in its literal and primitiYe senst of mv^red, u e.^ 
Hhut up^ or closed up, viz., in kis dweHing, is sufficiently proved 
by Statios's tmits^on [Theb. 3, 570): 

&6 AENEIDEA [129-137 oonros.— fid. 

^'ille noc aspectum vulgi, noc fida tyranni 
colloquia, aut coetus procemm perfen*e, sed atrd 
sede Ugi, et supcrum clausus negat acta fateri." 

Compare also Stat. ibid. 621; Aen, 7, 600 (of Latiniis): 

^^saepsit se tcctisj reruinque reliquit habenas;'' 

7. 618 (also of Latin us): 

"abstinuit tactu pater aversusquo refugit 
foeda ministoria et caecis so condidit umbris;" 

Soph. Oed, Tyr. 320 (Tiresias refusing to acquaint Oedipus 
with his guilt): aifBg fx eg orxorg. 



RuMHT vocEM. Compare Div. Paul, ad Galaf. 4. 27: ^ijfor %ai 
[ioriaov, ij or/, lodivoraa, where Wakefield, with his usual rough 
vigour, "/. e., Qr^^ov [ior^v, Xos Angli pariter locutionem break de 
sonis [he should have said de flatu] usurparaus, sed illis quidem 
minime honestis et ab altera poi-ta erumpentibus." He might 
have still more appositely quoted Shakesp. Cain, of Errors^ 3, 1: 

"a uian may break a word with you, sir, and words are but wind; 
ay, and break it in your face, so he break it not behind/' 

CoNVKi^SA TVLERE. ''Passi sunt verti" — "conversa passi 
sunt," say Ruaeus, Yoss, Jalm, Forbiger, Kappes and Weidner. 
''Convertenmt,'' say Heyne, Wagner, andGossrau; while Coning- 
ton hesitates between the former of these interpretations and 
that which I advocated in my "Twelve Years' Yoyage," viz., 
"converterunt et tulerunt, turned and carried to," /. ^., "not 
only tunied to but carried to" — an interpretation which I now 
find to have been La Cerda's befoi'e it was mine, and before! 
adduced in support of it Aeu. 4, 376: "funis incensa feror," 

]IK»-ld7 COMFO&—VIR] 



TuLKRE is after all so vague, and therefore so weak and iu- 
[lificant a word, that too niuiii iiiiilt is not to be found with 
thu&e commentators who regard it as here ser\'ing merely to 
make out the verse and give the participle tJie force of a finite 
On a similar occasion Livy (5. 47)— happily fur himself 
"^bt under the necessity of either measuring the length or count- 
ing the number of his sylJnbles — has expressed, forribly and 
without any ambiguity, the thought which our so umch and 
often so justly vaunted author has here required two to express 
weakly, lamely, and ambiguously: ,,Tum vigtles eius loci, qua 
fefellemt ascendens hostis, eitati; et quum in omnes more 
militari se animadversurura Q, Snlpicius tribunus milituni pro- 
niindas&et; consentiente clumore niilitiim, ht ntutni ritjikiit eoNi'i- 
dentium culpam, deterrittis, a ceteris abstinuit: reum haud 
dubium eius noxae, approbantibus cunotis, de saxo deieoit." 

Eripti, fateob, leto me et vlvcula rupl — ViNcm.A, ^*quibu8 
tigatus servabatur, et ad aram addueebutiuV' HeyojD, No, Thiel 
Ik right; vmcuLi is not to be taken too strictly. It is merely 
continement, Htate of restraint, state of being a prisoner — 
vacuijk. Hrpi, I broke away, bui'st from among ray guai-ds, 
from tJie c'ontinement in which I was held. Compare L 58: 
^vinelis et carcere frenat^'' where the meaning is, as coiTectly 
Qtpltined by Hejnie himself, not mth cJtalns and a prison 
(llie winds not Imving been chained), but with the restraint of 
a prison. Compare also 8. 651: 

**et IlQviurn r inch's innaret Cloelia ruptW^ 
[not her chains being broken, but her confinement, or state of 
cufttody, being broken— ''frustrata custodes," Liv. 2, IHJ. Also 


^^victQS Ainorc tui, cognato saDguine rictus, 
coaiugiii ot maestae lacryniis, rincln omaia rK/w*, 
pronjjsaaju eni»ui geoei'O* arm a impia sumpsi/' 

Ovid, Fmt. 4. 602: 

**itaiciue semel iuncti rumpcre pineia tori/' 

Ovid, Amor, 3. 2- 3: 

**8alicet aaserai iam mo, rupfqno tntemttt; 
et i|ita«) d«pudnit feiTe, tuh^^ pudet'* 

AJwizxiKA, vol. n. 7 

98 AENEIDfiA [129-137 compos.— Vib. 

— examples, the two former of the use of the expression rum- 
pere vincula, the latter of the use of the even more precise 
expression runipere catenas, in a still less literal sense, the 
confinement or bondage spoken of being not even so much as 
physical, only moral. Sinon's chains had been already taken 
off, and he was standing at the altar with the sacred fillet round 
his head (verses 155 and 156), when he burst away from among 
the hands of his executioners ("vincula rupit et eripuit se leto"). 
See Rem. on ''vinclis et carcere frenat," 1. 58. 

Wagner (1861) does not know what vinctjla are here spoken 
of, but is quite sure they are not the same as those spoken of 
in vei-se 147: "Quae vintula? certe non ea quae, vers. 147, 
conimemorantur''- a piece of information .second in importance 
to none in his entire work, the vincla of verse 147 being those 
Trojan vincla with which Sinon is brought bound before Priam 
and from which Priam now orders him to be relieved (atque 


text being those (Grecian) vincula from which he had previously 
broken loose (eriptji, fateor, leto me, et vixcula rupi). In his 
next edition AVagner's doubt will have been cleared up, and 
he will be able to tell us all this. 

Delitti dum vela darent, si forte dedissent. I adhere to 
the received punctuation, and reject that of Heyne, which places 
the words darent si forte between two commas so as to refer 
VKLA not to darfint, but to dedissent. I am determined to this 
choice, not only by the reasons assigned by Wagner, but by 
the very remarkable parallel, verse 756: 

"indo domum si forte pedem, si forte tulisset, 
me refero." 

Patriam antiquam.— Aktiquam, not merely old ("Pristinam, 
nihil aniplius," Heynej, but, as occasionally elsewhere, dear 
old (^'der heimath alte gefilde," Voss)— old, and because of its 
being old, and therefore associated with so many recollections, 
dear. This suggested meaning, if T may so call it, does not 
accompany the word into the English language, but is found m 
the Saxon derivative o/rf, which therefore and not "ancient" is 

141-143 ^lid 

BOOK 11. 

the word which eoiTespouds with the A^TIQUAH of our text 
Tims we never say in this sense ^^ ancient En^Hand/' or ''<an- 
cient Ireland," but always ^^old England," and ''old Ireland;** 
noTer **the good ancient times/' but always '"the good uid 
times." Compare Soph. Oed. Tijr. 1394: za rcmqia JLoyvj 





and NUMINA are not two distinct co-ordinate subjects 
joined togethor in the sense as they are joined together in the 
grammaj* by tlie eopiUative kt. There is in the sense but one 
subject^ suPERos (/. i\ the gods, appealed to l>y Sinoo as con- 
Bcios veri); but, it being a matter of difficulty for the author 
to connect conscios veri with that word and at the same time 
round bis verse, kumika is had recourse to in order to supply ttie 
necessary dactyl in the fifth place, and so a word wholly super- 
fluous to the sense, and both embarrassing to ami deceptive of 
the reader, introduced— the sense being neither more nor less 
than superos conscios veri; and the reader bein^^ lured 
away ir) search of some differencn in meaning between superos 
and NtKiiNA to account for the latter aluue, and not the fonuor, 
being conscious of truth. Such is the real uatui\^ of the epexegesis 
80 much admired by those numerous readei's wIjo, to admire any- 
thing, require no more than to find it in VirgiL See Rem, on 
^'Italiam Lavinaque iittoia," 1. 6-9, and concluding paragraph 
of Bern, on '^raolem et montes altos/' 1. 65. 

FiHEB. — •''FmKS quani hie inclamat est iusti rectique obser* 
vantia, A. /., iurls divini et humanitatis/' Heyne; as if Sinon 


loo IfiNlirDlil [141-143 QUOD— OBO 

adjured Priam by his reverence for the gods on the one hand, 
and by his respect for right and justice on the other. This is 
not the meaning. There is neither a double adjuration^ nor is 
fides ever "observantia iusti rectique.'' For (1)^ the adjuration 
is not double, but single and simple, — "I adjure thee by the 
gods and by intemerata fides, if there is any among men/' 

I, e, by the intemerata fides of the gods, and men if, indeed, 
there is any such thing among men; plainly an adaptation to 
the epo of the "pro deum atque hominum fidem'' of every-day 
life, and the genteel comedy. Compare 6. 458 (Aeneas address- 
ing the shade of Dido): 

. . . '*i)er sidera iuro 
per superoSj et si qua fides tellure sub ima est." 

^'I swear by the gods above, and by whatever fides there is 
hero in Hades,'' /. c, "I swear by the fides both of the gods 
above, and of the Manes; and (2), fides is not "observantia 
iusti rectique, t. e. iuris divini et humanitatis," but, as fides is 
always and invariably faf't/fj the keeping inviolate of one's word, 
promise, or pledge (as Cic. de Off. 1. 7: ^'Fuudamentum est 
autem iustitiae ftdes; id est, dictorum conventorumque constantia 
et Veritas"); in other words, fides is moral trutli. Compare 

II. 511: 

. . . "ut fama fidem missique reportant 

[as public rumour and the report of our scouts pledge us their 
faith, /. e. assure us]; 4. 597: "en dextra /Wc^sque," [see how 
he has kept his pledged faitli]; 4. 552: 

"non servata fules^ cineri promissa Sychaeo." 

And such, if I am not mistaken, will be found to be the mean- 
ing of fides wherever it occurs, and it is also the meaning of 
our PInglish derivative and parallel. Faith, as Clarke, SermoUy 8. 
"The word faith always contains the notion of faithfulness or 

It being Sinon's fii*st and principal object, failing which all he 
could say or do would be worse than useless, to con\ince his hearers 
of his moral truth, of his fides [Gr. to ttigcov, It. kalta^ Fr. loy- 

141—143 9Ui>t»— Otto] 



a9itf^\ nothing could be more proper than his adjuring rriam by 
the FIDES, t\ e, moral truth, of gods and mou, especidly of tfio 
gods who knew the facts, the absolute truth (coxscr.v xumixa 
YEBtj, aod would themselves tbeir own fldbs being ixtemkrata, 
truly. Into wtiat court wore over more competent wit- 
brought— unimpeachable themselves, and acquainted 
besides with all tJie facts? Never in any tmatise of Ethics 
were the two so essentially different kinds of truth more accu- 
rately distinguished from each otlier: the verum, or the true 
in fact and indepeudeutly of opinion; and the fides, or true in 
opinion independently of fact. In like manner, 6, ioH^ it being 
Aeneas s first and principal object to convince Dido of his fides, 
hifi moral truth and sincerity, his appeal is as before to the fides 
or moml truth and sincerity; bnt being no longer among men, 
his appeal is no longer to the same fides, the same moral truth 
and sincerity' as before, viz., the fides of gods and men, but 
tu the fides of the gods and of those among whom he now 
finds himself, viz., the Manes: 

. . . **[>er sidera ium 
p€r superos, et si qua fuJ^a tellure sub ima ost.*' 

On the contrary'. Aeneas^s object in his tirst interview with Diflo 

being not to inspire her with confidence in bis words (entire c(m- 

fidence being already and beforehand placed in them by the 

guileless, generous, and candid queen ), but to expi^ess his iin- 

buunded gratitude and everlasting obligation to her, his appeal 

is made not to fides, but to iustitia, that iustitia which, 

whether to be found in heaven or wherever else, would never 

leave unrewarded, such unexpectetl jukI unexampled benignity, 

generosity, and munificence: 

. . . "'si *jua pios reapectant nunuDa, si <jUiJ 
Tisqaam itistitht est^" 

with which appeal to iustitia^ Heyne^ followed, as I believe, 
by most commentators, has confounded tlie very different appeal 
in our text to fides. Again, and with similar propriety, 2, 535, 
It i« neither to fides nor to iustitia, but to pietas, tender* 
Iness, the tender-heartetlness of heaven (see Rem. on 
W 14), tlmt Priam appeals when ho calls upon the gods to 

102 AENEIDEA [145 mi8kresc. ultro 

reward, as it deserves, the outrage inflicted by Pyrrhus on an 
affectionate tender-hearted parent: 

"^at tibi pro scelero' cxclainat, 'pro talibus ausis, 
di, si ([ua est caelo pietas, quae talia curot, 
porsolvant grates dignas et praeinia reddaut 
debita, (lui nati coram mo cemero letum, 
fccisti, et patrios foedasti funere vultus.'" 


iis, Acn, 4. 5W: 

"testatur moritura deos et conscia fati 

Manil. 1. 1: 

"carmine divinas artes et conscia fati 


deducere mmido 


The two expi-essions conscia fati and conscia veri are, indeed, 
nearly identical, that which is fated being of course tnie, and 
that which is true being fated. 



'*Ultuo autem non est i<pontc, nam iam rogaverat, sed insuper,^'' 
Serviujs (ed. Lion), followed by Wagner (1861), and Conington. 
^'Ultko est libenter, facUi promptoque aninio,'' Heyne, followed 
by AVagner, Quaes f. Virg. "Non solum eius precibus et 
lacrymis impulsi, sed nostro etiam sensu comraoti, facili promp- 
toque animo," Forbiger. ^'Talibus lacrYxMis vit.vm damus, et 
MiSEREsciMUs vcl ULTRO ; ueduui rogati, ut ab hoc nunc duri 


BOOK n. 


simus,'' Doederlein. Let us try to extricate oui-selves mn <->t 
this cluudy unceilainty and confusion, and in order to nriive at 
the meaning of ultro in our text, of ultko in connexion with 
MiSKRfScmus, inquii^e first what is tlie meaning of ultro else- 
where, what is tlie proper and usual meaning of the word nitro. 
Tlie proper and usual raeanin*^ of ultro, like the proper ami 
usual meaning of any other word, is only to be ascertained by 
induction. Compare, acoordingly (a), Caelius Symposius, 
Amipn. 96 (of Echo): 

*'virgo modesta sacri legem bene servo pudoris; 
ore procax non sum, nee sam temeraha lingua, 
uUro nolo locjui, sed do responsa loquenti*' 

Plena ''ultro'* is plainly neither '^insuper,'* nor ^4aeili prompto- 
que animo,** nor both tog^ether, but proprin motu; i. €, of 
myself!, taking the initiative]. (6), Terent. Eun. 4. 7. 42: 

. . . *^QOvi ingenium mulienmii 
noltmt, abj veUs; ubi Qolis, cupiiuit aUrr/* 

[k r. LMipiunt proprio motu; of themselves, taking the ijii- 
tiafjve]. {€), Sen. HippoL 441: 

''at si < J Ills ^tiiro se mahs oifert voleos, 
seque ipse torquet, j)€rder© est digmis bona, 
quels oescit uti" 

e. proprio motu offert]* (ri), Li v. 21, 1: "Ronianis in- 
dignsntibus, quid victoribus vieti Hlfn* inferrent arma; Poenis, 
quod superbe avareque crederent iniperitatnm victis esse*' [#\ u. 
proprio motu inferrent; of themselves, takintr the initia- 
ti%*e). (e), Liv. 20. 17: "Ne iis quidem quae idiro dicta erant 
stabattir'' |*. **. proprio motu <licta erantj. (/), Aen, 
2. t93: 

'ultro Asmm nia^^^no Pelopea ad niooiiia hello 

[where also ^' ultro" is proprio uiutu, of itself, taking the 
initij|tive|, {g\, Ibid. 9, 126: 

^Ai nou aadaci ues^lt (idueta Turuo 
idUQ auimos toUit dictiB atque iacrepat ultro'' 

104 AENEIDEA [145 iiiseresc. ultbo 

[where also "ultro" is proprio motu, of itself, takinir the 
initititivej. (hi 10. 312: 

"occiso Therone, viruin qui maximiis tdtro 
Aenean jietit" 

[where also ''ultro" is proprio motu]. (i), 11. 471: 

"multaquo se incusat, qui non acceperit ulfro 
Dardanium Aenean" 

(wiicre also "iiltro'' is proprio motu). (/), 9. 6: 

'•Turue, quod optauti divum promittere nemo 
auderct, volvenda dies en attulit iiUro'^ 

|wlierc also ^niltro" is proprio motu]. And (fc), 5. 446: 

"Eutellus vires in ventum effudit, et idho 
ipse gravis gra\'iterque ad terram pondere vasto 

[where also (although we do not usually employ the expression 
proprio motu in such cases) ^'ultro'' is really proprio motu, 
of himself, Entellus being himself the cause of his own fall], 
Xor is there one single one either of the examples adduced by 
Tui-sellini to show that "ultro ex contrariis varias significa- 
tiones accipit, naju cum voado opponitur ost spofife, cum petenti 
est fion prfrnfi\'' or of the still more numerous examples adduced 
by Wagner [Qnacst. Virg.) to show that ultro is sometimes 
en; CO ncQcev, sometimes /reQaio&eVy in which ultro is not simply 
and without any ainhages proprio motu, avTOuaiiog, avzo^o- 
'/A'jg, of one's self. See Rem. on 4. 304. 

Let us now see what objection can be made to ultro under- 
stood here also in this its usual and proper sense: "To these 
teai-s we grant his life, and pity him proprio motu." There 
is, I am told, the objection put forward by Servius, viz., that 
ULTKO, so understood, is in contradiction to ms lacrymis 
DAMvs. Tlieir pity, I am told, cannot be proprio motu be- 
cause Sinon had besought it ("iam rogaveraf); and not only 
had Sinon bc^sought it, but the author taking up in his . . . misk- 
HESciMus Sinon's most pitiful miserere, miserere, had called 
our special attention to the fact that Sinon liad besought it 
The objection is not without weight so long as ultuo is regarded 





as belonging no less to nis lacrvmis vitam damis tliaii to 
msEREsciiirs, for it Is not easy to conceive tlie life wliieh wo 
have just heard was ofranted to teai^ to be granted proprii) 
motn. But tbe moment we ronfine tlje operation of cltho to 
its awn clause, the difficulty vanishes, and we have Sinun*s life 
granted to his teai*s, and at the same time his hearers so softened 
that they pity him proprio motn. To be sure, this softening 
effect is, philosophically speakini^:, pnxhKt'd by Sinon's tears, 
nor is tliere any such thine: in nature as motion without motor. 
any such thing as proprio motu at all; but it is not so felt 
by the Trojans, who regarded it as Aeneas describes it, viz., as 
a spontaneous uncaused proprio niutu (ultko) operation of 
their own minds. We have n precisely sijiiilar apparently un- 
causetL but really caused, proprio motn of the mind of Tunnis, 
expregsed by the same ultro, in the beginning of the twelfth 
boob, where Tumus, stimulated by the public impatience that 
lie fthuuld com*' forward and redeem his pledge of meeting 
lrnr;is in tiLdit. iif>t oiilv comes forward^ but 

. -'uitro implft<;abilis ardot 
attollitque auimos,*' 

r,, proprio motu will iiot bo appi^ai^i'd, but is on lire for 
Ik? l»attJe, 

The second clause of the verse is tlms a climax of the first — 
•*iiot merely do we gnmt his life to bis tears, but we pity liim 
prupriu motu also." Thus, also, the MrsERfr^sciiros of our 
text is really 'unsuper," but this meaning is nut contained in, 
i^ only a deduction from, uLiiiO. 

To tbe suggestion of Gesner: ''ilalim tamen ui.tko ad se- 
rjuentia referre; ultro ipse vmo rRiMUS man'Icas, &c., ut indi- 
cetuT anincius Priami mitis, qui no/f rtx/aitis, aoit nfouitius, dcmi 
iuliet Sinoni vineulu/' 1 object u/k That iiis lackymis vrrA^i 
P.Ufus KT MisEicKsciMi:s, 'Sve grant him his life and pity him,'' 
is a bald, a much less fitting, response to Sinon's thrilling cry 
for pity: 


tantohcm; msKBKRjc a:«imi NON DIONA rsRKStlB. 

106 AENEIDEA [148-166 quisq.— fuoi 

"wo grant his life and pity him proprio motu, /. e. by the 
impulse of our own hearts." (6), That ipse primus itbet gains 
nothing, whatever it may lose, by the addition of ultro— those 
woi-ds of themselves sufficiently expressing the alacrity of Priam, 
himself one of those who "^miserescunt" ultro. (c), That the 
euphony of the verse forbids the separation of the sixth foot 
from the fifth by a period, (d), That such separation, if occur- 
ring at all in the Aeneid, is of the rarest; and (6), That mise- 
reri and ultro are not only joined together, but joined to- 
gether at the end of a verse, and so as to afford the same sense 
as in our text, by Ovid, Art. A^nat. 3, 679: 

'4amdudiun persuasus erit, miserebitur uUro" 



The elder Heinsius placed a semicolon at graios and a comma at 
ERis. The yoimger Heinsius, and, after him, Emmenessius and 
Bumiann, retain the semicolon at oraios, but substitute a colon 
for the comma at eris — correctly, as I think; noster eris 
being thrown in according to YirgiFs usual manner (see Bems. 
on Aeti. 1, 4; 3. 571; 4. 484; 6, 84, 741 and 882) parentheti- 
cally between the tw^o connected verbs obliviscere and edis- 
SERE, and the sense running thus: "forget the Greeks (for thou 
slialt from henceforward be ours) and answer me truly these 
questions." Wagner in his edition of Heyne returns to the 
punctuation of the elder Heinsius, and observes in his note: 
"Comma post eris ponendum, et quae sequuntur hunc in modum 
accipienda: ac proinde edissere;" thus separating the two simi- 
lar verbs, and connecting the two dissimilar. In his I^'aestabilior, 
however, the same critic, profiting suh siletftio by the lessons read 
him in my "Twelve Years' Voyage'' and "Advers. Virgil.," 
restores with his right hand the punctuation to the state from 
which he had removed it with his left. 

148 15(t urisu— rrtiil 



XusTKi^ EKis, /. e. shnU be Trojiin, .shnlt be euunted ns one 
of us. ConipaR^ Ovid^ 7v/.s7, ^. 1^71^ lAttalus permiltirig tliu 
I statae of Cybele to go tn Rntiiu): "jiui^tifi eris," /Ao« ^/m// 
(2f////) he Phnj(ji(tn. 

SiUERA, sky, as Aen, 5, 120, U2S; \\m\ '^Mstns," 5. 517. 

Iu>£S, not, wirJi Servius and D<»ruitus, tlie tires of or in the 
\Af^ i* €. the auu, moon, and stars, but the sky itself eoasidered 
as fire, the fien^ ethereal sky. The i^nn, moon, and stars con- 
sideivd as fires in the .sky cannot have a oilmen {"sos viola- 
urLE VK8tT?uM .NUMKx), but the wliole sky -sun, moon, and stars 
iochisivo — considered as a unity, can. See Apnleius, de Mmido, 
quoted below. 

Nox vioLABU.K, not to be profaned, \i/.., by any nefas, 
such for instance as a false oath^ as if he had said: by whom to 
swear falsely were a profanity requiring expiation. Conipai'e 
liv. 2. 38: *'An non sensistis triuniphatum hodie de vobis esse? 
vos omnibus civibns, pore^rinis, to finitimis populis specta- 
culo abeiuites fuisse? vestras eoniiiges, vestros liberos, traductos 
per offt hominura? Quid eow qni audivere voeem praeconis? 
quid qui vos videre abeuntes? quid eos qui huic ipiotninioso 
a^tuini fuere obvii^ exisriniasse putatis? nisi aliqnod profeeto 
tiefii-s esse, quo si intei^inius spectaculo, rio/attui sinuis hidos, 
ptaculumque meritun*: ideo nos ab sede pioriim, coetu coneilio- 
que abigi/' Eurip. Med 750: 

OfiPvui- ymtcv, T^hov it' ayrop rftfin^, 

Apuleius, de Midtdo (ed, Flor. p. 708): ''Caelum ipsum, stel- 
Im^iue caeligenae, «>innisque siderea eompa^o aether voeatur: 
noil, ut quidam pntatit, ^imd tg'nitas sit et ineensus, sed qu^d 
cursihuH rapidis semper rntetur: elemontum, non umim ex 
quatuor quae notu sunt cunetis, sed longe aliud, numero qiiintuni, 
urdine primnm, genere divinum et inriolahiie.'' 8iL IK 168: 

**tttm iuvenis, macstujn attoUtjDS ad sidera vultutii: 

•fiollwtao flextiae ut fat-ti Titiinia testh 
iafandi, quae noctuino iiiea hunino tola 
iUrigis in patrium coq>U8, non amplius,' iaquit, 

^bis ocuils et damiiato ffuUadere vibu.'" 

108 ABNEIDEA [156-170 vitt.— danaum 

The sense assigned to the word by Servius (viz., afp^aqrov) be- 
longs to a later latinity. Compare Flav. Vopisc. Vita Divi Aure- 
lianiy 41: "Recte atque ordine consuluissent dii immortales, P. 
C, si boni ferro inviolaMles exstitissent, ut longiorem ducerent 
vitam : neque contra eos aliqua esset potestas iis qui neces in- 
fandas tristissiraa mente concipiunt. Viveret enim princeps 
noster Aurelianus quo neque utilior fuit quisquam." 


petitus insidiis est, neque devotus hostiae; denique sic de om- 
nibus iurat, ut per ea quae non fuerunt dans sacramentum, 
careat obiurgatore," Fragni. vet. inter}), in Virg. ap. Maium, 
vol. 7, p. 272. See the similarly equivocating oath of Andro- 
mache, Seuec. Troad, 604, 



[pitnct.] viTTAKQUE DKUM, QUAS III Senius; p. Manut.; D. Heins.; N. 
Hcius.; Hoyno; Wagn. {Prac8t.)\ Ribb. 

[imiict.] vitta>:que, deum guAS 111 ''Multi hie distinguunt, et sic sub- 
iungimt: deum quas hostia oessi," Servius; Voss. 

Not IIOSTIA DEUM, but VITTAE DEUM, eXECtly OS 11. 4". 

^'Vota deum priino victor solvebat Eoo." 

To make deum the commencing word of the clause is to throw aa em- 
phasis on it wholly foreign to the sense. On the contrary, it comes 
in easily and naturally after vittae, bringing with it, in that secondary 
position, no emphasis. 

Fas miiu. The subsequent teneor points out the structure; fas 
est, not FAS s^it; i. e. testor fas mihi esse . . , et me teneri. 

Omnia ferre sub auilvs. Compare Timaous, Lex, Platon.: 
Yji avyag^ V7co xov oq^-qov, rj vno tov TteqxjJuofAepov aeqa, 



BOOK n. 


ere Hemsterhiisius: ''Usitata lociiHo f^r avyag ttyuv in 
"ffportam lucem proforri/' 

Sekvataque serves. Compare FetroiK (od. Hadrian.), p* 
155: "serva me, servabo te.*' Sil. 14. 172: ''servas nondum 

rvatus ab hoste.'' 
"- Stktit (163).— ''Stltjt pro vulgari posiia fuit in,'" Heyno, 
On tlie contrary, stare, in tliis the figurative use of the term, 
loses nothing of its sense of standing, and the hope and confi- 
dence of the Danai is said tu stand—not in, but— % the assist- 
ance of Pallas, exactly wm the Roman state is said to ^tand— not 
»ii, bill— % military discipline, Liv. 8. 7 (T. Maulius Tonpiatus 
to his son): *^Disdplinani militarom, qua stetit ad \m\\Q diem 
nana lus, sohisti;'* an tht' Latin state is said to .stand — not 
but- hij the guardianship of a woman, Liv. L 3: ''Tantisper 
tutela muljebri itanta indoles in Lavinia erat) res Latina et 
regiuim avitnm paternunique puero steHt;'* as the I^eedaemo- 
nian s^tate is said to have stood for su many years by the laws of 
Lycurgus^ Liv. 39. 33: ''adeuiptas. qnibus ad earn diem eivitas 
»ktimeif Lycurgi leges;'* as the Italian kingdom is said byScipio 
Africanm^ the elder (Silius, 13. 654, ed. Rup/} ti> have stood — 
in, but— % P. Corn, Scipio, his fatJier: 

'*i|ui8 te, care pater, quQ titabant Itala regna, 
exoaas Latioin deus abstdit? ' 

aa the Romans are said by Propertius (3. 22, 21) nut merely 
to be, but to stand powerful: 

"nam (laantiim ferro tantiim pietate poteotes 
i(tf4mi4ii' ^-ictrices toxnperat ira manos;*' 

and an Cicero, ad Farn. IS. 30, informs Plancus tliat he 
(Plancus) knows by what men and men of what rank ho 
(CicorcO stood, (held is ei"eet position): ^^per quos homines 
iirdinesque steteHnt, iiuibusque munitus fuerim, non ignoras,'' 
CctDjpare also Fropert, 4, 11 . 1: 

'♦desioe, Paii!lt\ meuin laerimis nrgere sepulcmm: 
paadltar ad auUas iaatia nigra precos. 
cam semel infemas intrarant funera leges, 
lion exorato stant adomanto viae*' 

lie v\«>H \*, t\ the passages) stand (i. r. stand closer) i with ada- 

no A^NEIDEA tlSfi-ltO irm.— DANAUlc 

mant]. Compare also Ovid, Fast, 5, 383: "saxo stant antra 

vetusto" [caves stand built of old rock]. Aeii, 4. 509: ^stani 

arae circum" [altars not merely are around, but stand around]. 

Stettt, so understood, is well opposed to fluere ac retro 


Palladium. — The best account I know of the Trojan Palla- 
dium is in Procopius, BelL Oothic, L 15^ where he thus describes 
a representation of it, cut in stone, in these words : avrri de ri ev 
no Xid-ct) erA,(x)v noke^iotari re xort to Soqv avaTBtvova^ are eg 
^^/.ifioXriv eoiY^, TcodrjQrj de '/,ai log xov xixcjva , . . exei, &c. 

Fluere ac retro sublapsa referri spes danaum. — "Fluere, 
delabi, et est rtov ^teacov. Nam ideo addidit retro. Contra 
Sallustius: 'rebus supra vota fluentibus,'" Serv. (ed. Lion). 
That Servius is right, and the Latin fluere simply to fow, 
is still further placed beyond doubt by Cicero, de Off. 1, 26: 
"In rebus prosperis et ad voluntatem nostram fluentibiis, 
superbiam magnopere, fastidium arrogantiamque, fugiamus" 
compared with Liv. 27. 17: "Hasdrubal, quura hostium res 
tantis augescere increraentis cerneret^ suas iraminui, ac fore ut, 
nisi audendo aliquid moveret, qua coepissent fluerent, dimicare 
quam prinumi sbituit." As in each of these passages, no less 
than in the Sallustian, the further meaning of the word fluere, 
i, e. whether the flowing signified by that word is flowing in a 
good sense, or flowing in a bad, is determined by the context, so 
in our text whether the flowing spoken of is flowing in a good 
sense or in a bad, is to be determined by the context only; and 
fortunately the context is sufficiently decisive — retro sublapsa 
refkrri explaining as clearly and unmistakably as it is possible 
for words to explain, that tlie flowing is backward, or in a bad 
sense; in other words, fluere ac retro sublai*sa referri spes 
DANAUM is neither more nor less than the thought: tlie hope 
of the Dauai is ebbing, expressed for the vei-se sake, by two 
theses instead of one, floivs and is carried back; in one word, 
ebbs. Compare Lucret. 4. 699: 

"quippo otenim fhterc atquo recvdvre corpora rebus 
niulta niodis multis docui, sed plurima debont 
ex aiiiinalibus iis quae sunt exorcita niotu,'' 

1 1&- 1 7?) OMTs A — C AfiJMs] 



jmbem "tluere" is the very flukrk of our text^ and where 
^iuere** and "recederc" make up jomtlv the notion of ebbing; 
exactly as in our text fkueke and hctho sublapsa REKEiiRi make 
up jointly the same notion, viz., that of ebbing. Nothing is 
further from Virgifs mind than the '^rciro ferric lahi,'' of a 
'*moles^ quae in altum erat invecta'' (Heyue), or of a ''trag- 
Diinis saxi quod vetustas submit, vel ruina qualibet decidentis** 
(Wakefield), unless it be Conington's ''man carried off from his 
standing-ground in solu/o by the reflux of a wave, and so borne 
back to sea/' 

Little objection will be ma<ie to the ebb of hope by anyone 
who happens to remember Edmund Burke'si ebb and flow uf 
monarchies {O/t a reijitiiip pmre): *'Such, and often influenced 
by such causes, lias t'ornmimly been the fatt^ of monuivhies uf 
long duration. They luiv(* thr^ir ebbs and their flows. This 
bts been eminently the fate of the monarchy of France/' 



qVOn PKI.AOO kt cubvis skcum avkxekk cabtnis 


AnnrKUff I Vat., PoL, Med.; *4n Medioeo cod. et aiif|uot aliis avkxwik 
tegitur/' Pieims. il ig. Ill N. Hoiiis.; Phil.; Bunu.; Ileyne; 
Brunck; Pott.; Jaeijk; Borph,; Uaupt; Wagn. {lAirL Vinj. and Pm€stL)\ 
Ribb, ; Kappes, 

*DTKxr.RK 11 \l. Ill Veu. 1470, 1471, 1472, 1475; Mil. 1475, 1492; 
Bresc. ; P. Manut»; D. Eeins.; La Cerda; I^ad.; Baak. 

Ajmm n ^* in Pr. 

42>l/CX]SiC II *^- 

Htm. Vcr., Sf. (ififl 

Il2 AilNElt)EA [17^^179 omina— (uibIiib 

VuMEN KEDUCANT. — "Cum ipso Palladio avecto ut solennibus 
sacris restituatur in sedem suam revertendum," Heyne, Wagner, 
Kappes, and commentators generally. Erroneously, as I think; 
NTJMEN is not the Palladium, the statue of the goddess, nor is 
the Palladium to be restored. Numen is the approbation, the 
good will of the gods, the blessing of heaven (not by any 
means the blessing of Pallas in particular), that blessing of 
heaven with which the Greeks formerly sailed to Troy — 


This NUMEN is rendered ipso fact'O void and null by their return; 
in other words, having been obtained only for the expedition, it 
ceases of itself, that expedition being concluded; and it becomes 
necessary to obtain a new numen for the new expedition. 
This is precisely the ratioiioh of the superstition as it prevailed 
in Virgil's own time. Disappointed in his expedition, the consul, 
or other commander of the army, returned to Rome, in order to 
set out dc ?wro on the new expedition to the same place with 
new auspices; and so pi-eciseK our text: numen heducant, go 
home with the numen; quod avexere carinis, with which they 
had set out; omina ri-tetant, take new auspices (deos parant 
coMiTES, obtain a new numen; pelagoque remenso aderunt, 
set out again and arrive atVesh). Numen reducant is thus, not 
a totally independent action from omina repetant, but that 
previous action which was necessary and indispensable before 
omina repetant was possible— in other words, omina repetant 
and NTJMEN reducant, intimately bound together by the con- 
junction que, constitute one whole; and re-petant and re- 
ducant are but modifications of the same general idea of 
applying to heaven de novo, 

Numen reducant, although expressive of an action which 
in point of time precedes, is yet placed after omina repetant, 
according to Virgil's usual custom {voteqov Ttgoregov) of placing 
the principal or main action first, and that which was only sub- 
sidiary to the main action, after. 

The Palladium is not to be restored, profaned and violated 
by bloodstained hands; it is now worth nothing, enters no more 

i«2-lH4 IT> — MA 

BOOK ir. 

uito the oaltMilations either of thr Trojaiii^ or Calchas, Toappoftm 

no mure upDti the scene, PuMas is to be atoueil nut by the res- 

I hiration of the old image, but by the preseutnricm of riie wooden 

b<if^f>, whirh, aecordin^ to SinonV &tory, has f>eeii made of Hf> 

[eii*»nnntij<i sixe expressly in onier that it nii;>ht not lie taken 

|int4» the eity, un<l serve the purpose of a new Pallatliiim. 

As* to NiTMKN soe^ fui'ther, Kem, on '^numine laeso," 1. 12. 



iTA DJOfOiiT OMLSA CAixiiAS.— What is the force of ita> Of 
course, thns^ in hoc modo — this is the way in whieli ( ^alchas 
liiaEttn' oulna; or — tliis is Calehas's mode digerendi omina. 
But is this all? doi.^ Virjg^il indeed only mean to tell us that 
the way, whieh ho haj^ ju»st informed us is the ^vay in which 
Calcbaii oibEinT omina, is the way in which Calchas diokkjt 
oMOfA? Impossible I There must be some further meaning in 
the words, or ttiey ai'O useless^ this meaning having been pre- 
viously expressivi. The further meaning is^ as I think: it h in 
tixia manner Calchas luoKiur oiiuna, /. c. this is the eftect of 
Calcha^^s manner di^erendi timina, viz., not to rid yoti of 
the Grtmk»», as you ignonuitly Hopijost*, but to bring the Greeks 
back upon you under new reU^iouis auspices, and with in- 
creased f»»rce (AUMA iJbOSijUE TARANT COillTKS, ClrlLAaogUi; REMEN80 

uiPKoviiii ADKia'NT) — rfA, this is the way in which Calchas 
woKiiiT omina; this is the ultimate i-esult of all this designing 
priest's manipulation of omens, \h,^ to bring greater danger on 
you tiian ever; it is n(jt 1 alone wiio am ruined by tbem, but 
^you alao. No argument could be more powerful to enlist tiie 
^ympathias nf the Trojans on the side of Sinon than to argu- 
ment that Calelms was their enemy no less than his, was using 

«JtMl1f, AK^'EJDEAt VOL. U. K 

114 ABlNEStDEA 1 182-184 ita— puw* 

all the means in his power to eflfect the ruin of both — ita 


DiGERiT, digests, i. e. analyses, calculates, solves the problem 
of, disposes of. Compare Ovid, Met. 12, 21 (of the same Calchas 
similarly expounding portents): 

"atiitie novem volucres in belli digenf antios." 
Ovid, Fast 2, 625: 

"cut pater est vivax, qui matns digerlf annos.'* 
Ovid, Met, 4. 469 (of Ajax Oileus): 

•'quani meruit solus poonam digcssit in onines" 

[distributes and so gets rid of, disposes of|. Senec. de Constantin 
Sapient is, 15: "Domus haec sapientis angusta, sine cultu, sine 
stropitu, sine apparatu, nullls observatur ianitoribus, turbam 
venali fastidio digerejttihfts'' [arranging and disposing of accord- 
ing to pleasure]. Senec. Thyest, 822: 

. . . ''non succedunt 
astra. nee uUo niicat igne polus: 
nee Luna grave* digerit umbras" 

[clears up, dissipates, and so disposes of |. Senec. Qfiaest, Nat, 7, 
22: "Nubes . . . modo congregantur,.modo differinitiir^' [cleared 
up, dissipated, and so disposed of], Liv. 2. 21: *'Nec quid 
quoque anno actum sit, in tanta vetustate, non roruin modo sed 
ctiam auctorum, digerere possis." 

Nor is this the whole force of the dkjkrit of our text; there 
is something oftensivo in it^ not proporly or essentially be- 
longhig to, but nevertheless occasionally to be found both in 
digerere itself and the synonyms of digerere in other lan- 
guages. See Hom. //. 2, 236: 

rj oic ii (H X '?,"'''»' ^{foaujLti't'ouf-v, rjt x«i ovxi. 

Find. Pyth. 4. 184 (ed Dissen): 

Tov St Tiaunf-iihii y).vxvv ijuiOfotoi noiiov nooaStdtr lloit 

vuOi; ^^oyovi;, urj Tine /.fi;t<)iif-roi' 

Tt<t' ((XivSvpor /iKoii ttttroi ut-vfir (tiinra 7itaaoi'j^, tt)X f/tt xat S-uvntta 

(f((()u«xov xttk/.tarov Ht^- Kofrtc^' ukthv iVQioOut aw u).lot^\ 

1^3—200 rLTOO— tfrbat] 

BOOK it. 


NuMiNE LAE80, n4>t the violated image or Palladiuiu, fnif 
the violated supreme will of tlie deity— violated, viz., by the 
carmtig off of t)ie Palladium, The latter part of the vet-se is 
Ae vanation of the theme contained in the former part; and 
theme and variation taken together ai'e equivalent to: for the 
violation of the supremo will {n urn en) of tlie goddess, by the 
carrying off of the Palhtdium. The words NCjnxE laiso ai*e 
uued, both of tliero, iti the precise sense in whirh they are 
used. 1, 12, where see Rem. 




Compare Liv. 3, 8 (ed. Walk.): ^*iam satis valida civit^ite, ut 
noD 8olum arcere bellura, sed ultro etiam infen*e posset" 
QuQS 3?tXitrE , . . CAIUNAE. Compare \ak\ 6. HO: 

*^qucini aon inilJe simul turmis, nee Ca<3sare totii 
ftuferret Fori una locum, victoribiia imna 
eripiiit, vettiitque caj>i.** 


ATi^uE iJUPROViDA PECTORA TURBAT. — ^This prodigv is Bot merely 
omifWtiM, but typiealy of the destruction about to come upon 
Truy. The twin serpents prefigure the Gi*eoian armament, 
which, like them, comes from Tenedos (whem, as must not be 
forgotten, it is hnng concealed at the very moment of the 
prodigy); like them, crosses the tranquil deep; like them, lands; 
1, going up straight (probably over the v^ry same ground) to 
city, slaughters the suiprised and unresisting Trojans fpre- 
fignred by I^ocoon*s sons), and overturns the religion and drives 
ant the gods (pi-efigured by the priest Laocoon). Even in the 
most minute particulais the type is perfect; the serpents come 


lie AENEIDEA [19a-200 ultro— tutoa* 

abreast towards the shore, like ships sailing together ("Argiva 
phalanx instructis navibus ibat . . . littora . . . petens"), with 
flaming eyes raised above the waves by the wliole length of tlie 
neck and breast r'flammas qiiuni regia puppis extiUerat''), and 
with the hinder part floating and curling along on the surface 
of the water (the hinder vessels of the fleet following tho lead 
of the foi-emost); and, when tiieir work is done (the Trojans 
slaughtered, or, with their gods, driven out of the city), take 
possession of the citadel, under tiie protection of Pallas ('4ara 
summas arces Tritonia, respice, Pallas insedit/' &c.). 

Tho Greek army besieging Troy is always typified by a 
serpent Compare 11 . 2. 326: 

0)^ otroi; l^oaxoir] xam ihy.v ftfttyt aroorOiuo, xtu avTfjVy 

OXTlOf ((Tt(0 jiir]Tr]0 hVUTt] tp', 1] TfXf TfXVlC 

TO) Stxaru) dt nu).ti' atnijaoufv novcyind'. 

n. 12. 201: 

tUtTO<; VI^'lTlfTIJs 

(fOivrjfvTtt &()((xoyra (ffoior nvvytaai nt)Ati{iov 

Also the swarm of bees, 7. ()1), not only ominous, but typic^il, of 
the arrival of Aeneas and his Trojans at Laurentum: 

. . . ^*et partes petere aginen easdem 
partibus ex isdoin. et sumnia doininarier arce." 

Also the serpent, which, ivssuing from the tumulus at Saguntum 
(Sil. 2. 592) and gliding through the middle of the town directly 
into the sea, typified the flight of the Manes of the dead from 
the city which was soon to be taken by storm by the enemy: 

. . . "ceu prodita tecta 
expulsi fugiant Manes, unibrae^iuao recusent 
captive iacuisse solo." 

Since the above commentary was written, I have found a 
confirmation of the opinion therein expressed, in Petronius's 
poem descriptive of tho ticking of Troy (see his Safyr.. od. 
Hadrian., p. 328), in one part of Avhich he informs us that the 
noise made by the serpents in their passiige through the water 




Vim JiKr mar ni v«'ss**ls rowing jirid iit the same time cutting 
their wav rhnmgh tlie sea — 

joalis silenti uooto reMiorurn soiins 
loDge refertiir, quum prernunt classes mai'd. 
pulsumfiuc niarmor Jihinte impositii geuut" — 

and in another (two verses lower down on ^^iirae page^, that the 
neek6 and broa^ts uf the serpents, as they ennie along through 
the water, rt*sembled tall s^hips: 

» . * ^HumifJa quorum fiectora, 
rates u( idtae. lateribu^ ^pumas aguot/' 

Hic Auun M-inrtk . • • iirLTo«^uE tkkmkn^dum, Uonipaix? Horn. 
(M 4, 6 OS: 

IwrROvrDA PK«"Ti»R\ TriiBvr, - *'TruiiAT pectora itu iit fierent 
iMPTioviDxi: ita enini pmet-ipites egit ea res Troianos, ut omissa 
iMnni frtiuione facerent ipKid Sinon optabnt/' Wagner. No; 
but luprovtua titjrat are to be taken as so connected together 
a^ ti» form one eomplox idea^ viz,, that expitssod by the i^iiigle 
English word ahtntt —iiimw ydisttdhs) jmpkovipa {iiHforrsi'eutff, 
uoi-(\rjH'ctitNj\ u e, aluttti^i. The Latin language being poor of 
words, is frequently thus eunsti-ained to describe ur express by 
a phmsi' what in rieher hinguages is expressed by a single word, 
iis: *'gelidus cnit," //Y>e;/'x,- "angusti claustra Pelori/* sfratts of 
Pehrfi^^; **aggredior dietis/* (trcoift ; "expediam dictis,'' cxplnhi; 
^exciiiisos laxam" itncfdl; '*vela danius/' mil; 'N.M|ues sternet/' 
rule turr; **aer|uan» seqnendo" (3. 671), ovvrtake, ttc. See Rem, 



IIuaRRS4'(> fun^raicxs. This niter jertinn is tn^t placed indiffe- 
rently anywhere in the middle of the sentence, but in its most 
fiAtural and etibctive ponitton, after the wurds ctKMLvi a tknedo 

118 AENEIDEA [203-213 bock— pktumt 

TKANQuiLLA PER ALTA, Gxcitatory of expectation; and imme- 
diately before immensis orbibus axgues, expressive of the actual 
horrid object. The weaker efiFect which it would have had, if 
placed at a greater distance before immensis orbibus anques, is 
shouTi by Dryden's translation: 

'^when, dreadful to behold, from sea we spied 
two serpents, ranked abreast, the seas di\ide," 

and the still weaker which it would have had if placed after, 
by Surrey's: 

''from Tenedon, behold, in circles great 
by the calm seas come fleeting adders twain; 
which plied towards the shore (I loathe to tell) 
with reared breast lift up above the seas." 

Compare ^^Tritonia, respice, Pallas,'' verse 615, and Rem. 

Pectora quorum, &c. Compare Milton, Par, Lost, 1, 192: 

''thus Satan, talking to his nearest mate, 
with head uplift above the wave, and eyes 
that sparkling blazed; his other parts besides 
prone on the flood, extended long and large, 
lay floating many a rood." 

Fit sonitus spumante salo. — The brine foatns audibly. 
Compare Quint. Smyrn. 12. 456 (ed. Heyn.), of the same ser- 
pents: STteof^aQayriae de Tcoviog viaao/^ievcov and Petr. 89 (of 
the same): '^dat cauda sonitum.*' 

Dryden's translation of the passage is marked by even more 
than DrA' den's usual extravagance, recklessness, and ignorance 
of his author's meaning: 

'•their speckled tails advance to steer their couree, 
and, on tlie sounding shore, the flying billows force;" 

with which mistranslation I know none, not Dryden's own, at 
all comparable, unless it be Pope's of Hom. //. lU. 126: 

"from his ambrosial head, where perched she sate, 
he snatched tho fury-goddess of debate." 

Arva. — There is no occasion to suppose, Avith Heyne, that 
ARVA is used "pro littore," because, interpreted literally, it affords 
a better meaning, viz., the fields, or cultivated pUiin, inside 

E13-217 KT— WaKNTlBtJF] 

BOOK n. 


he beach, whore it is probabif mv suienius am ntood, ar sncn 
dijstatice from the aetual shore as to be in no danger from the 
vialenoe of the gea during stormy weather. Compare: '^pelago 
pr^mit arva sonauti/* Aen, 1, 250, and Hera. 

Ilu aosjixe certo lvocooxta PETt'NT, Wagner (l8t)l), fol- 
luwed by Conington, refers to "ille agmine 'ongo" lo, 90), 
and **agm4na eaudae" \Omr(f, H, 433), Mid intei^prets: '* Intel- 
Uge spiras ac vohmiina longumque eoruni tractnm''— contbimd- 
ing, as it seems to me, agmina eaiidae, the agmiua of a 
serpent's tail (the joints of the serpent's tail, so numerous as to 
be called agraina bis troops), and ttie agmen, march, or 
course of a serpent I agree, however, with Wagner in his 
other comparison, viz,, that of *'ftgmine longo*' (5. i)Oj with oiu* 
text, drawing* however, from it the very opposite conclusion, 
viz.^ that AOiiiNE cEiiTo in our text, means not '*spiras ac 
volumina longumtjue eorum tractum," but ''certum eomm 
cursum/* their sure and certain march; exactly as '* agmine 
longo" in the passage compared by Wagner means the long 
march of tlie serpent there spoken of, and as '*leni agmine," 2. 
782, means the mild march of the Tiber. See Rem. on 2. 782. 



POST iPsrH .subeuxtem \c tela ferextem 
C0RminU5T SPUnSQUE uoant lnoentibus 

PrnMuu . . , POST,— There is a most material discrepancy be- 
^een the account giveti by Yirgii and the view presented by 
"the sculptor, of the death of r^aocoon and his two sons. Accord- 
ing to the former, tho sei'pents first iphimiac) kill the two sons, 

120 AENEIDEA [213-217 et— inoi:nttbus 

and afterwards (rosr) seize H'orkipiunt) the father, srHKiWTKM 
AC TELA FEUENTE3I, and kill hiin also: while, aecordin^i^ to the 
latter, the serpents are twined about and kill the father and the 
two sons simultaneously. VirgiPs is the more natural and 
probable account, because it was more oasy foi- the serpents to 
conquer Laocoon's powerful stren»^th (see vei'se oO) with the 
whole of their united force and folds than with such part only 
of .their fon*o and folds as was not employed upon the sons. 
There is even some difficulty in understanding (nor <loes an 
examination of the sculpture tend much to diminish the diffi- 
culty) how two serpents, already twined about and encumbered 
with the bodies of two persons, even although those bodies 
were small (pakva), could seizr* and squeeze to death a third 
person possessed of more than ordinary strength, and armed. 

The sculptor, if he had had the choice, would, doubtless, nn 
less than the poet, have represented the killing of Laocoon to 
have been subsequent to the killing of the sons; but his ai1: 
failed him; s(ndpture could not represent s/uce.ssire urts; the 
chisel could fix no more than a siiigkj instant of tleeting time: 
driven, therefore, by necessity, ho places the three persons simul- 
taneously in the folds of the sc^-pents, and his so nuirh admired 
group becomes, in conseqnence, complicated and almost ini'tmi- 
prehensible, and appeai-s in the most disadvantageous contrast 
with the simple and natural narrative of Virgil. 

Such is the infinite inferiority of sculpture, and of painting, 
to poetry. The sculptor, or painter, labours day and night, and 
for years together, on one object; and, in the end, his work, 
representing but an instant of tiine, fails to present to the mind 
as many ideas as the poet supplies in half-a-dozon lines, the 
work perhaps of half an hour. 


riTi R AHTis. In order that tln' structure may be shown by the 
punctuation, the comma, placed by the older editors (thr two 
Heinsii and Heynei, and removed by Forbiger. Thiel, Wagner 
iPraest.X and Kibbeck, should be restored. 

Implicat— winds rourul, twines round. See Kcjn. on 12. 743. 

213^ 217 ET— is'*u:vTrBr'i^l 



Awi'iKMs iviim,J'\t: us verso -1^, ami'Jj:xi i>tvju«.LNT; ViTi^f liOO, 
*'iimplexae tenoiu." 

Oia'isciTUR — feeds ainftj on. See Rem. on *'ilesaeviC 
4. 52 

SpMiis, — 6|Mra«.* nre not nieri'ly ioiis, \m\ sptrtti ro/i.'f — 
ti'iifiin^ upwanis. like those t\f ji forkserew lieki peint-upwanL 
See Gmry, 2. 158 & 154, where VirgiJ iufornis us, almost in 
expregs tei*ms. that a snake is in orbs (;*orbes'\f, while coiled 
npi'ii the groinul, but in jfpires ("spirae"i, when he raised him- 
self with a luotinn iwi^sting upwards. The same di^tineticm in 
nbsenable in the pas^ge before us, where the jjerpents are said 
to be in orbs while on the water, and in apirm when folded 
mnnd Laocoon. A right inulei^standing of thin wont ii^ the more 
ti&i-eiidHrv\ because it is the only word in the desicription, except 
^cnauXT UAWTn kt cebvjcibus altls, wUch shows that tlie 
poet so far agrees with the sculptor o^ to reprenent I^(K"oon and 
the ?terpenti* twined about him a^ forming an nrrf group. With 
a similar correct pi^nsion, our own Milton applieii the term 
$pirrs to tlie coik of the sei-pent when ereri, or raised uprH/hf, 
Gijiipare his Pfir, Lf^f^ 9, 49H: 

. . . "not witli iu(li?uted waive, 
prono OQ tlie grouniL afi sinne, but on ku» rt2ar« 

with ImmiAtieii oeck of renlacit irt*M. erect 
juitiil^e his drdin^ sptrvs." 

Tjeopanli, therefore (Ubr. Sec, del JTw.L its incorrect: 

« , « **e r tltra parte si fttnuiciiui 
rft4enilr> raoqua, e ii mntotve^ in nffirf 
gU SRiisarati dofsi ripi^gajido/' 

122 AENEIDEA [223-231 quaus— hastau 



QuALis MUGiTus . . . SECURIM. Comparc Dante, Tnferno., 12, 22: 

*'qual e quel toro che si slaccia in quella 
ch' ha ricevuto gi^ '1 coljK) raortale, 
che gir non sa, ma qua e 1^ saltella; 
vid' io lo Minotauro far cotale;" 

also Bocc, in Filos,: 

"non altiimcnti il toro va saltando 
qualora 11 mortal colpo ha ricevuto, 
dontro la foresta alto mugghiando 
ricerca il cacciator che T ha feruto.'* 


Hey lie, Wagner {PraestX Thiel, Forbiger. I rather agree with 

Peerlkamp: '^Qualis est mugitus tauri,^' Compare EcL 8, 8S: 

"talis amor Daphnim, qualis cum fessa iuvencum 
j)er nemora atque altos quaerendo bucula lucos 
proi)tor aquae livuni viridi pi*ocumbit in idva," 

quoted by Conington. 

Sub pi'n)iBus . . . teguntur. Compare Hygin. Fab, 88: 
''Ea compressione gladium de vagina ei extraxit Pelopia, et 
redieus in tempi urn sub airoi)odio Minerrae abscondit" [The 
awe in which the goddess was held rendered the place safe 
either as an asylum or as a place of concealment]. 

Tim VERO marks the production of the full effect The 
story of Sinon had moved them, but it was only the punishment 
of Laocoon which decided them: 

-831 UOaUS— lUITAMJ 




See Remm. ^m Am, 2. 105: 3, 47; 4, 398, 441), 57 L 

NovTs PAVoa — No\'TJS, new, i, e, new in kind, stmngo, such 
we had never before experienced; exactly as 5* 670, '^iiuviis 
JT," 3. 181 (where see Kem.i, ''novo errore;*' and 3. 591, 
*»oova forma viri/* 

ScEix*s EXPKXDtssE iiKRENTK^f, — '^ScKLUs, supplicinm," Ser- 
riusL "Merito Laocoontem punitum/' Ij\ Cerdn. "Sceu's: 
poena& meritas pro sceiero/' Heyne, Wagn. (ed. Heyn. and 
Awv*/.), Ladewig, Gesner. Btit liow is it possible for the same 
prd to have tlie two opposite meanioj^i^s, of wicked iinss and 
pnnit^hment of wickedness? Wliat kind of language was that 
Jn which two so opposite expreshiions as see his expend ere 
8 C e 1 e r u m p o e a a s e x p e n d e r e are n ot on ly eq u i \ alents, 
but used as such by the same author in the course of the same 
work^ the former in our text, the latter at 11, 258; nay, in which 
the one expression is cited by conimentatoi's as explanatory of 
thf 'tther? "Seel us expendere liat ,2:teiclie bedeutung init 
dem, 11. 258, gebraucijten ausdruck," Ladewii?. No; tlie scklus 
of our text is neither the wickedness of Laocoon, nor the punish- 
ment of tlie wickedness of Laoconn, but it is tlie wickeiinet?is of 
the punishment of Laocoon; not pocnns sr'cleris, hut tlio 
veiy point-bhmk opposite, s ce 1 u s p o e n a r u in. The onlookers 
do not say that Laocoon had sutTerecl (paid) punishment (ex- 
pondisse poenas). Poenas, the word ordinarily applied to 
all raanner of punishment— to the infliction of half-a-do2en lashe^^ 
of a week*s imprisonment no less than to banishment or death- 
had been too general, and theretV)re too weak a term feelingly 
to express what they had just seen befall Laocoon, It w^as not 
pre ordinar}" poenae they liad seen hlra suffer; it was some- 
bing far w^orse. Thf\v had seen him and his two sons devourHl 
alive by two great sea serpents: that shfjoked and horrified 
ibem, and tliey applied to it the strongest term they had at 
cooinmnd. the strongest term the author could put into his verse — 
?y adled it n scelus, Laocoon, they cried out, had deserved 
ie scKLCS he suffered (scklus t^xPEXDUssE mereatem). It w^as a 

124 AENEIDEA [223-231 qualis—hastam 

scELus, indeed, but well deserved by him 


It was but right that he should suffer a seel us (expkndisse 

scELus) who had himself committed a seel us (tehgo sceijsb- 

ATAM iNTORSERiT hastam). He who had with his "scelerata 

hasta" violated (laeserit), the sacrum robur had merited the 

SCELUS they had seen him suflfer. And so exactly, 7. 307: 

"quod seeliis aut Lapithas tantuin aut Calydona merentem'' 

(where we have the same seel us and the same merentem; 

"scelus" is not poenas scelerum, but scelus poenarum: and, 

the cases of the Lapithae and Calydon being the reverse of that 

of Laocoon, neither the Lapithae nor Calydon having committed 

a scelus to justify the scelus of their punishment, a scelus 

to justif\' their scelestas poenas, the question is triumphantly 

asked: what so great scelus (poenarum) had they merited? 

what scelus had they committed to justify the ''scelus" of 

their punishment?) Compare also Stat. Sfh\ 2. 1, 19: 

'•ipse ctenim tecum nigrae solennia pompao, 
spoctatumque urbi sreltt,'*, et puorili feretrum 
produxi, et saevos, damnati thuris accrvos, 
plorantomque aniinam supra sua fujiem vidi'' 

(where ''si*elus" is only the premature death of the innocent 
young man). How much more abominable, how much more 
detestable, how much more fitly termed scelus, the atrocious 
spectacle of Laocoon! of Laocoon the priest, along with his 
tAvo sons devoured alive by serpents, while he was in the very 
act of sacrificing. It was, if there ever was, a scelus (Scott, 
Lay of the for*/ Minstrel, 1, 4): 

•'deadly to hear and deadly to tell; 
Jesul Maria! shield us well." 

For another example of the application of the term scelus to 
an awful spectacle, see Stat. Theb. 10, 546: 

''lora excussa manu, retroque in terga volutus, 
semianimos artus ocreis retinentibus haeret; 
mirandum visu belli scelus! arma trahuntur, 
fumantesque rotae tellurera, et tertius hastae 
sulcus arant" 

-^43 i»i\%^i>fjii£rf1 

BOOK 11 


90) pare also VaL Flaec. 2. 294 (Hypsipyle speakini^): 
**solv[mus heu! soniin Fudis sf^elusY' 

jn<»t pounas scelcrum, but siTlostas poonas|: and Stat 
AVVr. 2. 17B (i>f the furnM-al of the favourite of Molior): 

. , . ''(ilebs tmncta «#•/>!*, et |>movia fierunt 

in, the i^colus, the iiffas, tbijt so young aiifl amialili* a 
pei^on i^bcmld have dit'tl|. Soe Renini. od 2. 576; 5. 7H3. 
Sac*«uu , , . NvsTAAL Compare Coleridge, Anc, Mai\: 

**is it lie? fjuotli oiio. Is tliis the man"? 
liy him who died on cross, 
witli his cruel bow he laid full Inw 
thf harmless idbatross/" 

CtciirM gri cttspmE hobik lakskrit, tbonie; tergo\taiii 

234 24:i 


iDfVimilLTS IICROH, ET MUENIA PANDLMrS URBIS. ll! nidor tO lllldor- 

>iliilicl tlie picture here presented, it must be borne in mind that 
tlie gjitosi of ancient citit^s were very small, little larger than our 
loudeni doors; and tliat tlie walls, whiclj were hl^h^ were *'arrie(l 

126 AfiNElDBA [234-243 mv.—boARift 

across over the gates, so that there was no division of the wall, 
but only a hole or opening in the undivided wall, where the 
gate stood. By the expression dividimus muros. therefore, we 
are to understand that the Trojans enlarged the gate so as to 
make a complete division of the wall, viz., by breaking down 
that part of the wall over, the gate on which the continuity of 
the wall depended. It appears from Plant. Baeckid, 953 (ed. 
Ritschl), that the breaking down of th^ wall over the Scaean 
gate was one of the three "fata" of Troy: 

"llio tria fuisse audivi faiay quae illi faere exitio: 
signum ex arce si perisset; alteram autemst Troili mors; 
tertium, quum portae Phrygiae limen superom scinderetur." 

It is, no doubt, in tacit reference to this prophecy that our 
author dwells so emphatically on the breaking down of the wall : 


Compare the similar tacit reference to another (fourth) fat urn 
of Troy, in the words {Aen, L 476): 

. . . ''priusquam 
pabula gustassent Troiae Xanthumque bibissent." 

Dividimus muros and moexia paxdimus are not two distinct acts, 
but one act and its consequence — "we breach the walls, and 
by so doing open the fortifications of the city, leave the city 
unprotected and exposed to the enemy " — and this in a double 
sense, because not only is an opening made through which the 
enemy may enter, but the city is deprived of the charm or talis- 
man which it had possessed in the continuity of its enclosure. 
In Statius's account of the equestrian statue of Domitian 
{Silv. 1. 7), not only is this same fatum of Troy alluded to, 
but, in words which are a manifest copy of our author's, a 
similar stress is laid upon the division of the wall: 

^^hunc nequo dini^is cepissent Pergama muris.'* 

AcciNGUNT . . . GAUDENT. — Man is essentially the same in 
all ages and countries. With this reception of, these divine 
honoui-s paid to, the wooden hoi-se, compare the account given 
by Anna Haniette Leonowens in her work, "The English 

-S43 uiv, — r>i;T»Kiuc] 



kniess at the Siamese Court'' (Tnibn©r and Oompftny, 
Londof]* 1870). ch. 16, uf the conveyance of tlje siicred whiti^ 
elepbmnt to Btui^kok, the capital of Siam: ''Thus in morn rhan 
prioceljF state he m floated down tlie river (Meinani| to a point 
wtthiD «t?vent)" miles of the capital, where the king and him 
court, all the chief personages of the kin/srdom, and a multitude 
of priests^ buth Buddhist and Brahmiiu accompanied by troopn 
of pluyers and tDu^icians, come out to meet him, and conduct 
him witli all the honouri^; to his stablf>palaee. A gT»*at ntimhi»r 
of cord*? and ropes of all qualities and lengths are attacht^l to 
tbe raft, those in the centre b<>ing of fine tiilk. These are for 
the king and his noble retinue, who, witli their own handa. 
mike tfaem fi^ ti> tfadr gilded bulges; die rest are seeufed to 
the great fleet of leeaer htm^ and no with ahHita of jojr, 
beating of drums, blaie of tniiD|Mi, boon of eamioo, a 
haHetnjah of mtsie, and TaiiQfia qileodid i^reliy, the great 
Qmig Phounk (while ciepliantj ia coodaeled in triimph In the 

titerallf ^ ^W 

up ffff 

the $eort^ but sei iifmtfirf$ in ike 

9. 71 

[not, nf eooise, emgiri mii dark iardkf, bat m f 
armed triik dmrt $9 nk tm, harmg dark lordbfif tjw 

SrcFFaA tkcixji emiM u rt aainji . — In «ynler to ym U t 
la if it were a ^fai^ Cocapate Eiirip. Troad. ' hit 

dnwiiig Qp Iff the hiKie with ropea iaio tim tsim^i^: 

Abo As 


flNi %mffHtfft 

ifmtiffmf U 

128 AENBIDEA [234-243 div.— i»M>RRil 

Heyne, Forbiger, and Thiel inform us without doubt or 
hesitation, that intexdunt is here elegantly used c'exquisitius") 
in place of illigant, innoctunt; and this is the meaning 
whicii lias been adopted by all the translatoi-s, as \. ell as by For- 
cellini in his Dictionary. I dissent, however, on two grounds: 
(a), because there* is not only no instance of intendere being 
used in this sense, but no instance of its being used in any sense 
bordering on, or at all related to, this sense; and (6), beciiuse 
tlie strict interpretation of intknduxt (viz., stretch or ejrtend) 
affords an unobjectionable meaning of the passage: they sttrtch 
ropes to tM fieck; prosaically, throw ropes over the neck. Cora- 
pare 5. 136: ''intentaque brachia remis," where see Rem. This 
meaning is not only unobjectionable in itself, but preferable to 
the former, inasmuch as it was easier to throw a rope over the 
neck than to tie or fasten it at so great a height. 

The idea of stretching, or extension, will, I think, be found 
to enter into all the significations, whether literal or metaphor- 
ical, of intendere. 

CoLix). — "In coLix) noli argutare; cum fune ex eo nexo 
train equus vix commode posset, intellige simpl. funem ex ante- 
riore parte aptum,'' Heyne; who seems not to have perceived 
how useful the rope round the neck would be, not alone for 
steadying and preventing the horse from toppling over to one 
side, but for drawing it up into the city, viz., over tlie broken 
down foi-tifications (scandit mukos, verse 237). See Quint. 
Smyrn. 12. 422: 

. . . uytitiUf.iti'oi (f* ami iiavits:, 
attntif tiU(ff,i(c).ot'T() '/oojs TH-oiutjxyl' ititio), 
Sijanuit'fH y. a // vn t o // 1 r, fun nu oi f rj/Z/o^- Knna^ 
;ioo(Jii' vjio fimtiooiaiv t-vroo/u Soiotaa 'hjXfv, 
otfotc xhv uiUfOKfti' t-nt nroXitihfiOv tnt^Ttci, 
tXxoutvo*; T{)b}iav vno /etftfotv 

where Aad^v/teqtHv answers exactly to our author's collo. 


etiam mens Donati haec: suhit [machina] et n.LABiTLTR, et, 
nondum ingressa, adhuc etiam in porta hncrelmf; nam infra, 
QUATER IPSO IX LIMINE PORTA E sijjjsTiTiT; laui modiac urbi 
minari videbatur,'' Ix^maire. This is all, and in every respect, 


BOOK n. 

erroneons: quater ipso in limke portajs substitit, altlioiigh in 
position it comes after mikans d^labitur, is previous to it in the 
order of time ^see Rr3m,); and media k ctrbi depends, as rightly 
observed by Heyne^ not on minaxs, but on illabituh. 

MiNAXs. — Servius's fii-st explanation, '^eminens'" (high mid 
towering), is correct Serv^iiis's second explanation, '^ininitans"^ 
especially as explained in some editions by the further g\oss^ 
**eventum aliquem malum ominans'' — is incorrect. The horse^ 
if **minitans'* at all, was ^'minitans'- only in the sense in 
irliich all tall towering objects are minitantia, viz,, in the 
asc of awe'tmptring (see Remm. un 1. 166; 2. 628: 4. 88; 
8. 668). Boileau's reprehension of our author therefore (Meflex. 
Oil, 11: "II ne se contente pas do preter de la co!i*rc a cet 
arbre [where has our autlior been guDty even of this min^jr 
offence?], mais il lui foit faire des menaces a ces laboureurs'') 
&Ils to the ground harmless, or harming only the critic 

PATiuA . , . DARDANintTM. — ^^Versus Ennianus," Serving. 
On which comment of Servius, Heyue observes; *'Scilicet in 
rerbis: '0 pater, patria, Priami domus*!'' The original 
of both apostrophes is no doubt that most touching apostrophe 
of Oedipus, Soph. OeiL T. 1394: 

loytO 71 (lift tit (Fi(U««i^, OlOV ftf) (f4f 

tho parental relationship of which passage to our text is declai'ed 
and made plain not merely by the resemblance between the two 
apostrophes, but by the similarity of the reflections which 
gave rise to them — the reflection, in the case of Oedipus, that he 
wau himself a xaA?.oc ytaMav i/fovhw to his country; in the 
case of Aeneas, that the wooden horse was a yutllog yta'Amv 
vf^vXov to Troy, a fair outside pregnant within with riestruc- 


simsTmT, Atquic utsso soNrruM quatkb aiima j>kd£ke. 


130 AliNBllDEA [246-247 tunc— Wucate 



Tunc etum.— Etiam has been understood by some commenta- 
tors to connect the sentence to which it belongs, viz., tunc fatis 
APERiT CASSANDRA FUTURIS, with the preceding context, so as to 
afford the sense: bedsides all the warnings we had had not to do as 
we were doing , we had the additional warning of Cassa/ndra; 
Ca^ssandra also raised lier warning voice, ''Etiam: not, then as 
often before; but, besides our other warnings," says Gonington. 
''Etiam ei vocabulo, quod ecferendum sit, postponi satis con- 
stat (Fabr. ad Liv. 21. 1. 5), sed apparet h, I. non tam tempos 
illud ecferendum esse quani vaticinia Cassandrae ad ea quae, 
versu 242, commcmorata sunt omina accessisse, nee tamen 
magis quam ilia Troianos ab temeraria laetitia ad sanam 
menteni ti-aduxisso,'' says Dietsch (Th^^olog, p. 22) — both of 
them combating the opinion adopted by Heyne and Gossrau, 
as well as by Forbiger, from Servius, viz., that tunc etiam 
is equivalent to etiam tunc ("Tunc etlvm int. pro etiam 
tunc, alias languet," Heyne. "Sicut antehac saepius,'* 
Gossrau. '^Sicut antea iam saepius," Forbiger} — an opinion 
as correct and well-founded as that of its impugners is ill- 
founded and incorrect. The vaticination of Cassandra is not an 
omen ; is not, like the three sudden baitings of the horse in the 
Scaean gate, a warning not to proceed with their blind act: the 
act has been drcady accomplished; the omens— that of the hollow 
sound returned by the wood to the spear, that of the punishment 
of Laocoon, and that of the three baitings of the horse in the 
Scaean gate — have all alike failed to deter the Trojans from 
carrying their fatal determination into effect, and they have 
actually placed the horse in the citadel: 


Omens are now too late; the act has been ali-eady done, and 

S46-247 Trx< — Trf r Rjs] 

BOOK 11. 


Cnsi>4*iHira ij^iiivs ber mouthy ttkc etiam, tlion also (/. c. then, as 
so i>ftt*n U^fore: ''Sicut antehac saepius, nam Helena ventente 
pniedixerat fiitura bella et mala,'* Servius (ed. IJun)), nut to 
add an orncn^ r>r to increase the effects of the preceding omens, 
but ti» inform thr Tiitjans in inspired, but as usual wholly dis- 
believed wiirds, uf tlieir impending: ruin, fatis flttcris* It is as 
if our author had said: ^'We place the unlucky monster in the 
citadel, on which occasion, as on so many pi'evions ones, Gas- 
Hdra annnuni:es uur impending ruin; we nevertheless, who 
never to see another day, put as little faith as evej' in her 
word^ and deck all our temples out with w^reaths of rejoicing 
and thanksgiving/' 

If it be fibjected to the preceding interpretation that it leaves 
sentence unconnected i>y any particle with the preceding, I 
ask, in reply, whei'e is the partich? which connects the sueceetl- 
ing sentence with this? 

Ora. — fjet tis see if there be anything in the pnsitii^n <m- cir- 
cumstances of tliis word to raise a suspicion that it is of somewhat 
more weight than c4>ramonly supposed; that it is something more 
than a mere supplement for the purpose of making up with 
Ai^KKiT the simple sense hrmks .sifrncr, spcah. Firsts it is the 
frii( WMrd in the line. Now, a word placed in this position is 
advantageously placed fur the reception of an emphasis from the 
raico of the reader or reciter. If the line be the first line of the 
sentence, on account uf the nntiiral impetus with which the 
mind sets out un any undertaking; If tlie line be not the first 
line. Its in the present instance it is not, then on account of the 
I rise in the voice which naturally follows the fall and accompany- 
ing pause at the close ef tlie immediately preceding Line. But 
[ OK4 18 not ah)ne the first word of its own line; it is also the last 
'Word of it>i own sentence-^ and separated from all the succeeding 
[eontoxt by a pause. Roth these circumstances render it still 
more marketL Being the last word of its own sentence, the 
Ipreceding words of the sentence lead to it^ prepare lioth the 
[voice of the speaker and the minrl nf the hearer for it; and, be- 
in^ separated from the succeeding context by a pause, the voice 
fof the speaker and the attention of tlie hearer arc prevented from 

132 AENEIDEA [246-247 tunc— ratjcafc 

hurrying ofif from it to the next word. We would expect a 
priori that a word placed in this situation should be an import- 
ant word; and, on examining the words which Virgil has placed 
in similar situations, we find that they are always important — 
ex. gr,, 2. 13, "incipiam;" 5. 480, "arduus;" 5 319, "eraicat;" 
8. 672, ^'aurea;'' 12. 340, ^^sanguineos;" 1. 153, "seditio;" 
8. 562, "stravi." In some instances-— as, ex, gr., the two last 
cited— it will even be found that the single word so placed has 
more weight and importance than the whole of the rest of the 
verse; nay, that this whole rest of the verse is a mere illustration 
{erUhiteimng) of that single word. Considered according to these 
principles, ora should be an important word— not merely the 
supplement to aperit, but the subject of the whole remainder of 
the line — credita agreeing with it and not with Cassandra. 
The inference is confirmed by Ovid, Met. 15. 74: 

. . . "primus quoque talibus ora 
docta quidem solvit, sed Don et credita, verbis,"* 

where, the person spoken of being masculine, "credita" roust 
agree with ''ora" even although the position of "ora" does not 
indicate such agreement. Compare also (a), Aeri. 10. 822: 
'•'■ora modis ADchisiades ])aIlontia miris," 

the "ora pallentia" of which corresponds exactly with the ora 
CREDITA of our tcxt. (6), 9. 181: 

''''ora puer prima signans intoosa iuventa," 
where not only do "ora" and "intonsa" occupy the precise po- 

* Gossrau is do doubt at libori;y — who shall cripple the commentator*8 
liberty, or clip the free wings of thought?— to understand the "credita" of 
this passage, not as accusative plural and belonging to "ora," but as 
nominative singular belonging to some unspecified unknown feminine subject; 
nay, is at liberty to draw such argument as he can fix>m the Ovidian 
passage so understood in favour of his (the received) interpretation of the 
Virgilian text, and to insist as much as he pleases, first that Ovid's "credita" 
is feminine and singular, and then that Virgil's credita must therefore be 
feminine and singular: but he is not at liberty to leave out of his Ovidian 
parallol all that part of it which impugns and disproves his own statement, 
and etablishes that of his adveraary— is not at liberty to quote Ovid as saying: 

. . . "ora 
docta quidem solvit, sed non est credita rerbis," 

ild— 947 TUWT*-TlUfTOS] 



sitioos of ORA and credita in our text, but where wb havt^ the 
atitire line cast in the same mould at;, arij havinpf tht* prwiso 
ieoce of, our text (ct, Ovid, Met, UK 209: '*vt?ro . . . Apol- 
linis ori?/' (if), ApuL De deo Soeraf. Id: "^increditn vatirinia 
CossaDdrae/' Add to all which \e\ tlie quotatiuu by Nonitia of 
the verse, 

DBA nrr fcssu yotr uyguAai cbrdita TKtTCRia, 

without either cassakdra or other part of the preceding rem^ 
18 a more thau sufBcient balance for Iscaniu8*a (6, 894): 

*'at regiua g**mea§, et nnnqtmm credita Tttieru^ 
Cemasiam Cagsattdra petit,'* 

In like manner, *'Troia/* L 253, considered Jiccording to theio 
principles, is an important word embracing nut mertdy tlio near 
**lltim'' but the distant "nornen'' (see Bern, on 1* 253). '^Trowi^' 

, 1. 34, is an import aai word, the subject not merely of 
preceding **iactatoei aeqiiore toto'' but of the <iucce<*ding 
*reUquias Danaum atqne immitis Acbillet,'' sla if Virgil had 

I: these famous TrO}ijia, thf^ subject ad aniy of the Uiad| 
But of the whole of the folloiring poeoi. Oiring to thii po^itirJii, 
AfiictLs, alone, 1. 90, ltai» a wei^t equal to that of Eurua aod 
Xoiua, in the preceding line, takeo togetter. Compare 2. 41^| 
where "^fiurufi equk/^ owiog to its auttQar poMtioo, poaicsiiei a 

while m poiet of £ict v^ai Oril ufi m: 

Th^ ttOM eooMMnlilor it it ISbeaTi to 
ol Ovjil*! {FaaL 4, MT) ^oM faliM 
wmp^. that tht cKBcr A ^ ^m^ m 
if bo cm th«t Orii^i -€3«6ta'' 
bWrty to oouft tt^m 1^ Otttoa 
sub}*^t *i>f ^Thrill** *^< 

ftelMiarfhi '^aviilliii' 





; -}^'fwm§m 4kmmfm 

mA wm 01 Moito ^4. 3t^ ff^. 74; 

134 AENEIDEA [246-247 tunc— ieugris 

similar weight. Sari)edon 1. 104, the son of Jove, has as 
honourable mention as Hector, though Hector is the first 
named; and the single "Spartanae," 1. 320, without further help 
or adjunct, is a balance for the ''Threissa Harpalyce," though 
the latter is in possession of nearly two whole lines. So also the 
voice and sense delight to dwell on the long slow word "con- 
spexere,'' 1. 156, for which the attention has been prepared by 
the preceding '^pietate gravem ac meritis si forte virum quern;" 
on '^solabar,'* 1. 243; on ^^Teucrorum/' 1. 252, correlative to 
"Troia" in the next line, as if Virgil had said ''^ of his fAntenor's) 
Teucri;'' on ^'prodimnr,'' 1. 256, explained by the whole re- 
mainder of the line; on ''vultu," 1. 259, also explained by the 
remainder of the line; on '^Romanos," 1. 286, also explained 
by the whole remainder of the line: on '^iactemur," 1. 336, ex- 
plained by remainder of the line and following line; on "nu- 
davit," 1. 360, explained by the wiiole remainder of the line; 
on "thesauros," 1. 363, item; on '^suspirans,'' 1. 375, item; on 
"regia,'' 8. 242, item: also on "spiravere," 1. 408; "imniinet," 
1. 424; ^^condebat,'' 1. 451; "suppliciter," 1. 485 (does not 
the reader's oar rebel against the union of this word with 
'^tristes"?). And need I do more than point with the finger 
to "bellatrix,'' 1. 497: ^4nccssit,'' 1. 501; ^Slispulerat,'* 1. 516; 
"ardebant," 1. 519: "oramus,*' 1. 529; ^^aetherea," 1. 551; 
'*arvaque,'' 1. 554: "purpureum,'' 1. 595; ^'argentum,'' 
1. 597; "Troianae," 1. 628: "iactatam," 1. 633; ^'munera/' 
1. 640; 'Mnstruitur," 1. 642; ^^consilia,'' 1. 662; '-vocibus,'' 
1. 675: "irrigat,'' 1. 696; "conveniunt,'' 1. 704: "expediunt," 
1. 706; "convenere/' 1. 712; ''Vhoenissa," 1. 718; "haeret," 
1. 722; "incipit," 1. 725; 'Miiberai,'' 1. 750; ''insidias," 
1. 758? 

It would be an affront to the reader's good sense to ac- 
company him in this numncr through the other books, but I 
must not pass by unnoticed the eminently emphatic position 
of '^\rgolica," 2. 119 — lasf nonl both of the sentence to which 
it belongs and of the wiiole oracle: prepared for as well by 
the repeated '^sanguine'' of the preceding verse as by the whole 
of that verse, especially by the awful words "animaque litan- 

216—247 nwr— TTUCRis] 

BOOK n. 


dura:'* while at the same time it is first word of its own vei'se, 
unci separated from the sequel not merely by a full pause but 
bj the change of the speaker, Nor is the whole of our author's 
art exhausted when he has placed the word in this emphatic 
|>ositiou. He can render the word still more emphatic, double 
^its emphasis, either by making it tlie repetition of a former 
word, as *4umina,'' 2. 406; ''Crethea," 9. 775; ''Misenum," 
6. 164; ^^ora," 10. «22: ^^Parthus;* 12. 858; ^^uni/* 10, 692; 
*'Gallo/* EcL 10. 72 (compare '4bimus,'' repeated with such 
extraordinary effect by Statins, Sit v. 2. L 21% or by entirely 
cutting off its connoxioa with the subsequent context by means 
uf a full and sudden stop, as 'Mneipiam/' 2. 13; ''effera/' 
a 6; ^MmpiditV* 8. 239; ^vhorrisuno;' 9, 55; ^^terribilisr 12. 947; 
^^diTiditr 12. 45; "suseipiunt;^ 11. 806; ^^substiterat," 11. 
609; ^^desiluit;' IL 500; ^'buccina," 11. 475; ^^deTovi;' 
11. 442; '^liximus," 10, 862; "Tydides;^ 10. 29; -femina," 
4. 570; ''respice," 4. 275; ''debentor," 4. 276; ^'deseruere,'' 
3, 618; and Horn. 77. L 51: 

iiVfUQ (TJiiT fiVToim (it log *;jf*;r#t^af€i' €tfiH^, 

where iialX\ being but one singfle syllable, is even mom emphatic 
than any of Virgilian examples. And who is there will dis- 
pute with me tiiat it was not by mei-e accident^ but by artistic 
design, that Euripides [Hrpp. 312, ed. Stokes) placed precisely 
in this position — yIz,^ last word of the nui^e's long address, and 
at the same time first woitl of a new lim% with every word of 
seveml preceding lines pointing directly to it^tbat fatal tc:co- 
hrtov which, like the last turn of rlio torturer^s vice, wrung 
from Phaedra her Hi'st groan of confessiun, tfiat never enough 
to be admired oifioi? 

NtTU, ft it riji' mmoatty iitniuv JunCoPU, 
ij emg Ttxrotm Sfanorr^v i^yftvttto 

i It noX vt or. 

PUAKH. Otilot. 

Where even in our own Shakespearo is there an et^utd anutiuit of 

136 AENEIDEA [246-247 nmc— titjcm 

dramatic efifect within an equal compass, and how much of this 
efifect is owing to the mere position of the word I/rnokv^ov? 

The reader will of himself understand that all that has just 
been said respecting single words is no less applicable to a word 
which is not absolutely the first in the line, but preceded by a 
short connecting link (see Rom. on "fugis," 4. 314), for instance, 
"et ferit," 12. 730; or to a phrase consisting of two or even 
three words intimately bound together, as "it lacrymans,'* "ossa 
tremor/' ''intemerata colit pelagi rupes" (where we hare not 
only the position, but the reduplication), "voce vocat," "bella 

In Leopardi's translation of the passage: 

*'allor, rolente il Dio, Cassandra il labbro 
non mai creduta apre al futuro," 

there is not only the usual error, the connexion of Cassandra 
with CREDiTA, but the still more unpardonable one, that of the 
junction of dei iussu with aperit. 

Oka . . . CREDITA. Compare the somewhat similar applica- 
tion of "crodula" to "ora" by Prudent. Cafhem. 3. 48: 

'^piscis item sequitur calamum, 
raptus acumino \'ulnifico, 
crcdula saucius ora cibo;" 

also the '^ora uescia" of the same author, where the face is 
said not to know, by the same figure by which in our text 
the mouth is said not to be believed {Met, 4. 329): 

. . . "pueri rubor ora notavit 
nescia quid sit amor." 

The above interpretation, never entirely without advocates — 
for [first proposed by Servius as an alternative ("CREDrrA: 
dubiuni a (^uo verbo veniat, et an femininum singulare sit parti- 
cij)iun) an neutrum plurale"), and afterwards adopted by J. H. 
Yoss in his translation, 

'•jetzo ontschliosst aiich Kassandra den mund aDnaheudem schicksal, 
der, auf des gottes gebot, nio sprach, das glaubten dio Teucrer"] 

It was three several times discussed by myself, and established 

-256 RVIT— LUSJUj 



not oiily oD particular, but on g^enernl ;2^roiiD(l» — ^(see '* Twelve 
Yoais^ Voyage," ls53; ^^Jahrb. ftir Phii;' t)8, p. 509; and 
"'Adverearia Virgiliana," CruttLngen PhiI*.»logiis, bd, 11, 1856)— 
found, nevertheless, hot slow and partial acceptance with Yir- 
Jian students, until by some happy chan<;e not the interpreta- 
Tiou only, but the very Ovidiau parutlel with which I had estab- 
lished, it made their appearance iu Wagner's Virgil, Carm. ed, 
min. 1861 (no word of either in any of Wagners pr»i'inous edi- 
tions u and being, as usuni with the inteqiretations of that work- 
no, no I put forward, tfod forbid! but — mistaken for the editor's 
owiu cREDrTA Came forthwith to be joined to ora, at least in 
ail the gymnasia iu Germany. 

Festa rEL.uii"s FROXDE. - Velami s (very nnperfectly rendered 
by Thiel, "ornamus''; by Surrey, "deck") means io ret/, i. e., 
to cov^r in mich a manner, or to such an extent, m to hide 
from view; and thus denotes the profiunon of green boughs used. 
Compare Acn, 3, 25: ramis tegerem ut frondentibus aras." 


Bcrr — Luy ae 

Inasmuch as the ancients always represented night as following 
the ciMirse of the sun, /. e., as rising in the east, traversing the 
sky, and descending or sitting in the west (see Stat. Theb, 2, 61; 
Virg. Aen. 2, 8, and Remra.; 3. 5I2u the words ruit oceaxo 
sojLf applied to the commencement of night, are to be under- 
slood* not as presenting us viith the ordinary English image, of 
night futtinff on the ocean, but as presenting us with the directly 
reverse image^ of pers»>nified night rising (rushing) from the 
octtm. So Dante {II Ptirgat, 2, /), pWlosophically, and following 
the ancient model; 

138 AENBIDEA [250-266 rott— lukai 

"gi4 ora *1 sole all' orizzonte giunto, 
lo ciii meridian cerchio coverchia 
lorusalein col suo piu alto punto: 
e /a iiotte rh' opposita a lui cerchia 
tiscia di Gafige fiwr.'* 

And Shelley (Prometheus Unboimdy act 1, sc. 1): 

"and yet to me welcome is day and night; 
whether one breaks the hoarfrost of the mom, 
or starry, dim, and slow the other climbs 
the leaden-coloured east" 

And Schiller C'Der abend"): 

"an dom himmel herauf mit leisen schritten 
konimt die duftende nachty 

If it be doubted that mere can express motion upwards 
toward the sky, I beg to refer to Georg. 2. 308: 

. . . "rMi7 atram 
ad caelum picea crassus caligine nubem;'* 

and to Aen. 10, 256, where the rising of the day is described 
by the very same term: 

. . . "revoluta rnebat 
niatnra iain luce dies noctonique fugarat." 

See also Rem. on Aen. 1. 749. 

Leopardi has fallen into the vulgar error: 

. . . '41 ciel fra tanto 
si cangia, e notte a V ocedn rtiinoy 
in grande ombra avvolgendo e terra e polo," &c. 

Fusi PEii MOENiA TEucm coxTicuERE. — ''Dispersi per urbem," 
Forbiger. No; Frsi is not dispersi^ but, as rigiitly interpreted 
by Forbiger himself at Aen. 1. 218, "pro strati, hin^estrecki.'' 
Compare Stat. 5//?;. 1. 2. 59: "fusa iacet stratis," and see Rem. 
on Aen. 1. 218. 

Tacitae per AMIGA sn.nNTiA LUNAE. Tho silcncc (I. e.y silent 
time) of the night was favourable to the descent of the Grecians, 
there being no one in the way to observe their motions. 
The moon is called tacit, because she does not tell — does not 
blab— says nothing about what she sees. In other words, and 
connecting the two terms silentia and tacitaj:, nobody sees theni 

SJ54>— 260 f LAMMAS — KQtriTF] 



but the moon, and she does not ieU ivhnt fthe sees^does not 
Mrmj, Compare Tibull. iOtl Aiiist 1708), 1. 7. 5: 

. . . *4am Delia fartim 
ncscio qnem tncita oallida nocte fovet" 

Alsu IhhL l. 7. 12: 

'^carditie nmi« tatito verk»re posse fores," 

That siu:ntu ixkae does not mean the inter! mu urn, bur \\w 
time when the mouii wm actually shining, appears from Stat. 
Theh. 2, 58: 

''inde \m Arctmnim mrdiarqyiQ Hikf^iia Imuta 
ana super populosque meat/' 

TaHTAE per AlUCA SILEXTIA LUXAE helunjL^S not hi rtTh^S 

but to tBAT, and is, therefore, to be placed (with IX Heins., N, 
Ueinsw, Heyne, and Ribbeck) between two commas, not (with 
^Wagner, ed, Heyn- and PraeM,\ to be thrown by tlic expnnction 
of the eonnna after lfxae entirely to petens. To place the 
woitJs befoi*e LinoRA xoTA PETExs Hs forming part of the same 
eUiise is to make them emphatic. Being unemphatic, and merely 
heightening and completing the picture, they come in with 
propriety only in the second place, i, t\ after, not before, the 
rd descriptive of action. 



yLAKiLij$ grrn nvrrix rupius extulkhat.— **Intel!igenduni est 
, Agmnenini»nem sig^nii Stnoni dedisse vciiiendi^ sublata face/' 
'Kerviuti, Vosis, Wa^n, (1801). '*Fax subhita, ni^num profectionis, 
e nave pnietoria/' Heyne, It bein^ unual, when a tleet wan to 
smi by iiijsrht^ for a light to bo hotftted on the admimrn ship, or 
wbateTer sbip was to take the lead, as the signal for sailing 
(see Liry, 25). 25: "^Lumina in navibos ningtila rostrataa, bina 

140 AENEJDEA [266-260 flamicas— iQinrB 

onerariae haberent: m praetaria Jinve insigne noctumum trium 

luininum fore.'' Stat. Achill 1. 33: 

"ecce novam Piiamo, facibus de puppe levatia, 
fert BelloDa nurum), 

aud there being no mention at all of Sinon in our tjext, but 
only of the light hoisted on the admiral's sliip, and the sailing 
of the fleet as soon as the light is hoisted, there seems no ground 
whatever for the assumption that the light was other than the 
usual signal for sailing. I therefore agree with Heyne against 
Servius, Yoss, and Wagner, and find in the following words of 
Servius's as usual confused and contradictory gloss a confirma- 
tion of my opinion: ''More militiae, ut (3. 519) 'dat clarum e 
puppi signum'" — equivalent to saying: a signal for sailing. 

ExTULERAT. — Effcrrc being the verb employed in Roman 
military tactics (see Liv. 10. 19; 40. 28) to express the raising 
of the standard, and the carr\^ing it forward out of the camp 
against the enemy, there can, I think, be little doubt that there 
is here a tacit comparison of the personified rboia puppis raising 
its signal flame, and followed by the arqiva phalanx msTRacns 
XAvmus, to the standard-bearer of an army raising the standard, 
and followed by the soldiers to battle. 

The practice of the admiral's ship carrying a light by night 
for the guidance of the other vessels of the fleet, having come 
down to more modem times, is thus humorously alluded to by 
Shakespeare, Henry 4, part 1, act 3, sc. 3 (Falstafif to Bardolph): 
"Thou art our admiral; thou bearest the lantern in the poop, — 
but 'tis in tlie nose of thee." 

Lnclusos . . . siNox. — Claustra, not the closed doors or vents, 
but the enclosure itself, tlie chiostri. 

PiNEA claustra Tcpeats and explains utero, and is substan- 
tially a variation of that theme, although - there being only one 
verb for the two clauses — the form is less strictly that which I 
have so often designated theme and variation. The picture of 
tlie enclosure, the chiostri, presented in utero, and repeated in 
piN'EA CLAUSTRA, is again repeated in the very next breath: 
stantially a variation of pinea claustra as pu^ea claustra has 

263 I'HiMusQUK mageaon] book II. ^^^^" i4l 

been of utero, and as cavo robore in the same verse is of 


Laxat » , . KQmia — Compare *'Impnlit in latus: ac venti,'* 
&c, Aefi, I, 66f and Rem. Laxat is simply opepw: m StRt, 
Theb. 10, 550 (of Ganymede's dogs): 

, . . *^frustraquo sonantia htj-ant 
om e^ines umbranniuo petunt et nubila latraat/' 

Stat Tfi^b, 2. 128: 


liellji cupit, /flLro/que gonns, ei temperat ungues J' 



^^Pmiirs: aut princeps (inter primes, aut arte primus) aiit nu- 

meri soi, nam per temos divisit,'' Servius. '*Qui primus aut 

inter primus egressiis est,'* Heyne, ^'Molestura h, L primus: 

interim amplector Heynii explicatiunera: 'qui primus aut inter 

primes egressus est;' quanquam fateor, ita nescio quid exile 

inferri orationi,*' Wagner {Qurtest. Vin/. 28. 5, and Prar^i,). I 

understand primus here to mean nut whu was the first to come 

out of the horse, but who took the principal part in the business, 

who regulated and directed the movement of the party^ o a^ia- 

tiVioVf as if he had said: '*and especially Mnchaonj" or: ^*fore- 

mostf most prominent of them all^ Machaon.'' Compare («), 

Sa. 7. 85: 

"bcg oon ot proprio veoerantur Pidlada dono^ 
Phoebumque, armigeruiiKiue deum^ prima ffn\vLC! Bionem/' 

wbei« the meaninj^ is not Dlonc first in order, or thni worshipprd 
J/iofie firs t; but THonr of most a ttd in h ( r tpa I eo n,seq u entCy pa id ch ief 
and special honour to Diune, viz.* as mother uf Aeneas and best 
friend and protectress of Rome^ — ^'Aeneadura nutrix/* (6), verse 
S2, above: '■'primusque Thymoetes" — Thymoetcs, not the first in 

142 AENEIDEA [263 primusque machaon 

order, but tlie principal person, the person who takes the lead, 
management, or initiative — and observe how exactly parallel the 
two passages are in structure, in location in the line, even in the 
connecting particle que, no less than in the sense. Observe 
also how both passages stand in exactly similar relation to the 
horse, one of them refemng to the party outside, and the other 
referring to the party coming out. Compare also (c), 8. 6: 
"ductores primi.'' where sec Rem. (d), Lucr. 1. 85: 

"Aulide quo pacto Trivial virginis aram 
Iphiaoassaeo tur})aruut sanguino focdo 
ductoros Danaum delectei prima virorum" 

[principal among men, fii-st and foremost among men], (c), 

2. 612: 

. . . "hie luno Scaeas sacvissima portas 
prima tenet" 

(where "prima'' can moan nothing else than principal person, 
taking chief part in tlie assault and occupation of the gate, 
directing the party). (/), 10. 241: 

. . . "Aurora socios vcniente vocari 
primus in arma iubo" 

[taking the initiative, setting yourself at the head of the move- 
ment], (fif), Sil. 2. 579: 

"fania dehiuc glisconte sono iam sidera adibat, 
iam niaria ct terras jn-imaniquQ intraverat urliem" 

[the city more than all, the city specially]. Whoever last got 
into the horse was likely, from the necessity of position, to be 
the first to get out. Now, the last who got in was not Machaon, 
but Epeus (Tryphiodorus, 179): 

. . . VOTUTOi; CCVTl 

Epeus therefore, not Machaon, was likely to bo the first who 
got out Compare also (70, Capitolin. Vita Mctxim, lunioris, 
1: "Literis et Graecis et Latinis imbutus ad priniam discip- 
linam," where Salmasius: "'Prima disciplina' hie non est quae 
pueris incipientibus traditur, sed praecipua. ... Sic ^primam 
doctrinam' dixit supra Spartianus; sic 'primum amatorem' 
pro 'praecipuum et egregium amatorem'; sic etiam 'prime 


fiOOK II, 


Ijarinis' pro '^regie': ui ^prinie proba/ apiid Naevium in 

^Aoontizomenus fabula est primf proba,' 
Itii Plautus 'prime catam' dixit in Milite Glonoso: 

Pa, *^Al scietis. Bed ect|\ia est andlk illi? Pk. Est jfrimt cata.* 

Ita fere Graeci .i^vjcov usurpant, ut /FQiaiov etSog, praecipua 
et primai'ia fomia.'* 

I have dwelt the Joui^er on t\m passage, beauise priiiuis is 
precisely, on accoimt of tlie difficulty of deterniinin|i: whether it 
i8 to be understood in \t^ literal or in its fif;iinitive sense, perhaps 
the mmi frequently ambiguous word in our anthor's wholo 
poem. A similar ambiguity attends tJie synonyms of primus 
in other languageti. An ahnost Uulirrotis example of this in our 
own language is read every day, if not with jnliui ration at least 
without a smile, by the thousand English visitoi^s of the eternal 
city: it is where the indispensable red book pronounees its 
judgment of a pictui'e which to nie, profane and uninitiated as 
I am, is OB bad a speelnien of pictorial eomposition as tlie sen- 
tonee in whieh the judgment is eouefied is of verbal: ^'*Tho 
Transfkiitration,* tlie last and greatest oil picture of the im- 
mortal master, and ju«tly considered as the //r,s'/ oil pahiting 
in the world/'* 

• The above Rem. wm written in 1865. U|K>n further eonsidnratfon^ I may 
idd that— while still fully adboriDg to tlie view enunciated above, that puimus 
is here not firfft in order^ but first in qmihty—l am now rather inolinf*d 
tt) thmk that Ibe epithet is bostowed od JIachaoii in compliment to the 
o8«ffaliioss of his art, Comr»are Horn, //. IL 514: 

iiyr^ioc ynQ tiv^} nolku3v itvrnhoi ttlluiv 
tnvi f' txTUfti^i^p, tni t timn tftt{tt»H)ttt nttoatti\ 
Tlie word i8 used in the same mamier by Auson. /%/! 2, 1: 

** nomen ego Autuuius, i>on ultimu« nrte medcndi, 
et mea si nosscs tem^ura, primus eratn/' 

wbem not only is '* primus** first m merit, but the merit is that of a phy- 
And 80 the I'Ui.Mns of our text has leeo umleristood by Cynthius 
B^tunsift ('^'Mftchaon Ghns Ai?fit!ulapii, pritiius in arte medendi"), exerc^ising 
his own jud^'mont, nr^t as usual echoing Sorviiw, who leaves us oncortain 
between no lees than three meanings: '' Aut princeps (inter primos, aut arte 
primaii) ant nameri soif nam per tern^s diyisit" 

144 AEKElbEA L2?0-^299 in bom.— paxIL 



Compare Spenser, Visions of BeUay, 1: 

"It was the time when rest, soft sliding down 
from heaven's height into men's heavy eyes, 
in the forgetfulness of sleep doth drown 
the careful thoughts of mortal miseries." 

"Gratissima answers to prima: 'prima eademqiie gratissima,' " 
Conington. I think not. Sleep is always gratissima, no 
matter whether early or late (as Eurip. Bkestis, 555: 

vnvog' ttStarog yrtQ ifia ftXitpaQOtg Jigog aovg); 

and gratissima in our text belongs to quies only, not at all to 
prima, the sense being the same as if Virgil had written: 
^'Tempus erat quo primum quies," &c. 



"Visus est ADESSE MIHI talis QUAUS erat quum raptatus asset," 
Wagner. No; this is entirely erroneous. The meaning is not: 

2^0— S?f> IN soil.— PATR.] 



i^peared to be present to me in such condition as he had been 
Vhen RAPT ATI'S BiQis aterque; but: raptatts bigis AiERyrEj 
appeared to be present to me and to shed floods of tears. The 
whole force and beauty of the picture consists in the positiveuess 
of the predications concerning Hector^ viz,^ that beins^ (not ap- 
pearing to be) MAESTTssiMus, and raftatos biuis, and ateb 
CBUENTO puLTERE, he appeared to be present to Aeneas, and to 
shed floods of tears, Visus adbsse mthi IxAr<josque epfundere 
FLETi's is placed immediately after the subject in order to satisfy 
the impatience of tlie reader. Instead of reserving his account 
of what the subject appofired to do, until after he bad completed 
his account of the subject himself, our autlior infomis you as 
speedily as possible that he appeared to stand before Aeneas and 
shed floods of tears. There is then time, without teazing the 
reador with uncertainty, to complete the description of the sub- 
ject, commenced with maestissimus and imraediately broken off; 
and the description is accordingly completed in the words 


ijoRA TUMENTBS. We liave thus J according to our author's 
Bual manner, first (viz., from ly somnis as far as fletus), u 
rapitl sketch of the whole, and then (viz,, from raptatus as 
far as TUMENTEs), the colouring and filling up of the details* 
The prosaic arrangement would be: Hector, maestissimus, 


TniEKTEs tlie direct description of the plight of Hector in tlic 
dream is again interrupted, in order to place in pathetic 
contrast with it tlie appearance presented by the same Hector 
in the pride of strength and flush of victory on the battle- 
field before Troy, and so introduce with the greater effect the 
remainder of the description, the last finish of the picture 
(8giTAt.e!>n^EM . . . PA trios), tho beard and hair clotted witli 
bIr>od and dust, and the person gcished \\ith wounds received 
in the defence of his country. 

How comparatively dull and tedious had been tlie narrative, 
had tlie natural as it is called, or prosaic order, been preserved 
throughout — the description of Hector's pligiit fii-st cumplelod 

EK^RT, JkESmSitJL^ VOL. U. 20 

l46 AENEIDEA [270-279 in soil.— PAtft. 

in every particular, then that plight contrasted with the ap- 
pearance formerly presented by liim on the field of battle, and 
only then at last the listening audience and the reader informed 
that this so described Hector appeared to stand beside Aeneas 
and shed floods of teai-s ! So arranged, tlie passage would have 
run prettA- much as follows: — Hector, maestissimus, raptatus 
BiGis (uT quondam [raptatus erat]), aterque cruento pulfere, 


Gronovius (Diutrib. Sfat, 22) — removing the comma from 
after bigis, and placing a comma instead of a period at tumen- 
TES, and a comma before as well as after erat— connects erat 
with luPTATUs, ater, and traiectus, and thus observes: — 
"Distinctio huius loci, quae omnes editiones 0(jcupavit, arguit 
nemini hactenus eum satis intellectum. Intricatior constructio 
est sic evolvenda: visus miiii, ut quondam erat raptatus bigis, 
aterque pulvere cruento, et per PEDi-^; LORA traiectus (hki 
MiHi!) QUALis? quantum MUTATUS, &c. Imitatio Val. Fiacc. hoc 
satis docet (4. 397): 

^Inachias crroro etiam defertur ad undas, 
(^ualis? ct a prima quantum mutata iuvenca?'" 

But how very much simpler, more natural, and more pathetic 
is the passage considered as consisting of four paragraphs, 
each grammatically complete and independent, and all four 
constituting so many intimately connected and mutually sup- 
porting links of thought, each preceding one of which as it 
passes through the mind draws the other after it, the first link 
terminating at flctus, the second at tumentes, the third at 
ignes, and the fourth at patrios! 

Ut quond.vm. — These words are thrown in parenthetically 
in order to connect the appearance presented by the ghost of 
Hector in the dream with tho appearance the real Hector pre- 

-279 m srtsi.— FATu.] 

BOOK 11. 


sented at Troy after he imd boen dragged at Achillea' chariot 
wheels. Hector presented in Aeneas 's dream exactly the ap- 
pearance he had presented on tliat fatal day at Troy. The 
comma therefore, placed after uusis by the more correct judg- 
ment of the older editors, and removed by Wakefield^ Heyne, 
and Warier, should be replaced, 

1 need scarcely point out to the reader that the words UT 
i^uo!ji)AH^ although intended only to illustrate tJie meauin^^ of 
RAFT ATI'S aiGis, pres<?iit us also with a natural and philosiiphic^d 
explanation why Aeneas, in his dream, saw Hector quasi kaf- 
TATUs Bmis; viz,, because of the strong impression made upon 
his mind by the sight of Hector after he \u\d been actually 
dragged by the bigae of Achilles. 

Ckuknto pulvere ^ kv^Qio^ Horn. li. IL IfiO: 20, 603; 
Od. 22. 402; 23. 48. 

TuaiENTEs.— Dead limbs dd nitt swell iu consequence of 
violence: either, therefore, Alr^il jueans that the swelling of 
H»x*tur's feet was the result of putrcfuftiim, or ho applies the 
adjunct tumkktes in ignorance of the physiological truth; or, 
aware of the truth, falsely, for the sake of effect; or else ho 
means that both the swelling and the violence wliich produced 
it were anterior to death. 

It is highly improbable that he means that the swelling was 
tlie consequence of putrefaction; because, althougli he might 
mi have felt himself bonnd by the antbority of Homer, who 
expressly sttites [IWuI, btjolcK 23 and 21 ) that Apollo prevented 
putrefaction from taking plucn in the corpse of Hector, yet no 
poetical advantage was to be gained by suggesting the idea of 
[mtn-*faetion, inasmuch as that idea was not only revolting in 
its^tll, but, by removing our thought so much the furtlier from 
the living sentient Hector, directly tended to diminish that 
sympathy witli him which it was the sole object of the descrip- 
tion to excite. 

It is still less likely that Virgil, aware of the physiological 
truth, applied the term falsely, tur the sake of etfect; th(> un- 
worthy suppositicm is contradicted by everything which is known, 
or hfis even been I, card, of Virgil. 


i46 AfiNEIDEl [270-279 m som.— path. 

The conclusion, therefore, is inevitable, either that Virgil 
applied the term tumentes in ignorance of the physiological 
truth, that violence inflicted on dead limbs will not cause them 
to swell; or that the non-Homeric narrative (see Heyne, Excurs, 
18 ad Aen, 1\ which he certainly must have followed, when 
describing Hector as having been dragged round the walls of 
Troy (and not, as in the Iliad, from Troy to the Grecian tents, 
and round the tomb of Patroclus), represented Achilles as 
having bored Hector's feet and dragged him after his chariot 
before he was yet dead. Nor let the reader, living in times 
when man has some bowels of compassion for brother man, 
reject with horror the imputation to Achilles of so atrocious 
cruelty; let him rather call to mind the boring of the feet of 
Oedipus, of the feet and hands of malefactors on the cross, the 
slitting of noses and cropping of ears, tlie buniings at the stake 
and breakings on the wheel, not so very long since discontinued 
in Christian countries. This latter explanation of the difficulty 
involved in the word tumentes derives no small confirmation 
from the words in which Virgil {Aen. 1, 487) has described the 
dragging of Hector round the walls of Troy: 

^'ter circiim Iliacos raptaverat Hectora muros, 
exanimumque auro corpus vendebat Achilles." 

There must be some good reason (see Rem. on verse 552} why 
in these lines "exanimum coipiis" is not applied, as might have 
been expected, to "raptaverat,'' but solely to "vendebat;" and 
such good reason is at once suggested by the explanation just 
given of the word tumentes. Achilles drags round the Ilian 
walls Hector (not Hector's "exanimum corpus," Hector being 
yet alive), and having thus deprived him of life, sells his corpse 
("exanimum corpus") for gold. Compare: 

r}Tt^' a {f ccy a<; u fv Extoqo^ t q o/ j] X (tr ovg 


quoted by Hesselius ex Graeca Ayidromache in his note on the 
following verses of the Androinache of Ennius: 

"vidi, videreque passa sum aegerrime, 
curru Hectorem quadriiugo raptarier." 

270-279 w txm-'^i^aL] 



Also Ovid, Met, 13, 435 (of Polvdorus): 

"ut cecidit fortima Phrygum^ ca|>it impius ensem 
rex Thracuni, iuguloque sui defigit alumni; 
et taotiuam toUi amn corpore ciiuiina posseot^ 
emnimcm e scopulo subi6ct4as misik ia tmdas." 

its discrepancy from t!io Homerie narrative raise any considor- 
able ubsUicle in the eiind of tlie reader against tlie reception of 
this explanation, I beg to refer him for a discrepancy, not 
merely with an isolated passage, but with a very large and im- 
portant part of the story of the Iliad, to Euripides ^s Helen, who 
never even so much as saw Troy.* 

Hki Mmi, QUALis erat!— Here again, as at verse 270, the 
even tenor of the narrative, which should be UKt mnii, <vualis 


iiXA GERENs, is bi*okeu off at qualis zbat, in order to follow 


* SiDce the above Coniment wns written and published (in ^^The first 
two books of tJie Aeneis rendered into Eughsh blank iambic/' Load, 1B46), 
1 have fallen accidenmlly u{)on the foUowing passage in the Ajnx of 
Sophocles, vorse 1030 (ed, Eton. 178«>: 

^marniH n^tia&ttg mnatmt* *l uvrvyiav, 

Althuugh these lines, i>TOving th^ exintpnce of an account of Hcftor n liuvinj,' 
Leen di-aggi*d aht^e after Achilles chariot, convert ahnosr into cortiiinty ibi* 
tent which in that Comment I have prosented only aa a |>rohnbditT, 

ive yet allowed the Comment to remain unaltered, in order to exemplify 
the iniportanee and necessity of a chiser examination than is usual of the 
apparently trivial or supposed well-understrKwl ex|rreaaiot)« of our author. 

Still more bitely (January, 1853), I have found the foUowing a^lditional 
evidence" that some writers did describe Hector an having been diaggdd alive 
iltbr ihe chariot of Achilles, it iB in the accotmi given by Q, CttHitta (4. 28} 
of Alexander the Great having eaused Be^ U> be faatened ali^e to a chariot, 
and m dragged to death: '*Pi?r talos enim npintntU bjfa trtteota aunt, 
religatumque ad currum traxere drca urbem er^ui; glonantir n^ge, AetiiWtm, 
a qao gmm ipse doduotret, Imitatttm m mm pMOA in hoit^mxi cifwadip*' 

1 can hardly aufficiendy praise the docility --alow, albeit, iitd almoil 
too lata— of my veikerable pujul^ Wa^er. Compare thd total darkQi»M in 
which he leaves this pas«a^e. not only hi hi« editioa of Htyno • Tirgil 
(1832), but in hia own VinjiU of JH4d and IU% vith tli« manrtQima 
%ht which, translatiDg, and ■§ cuntaJ witluHil ickiiowMgflM9t» from my 
'TwelvA YeaiB Voyage^^ (l^^, he thmws on a b hia ediliDQ of im: 
^*Vtva mi^mbn tumeiit tic mukila, noa mortQ*. Tinun rapLattun tm% 
II etiam SopiL ntot, Af 109^, w^^ Ocut 4, 2a" 

150 AENEIDEA [270-279 in som.— path. 

out and eularge upuii (in the words quantum mutatus . . . ignes) 
the thought quaus erat! 

Hei mhu, quaus erat! — Compare that most touching lamen- 
tation in that most pathetic perhaps of all the ancieut dramas, 
the Eledra of Sophocles, verse 1126: w (filzaxov uvrifieiov, &c. 
Classical ^scholars, so called, delight to quote Shakespeare's 
certainly neither very correct nor very apt reference to this 
passage, King Henry 4, part 2, act 1, sc. 1: 

NouTH. "Even such a man, so faint, so spiritless, 
so dull, so dead in look, so woe-begone, 
drew Priam's curtain in the dead of night, 
and would have told him half his Troy was burnt, 
but Priam found the fire ere he his tongue," 

as one of a thousand proofs of the great imperfection of Shakes- 
peare's scholastic acquirements. The proof is a cogent one 
perhaps, and even if it were not, it could be spared, for there is 
no lack of others to which no exception can be taken. But 
scholars will excuse me if I ask in tlie name of those who 
admire Shakespeare only the more because he is so little of a 
classical scholar, so little of a Milton or Bon Jonson, which of 
the two is the more ridiculous — Shakespeare, who puts Priam in 
the place of Aeneas; or that Coryphaeus of classical scholars, 
Bentley, who bids us put ''Lxalegon'^ in place of "so woe- 
begone" in Shakespeare's line, and instead of 

'*so dull, so dead in look, so froc-bajouc,'' 

"so dull, so dead in look, Ucaleyon?"' 

The whole passage hei mihi, qualis erat! . . . ACCEPrr 
PATRios has been taken by Silius, 10. 508, and applied almost 
verbatim to Paullus: 

'^heu, quis erat I quam non similis mode Puuica telis 
agmina turbantil vel cum Taulantia rogna 
vertit, et lUyrico sunt addiia vincla tyranno! 
pulvere canitios atro, arontique cniore 
squalebat barba, ot perfracti turbine dontes 
muralis saxi, tum toto corpore vulnus." 

Chateaubriand (Gcnic du Cltristianisniv, part 2, livre 5, c. 11), 
instituting a parallel between this di*eam of Aeneas and that in 

7y DC SOIL— PJkTB,] 

BOOK n. 


rhit'h Athalie (Racine, AthaUcj 2. 5] sees her mother Jesabol, 
observes: ^^Quel Hector parait au preaiier Diument devant 
Ent'^e, tal il ^ niootre k la fin, Mais la pompe, mais l'6dat em- 
pnmt6 de Jfeabel, *pyur rcparer des ans Tirr^parable uutrage/ 

livi lout a coup, nun d\ine forme entit*re, mais 

. . . *de lambeaux affreux 
^ue des ohiens dSvoraos se disputaient eBtr'eux,' 

est une sorte de changement d'etat, do p6rip6tie, qui donue au 
gttnge de Racine une beauts? qui puinque a celui de Virgile. 
Kofin cette ombre d'uno more qui se baisse vers le lit de sa tilJe, 
comuie pour s\v cacher, et (jui se tniiistbrme tout a coup 'en os 
ot ^n chairs meurtris,' est une de ces beaut^s ragues, de oes cir- 
eonstancei* terribles, de la vraie nature du faiitome." In i^ply 
tu which criticism I shall perhaps be permitted to observe: 
iiriil;^ that the absence from Aeneas's dream of a "p6inp6tie*' 
similar to that which has been so much and so justly admired in 
the dream of Athalie, so far froni bein^ a defect, is rather new 
evidence ot that superior poetical judgjuent wliicli infotTned 
Virgil that the proper place for such a ''p6rip6tio'' w%as not in 
the warning, exhorting, encouraging dream of Aeneas, but 
exactly wliere tlie poet has placed it, in fho hoiTifjiug dream <jf 
Tunius [Aeru 7. 445}: 

^'tahbus Alectu dictis axarsit in Lras/' &e\ 

was wltli this similar dream of Turnns— with that Calybe 
changing into the furious Alecto hissing with all her hvilnis; or 
with the similar dream of Eteocles— with that TLresias converted 
into the ominous Laius baring his divided throat, and deluging 
his gmndson*s sleep with blood f/'tnTdanti peifundit vulnere 
somnum," Stat. Thrh, 2. 124), not with the tutaUy dissiiniJar 
Hec^tor of tlie totally dissimilar dream of Aeneas, that Chateau- 
briand might have correctly compared the Jesabel of Athalie. 
But lest it should be imagined tiiat I use this plea of dissimi- 
larity an a mere pretext for eschewing a comparison fr^mi wiiich 
my favourite Virgil might perhaps issue with tarnished laurels, 
I beg to add, neeaiKlly, that I prefer Aeneas's dreaiu to 
Lthalie^s^ (Oj, on account of its greater simplicity— the former 

152 ABNEIDEA [270-279 in soil— patb. 

consisting of a single view or scene, with but a single actor; 
while the latter is complicated of two scenes, each with its 
separate actor, and those scenes so far distinct and independent 
of each other, that Chateaubriand in his parallel has (w^hether 
disingenuously or through mere error I will not pretend to say) 
assumed and treated one of them as the whole dream, and com- 
pared Aeneas's dream with that one, without making any, even 
the least, reference or allusion to the other. (6), Because the 
rdle assigned to Hector {viz., that of announcing to Aeneas the 
capture of the city and his own immediate personal danger; of 
urging, and thereby justifying, his flight; of conveying to him 
the first information that it was he who was to take charge of 
the ''sacra" of Troy, and establish for them a new and great 
settlement beyond the sea — that settlement no less than the 
beginning of that Roman empire whose foundation was the 
subject and key of the whole poem — and finally of actually 
committing those "sacra" into his hands) confers upon Hector 
the dignity and importance of a real character — of one of the 
poet's actual dramatis jjcrsonae; while Jesabel, whose part rises 
little, if at all, beyond the production of a certain amount of 
terror, is a mere phantom, subsidiary to and making way for 
the child Joas; who, as that personage of the dream on which 
the whole plot and future incidents of the drama hinge, 
mainly attracts and fixes on himself the interest. Finally, 
Aeneas's dream is to be preferred to Athalie's, because the former 
is interwoven with and forms part of the narrative; the latter 
stands separate from it, and is only explanatory, or, at the most, 
casual. The sailing of the ambushed fleet from Tenedos, Sinon's 
opening the ct.austra of the wooden hoi-se, the descent of the 
chiefs into the city, the throwing wide the gates to the whole 
Grecian army, Aeneas's seeing Hector in a dream, receiving 
from him the "sacra" of Troy, waking and hearing the tumult, 
taking arms, &c., are so many mutually dependent and con- 
nected parts of the same history, related in one even uninter- 
rupted tenor by the same narrator, and received by the audience 
with the same undoubting faith; while on the other hand even 
Athalie herself does not credit her own dream until she has 

l27t)-279 w'a6ii:^i'ATii,l 

BOOK n. 


j itroauu it twice o\ei\ and even tlieii, whi'ii slio oonn's to rolatoit, 
tlHDks it necessary to warn lier hearers* in verbmg-e sufficiently 
[Freneli and tedious, against taking so bizarre an assemblage of 
[objects of different kinds for tlie work of eliance; 

"do milt d'objots diverii le bizarre assembkge 
peiit-etre du hasard vous para it un ouvrage; 
moi-aiome quelque temps, honbeuse de ma [^eur, 
je Tai pris pour feffet d*vmo sombre vapeur. 
Mais de ce souvomr in on amo posse deo 
a doax fois oo dormant revu la mume 'Me\ 
deux fuis mes tristes yeux se sont vu retmcer,' 

1 should not perhaps have so long dwelt on this comparison, 
if Racitic had not been put fonvard, not jnerely liy Chateaubriand 
but by 80 many other French critics, and by the French nation 
. generally, as the French Virgil — in his other performances 
equal, in AthaUe su])erior, to the Jlantuun. Alas for that 
iiuperioriiy which eveii here, in this selected passage of this 
selected work, is guilty, 1 will not say of a mere inaccuracy of 
expression, but of a di^wnright confusion of iderts; imismuch as, 
Athalie having made no mention of the real Jesabel but only of 
tliat Jesabel which appeared to her in the dream, the "'son 
umbre*' intended by Racine to v^^k^y to the iciil Jesabel must 
of necessity be referred by the audience or reader to the Jesabel 
of the dream, and be understood as meaning the shade of that appa- 
rition; or, in other words, althougli Kaeine undoubtedly wished 
his audience to undei-stand that the tignre which stooped down 
to embrace Athalie was no other than the apparition wliicb had 
just spoken to lier; yet as the only correlative in the whole con- 
text for the word ''sou*' is the preceding "elle,"* the sense 
which he has actually expressed is, that the figure which stoo)jed 
down to embrace Athalie was nut that figure which had just 
Hpokeu to her, but only the shade of that figure, /. e., the simde 
of a shade— a confusion of ideas, or, to use the milder tcrm^ im 
inaccuracy uf expression, for which we in vain seek a parallel 
even in the least correct of the Latin atithors. 

154 AENEIDBA [279-287 fltos— morat. 

279 287. 


Flexs u*se. — '*Non minus quam ille," Forbiger, coiTectly. Com- 
pare Ovid, ex Ponto, i. 4. 53: 

"et iiarrare meos flenii fkns ipse labores." 

LUX DARDAXiAE. Compare Cic. ad Fam, 14. 5: "Si tu et 
Tullia, lux nostra, valetis, ego et suavissimus Cicero valemus." 
Find. 01. 2. 9 (ed. Dissen): ^lyLeXia^ x eaav ocpd-aX^og. Ibid. 
6. 16: 

. . . noO^tta axottJiag offd-aXfiov ffiagt 

(CfjKfOTfQOl' fJCtvriV T (r/CtOoV XtU doVOl flUQVKO&ia. 

Exspectate: not expected; but longed for, desired, desiderated, 
as Cic. pro domo (ed. Lamb.), 406: "Cum illo die minus vale- 
rem, in seuatum nominatim vocabar. Voni exspectatus . . . meae 
valetudinis i-atio non habebatur." Ter. Adelph. 5. 4. 20: 

*' ilium, ut vivat, optant; meain autcm mortem cxspectant.^' 

ExsPECTATE vExis. Comparc Cicero, just quoted: "Veni 

Ut TE . . . DEFRssi ASPiciMUs! &c. — Ut bclongs not to defessi 
(Voss, Wagner), but, as sufficiently shown by the exactly 
coiTCsponding {Aen. 8. 154): 

. . . '*f// te, foi'tissime Toucrum, 
accipio aynoscoque libens! Ut verba parentis 
ot vocem Anchisao magni vultumquc reeordor, 

to ASPICIMUS, the force of which is increased by defessi, as in the 
passage just quoted that of "accipio'' and "agnosco'' is in- 
creased by "libens.'' Translate therefore: "How we behold 
you I /. e., with what pleasui-e we behold you!'' exactly as in the 
fii*st clause of the just quoted parallel (even without attending at 
all to the "libens''): "How I receive and recognise you! i. r., how 
gladly I receive and recognise you!" and in the second it is 

279-287 FLENS— MORAT.] BOOK II. 155 

"Ut reoordor,'' ''how I remember! /. c, how well I remember!" 
Conington coincides with this interpretation. 

Te rosT UKBis LABORi':s ASPicLMUs! Qucrv, is there a tacit 
reference here to the expression of the Greeks, .T^oaw/ror/roAewi;? 

Ille xmii.. Not, he docs not say anythftfg^ for, as immediately 
appears, he says a great deal, but, taken together with the com- 

anything in reply, nor mind my rain inquiHes, i. e., he does 
not say anything in reply to my vain inquiries. 

Nec me quaerentem vana MORATUR. Not, as I have rendered 
it in my ''Adversaria Virgiliana,'' does not delay me (i. e., my 
instant tliglit) by answering my idle itfqnirie^y but, does not 
mind me ashing idle questions, i. e., does not mind my idle 
questions. Compare 5. 400: *'nec dona moror" [nor do I mind, 
/. e.y cai*e for, pay attention to, the presents]. Ijcopardi, so often 
astray in his translation, is right in tiiis instance: ''no di mie 
vane inchiesto cura!''* 

• As remarked above, I formerly entertained a difforeut opinion on the 
text. I may add that in favour of this other view I had noted the 
following passages: — Aeu. 1. 674: 

"hunc Phoenissa tenet Dido blandisque moratur 

Lucr. 6. 245 (quoted by Conington): 

"expediam neque te in promissis plura niorabor." 

Hor. Ep. 2. 1. 4: 

"si longo sermone morer tua tempora, Caesar." 

(ieonj. 2. 4ij : 

. . . "non hie te carmine ticto 
atque per ambages et longa exorsa tenebo." 

156 AENEIDEA [290-301 hostis— sonitus 



ALTA A cuLMiNE III Wakcf.; Lad.; Haupt; Wagn. (Lect Virg, and Probst.) 


ALTO A CULMINE I VttL (ALTO CULMINE, the A in original ink); Pal,; 

Med. (a point in the middle of the added A has been omitted by 
Foggini); Ver. lU Pierius; P. Manut; La. Cerda; D. Heins.; N. 
Heins. (1670); Philippe; Heyne; Brunck; Wagn. (ed. Heyn.); RibbecL 
Roni.j St. Gall 


[punct] quaere: magna pererrato III P. Manut; D. Heins.; N. Heins. 

[punct.] quaere magna, pererrato IU Servius; Voss. 
[pitnct.) quaere, magna per*:rr.vto III "Multi quaere distinguunt, et sic 

subiimgunt: magna pererrato," Servius; Heyne; Brunck; Waket; 

Wagn. (ed. Heyn. and Praest.)\ Lad.; Ribb. 

RuiT ALTO A CULMINE TRoiA. Compare Horn. //. IL 117: 

og 6tj 7io).).tnav noXnav xaTtlvoi xiwi]vay 
i]S iTt xai kvoii. 

Fatorum comites, literally, companions of ijour fates, but, in 
sense, yotir compa)nons in your fates; i. e., to share your fates, to 
partake of the same good or evil which befalls you. Hector performs 
only the one act, viz., that described in the words manibus . . . 
iGNEM, and this act is accompanied with the words nos cape 
FATORUM COMITES. This is Undoubtedly the meaning, whether 
we understand the word penates to mean several statuettes, 
which are represented at verse 296 by the most considerable of 

J90— 301 HOSns — HONTTUS] 

BOOK n. 

them, vssta; or whether we consider the penater of verse 'JW*\ 
and the ve^ta of verse 296 to mean one and the same thing, 
Tiz,, the statuette of Vesta alone. 

It has also been thought that the \isioned Hertor artually 
puts the real objects into the Imiidg of Aonean, not merely 
seems to put them — an opinion which certainly derivou (general 
countenance from the fashion of visions to perfunu (let him 
explain it who can) real and substantial acts (ajs, for inistanci), 
Venus in a dream puts into the hands of Polyxo u real irwurd, 
Stilt Tbeb. 5. 139: 

ifjsai t&c^ aliaa, melloraqDe foedera tungam/ 
dixit« et hoc femim stratisv hoc (creditii) fenum, 

but t4> which there seems to me to be tfite «kroiiff objeetlcm^ that 
it 18 llttJe likely oar aotbor would have ma<le no remarkable a 
statement without ^ome Ustcnicil or mjrttical auth^/rif}' for It; 
and if there bad been ^ j ioch^ •onie ooCioe of or nfeiMCi 
to it would bare bea fbmiil sooMvliere amoof the aaeleiit 
writers; whereas so far b mA refcroee from being to be fimnd, 
that there ia not to be famd ereo to moefa aa a repetttiofi of 
llie atateoseiit on the aotboiitr of TiigiL 

MaaKa (Tem 2tS). Koi ^aa eraTOBi xwa, birt wmnA 
utau^ ^A2 arATCsi: <1), On aeeoaot of tfbe mm^ $^Tf!9(tm 
aapham tbn thniwo on sMBta <mi Remu w t, 2M> (9% 
Bttmim^ motmJmg ta> nrf flewa at kati, fhtSMiwii m ameii 

better bmken Hob whallf —hiiii at fta aajr Ihal it b a0 

mwA accoftfag to — r —ftiaf^a ■wiirr a» to brarit UnUmmhr 
i paaia after the fast or mBteomi word, ikm al owe w»i tka aaase 

158 AENEIDEA [290-301 hoshs— dONitufi 

. . . ^Hu moenia magnis 
magna para, longuinque fugae ne linque laborem." 

Et mantbus . . . iGNEM. — It luis been thought (Conington ad 
locum) that the act here described is separate from and inde- 
pendent of an act with which Hector's ghost accompanied the 
words uos CAPE, vei*ses 294 et seq. In other words, it has been 
thought that the ghost while uttering the words hos cape, &c., 
put the Penates into the hands of Aeneas, and only now, after 
he has ceased to speak, brings Yesta out of the penetralia and 
puts her also into his hands. This is the usual error of under- 
standing our author's words too literally. The fact is, the ghost 
does it not really, but only in appeai-ance. Compare Val. Flacc. 
5. 242 (of Phrixus, in the vision, appearing to put tlie golden 
fleece into Jason's hands): 

^^ dixit et admota pariter fatalia risu^ 
tradere torga manu." 

DivEiiso LucTii. — Diversus indicates difference, not of kind 
or quality, but of situation. ''Diversus luctus": woe in a q?iarter 
of the city at some distance from tfie house of Auchises, By tliis 
single word thus happily placed at the connnencement of the 
new action, not only is the reader carried at once out of the 
retired house in which Aeneas is sleeping, into the midst of the 
sacking and burning of the city, but time allowed for the nume- 
rous events described by Pantheus (verses 325 et seqq.) to occur 
before Aeneas is awakened by the noise. 


OBTECTA RECESsiT.— One of the objections made by Napoleon 
(see his "Note sur le deuxieme livre do r£n6ide," quoted in 
Rem. on verse 5) to Virgil's account of the taking of Troy is, 
that it was impossible for Aeneas, "dans ce pen d'heures et 
malgr6 les combats," to have made numerous journeys ("plu- 
sieurs voyages") to the house of Anchises, situated "dans un 
bois a une demi-lieue de Troves [sicy This criticism is doubly 
erroneous; first, because the house of Anchises was not half a 
league's distance, nor any distance, from Troy, but in Troy 
itself, as evidenced by the account (verses 730, 753) of Aeneas's 
flight from Anchises' house, out o/*Troy, throiajh the gate <f the 

MS-SlS sooit— ncAL.J 

BOOK n. 


cit}'; and, secondly, because Aeneas visits the house only twice, 

and on one of those occiisions (as if Virgil had been enreful to 

gUBtd against any demur being made to so many as even two 

Tiaita to a house situated, as he here informs us, in a remote 

part of the town) is mimcuKnisly expedite*! by a goddess. 

I know not whether it will be regai-ded as an extenuation, 

and not rather as an aggravation, of Napoleon's error, that he 

has here (as in tlie otlier parts of hii^ critiquef depended wholly 

on Delille's very incorrect translation: 

**d^4 k bruit affreux <quoi»|ue loin dt la rilU 
mon pero eut sa deDtt^ure uu ftmtl itun boU tranqoiUe), 4^}.'* 

It was tneumbeut on him, before he sent forward to the world, 
under the sanction of his illustnous name* a condemnation of 
tins second book of tlie Aeneid both in the general and in the 
to have taken, at least, ordinary pains to ascertmn 
Yii^^'s true meaning; and to have assured himself tliat be was 
fulminating his condemnation against errors tlie greater part 
which had no existence except in the false meilium through 
which alone ias sufficiently evidenced both by his own words 
and his cjuotaUona) he had any acquaintance with Vii^giL 


sriixf — rcALEoos 

Faotiuia Twrn, I €u tixium frntigaium; a doping or ridged rodi 
such m h comnuMily w^l iiiroagfaaut Kurope at the preaeot day. 
That this i» tli^ mmniug of tlia lerw is placed beyond doulvt 
by the paa6ag<e in vhkii lity deacribaa the tettudo (44. 9): 
'\Scutis saper capita deoAtJs, tUAtibQa pfimiii, wc m idi g aubniii' 
aiaribois tertiii^ nut^ta ef f|uarti«. fmtnam etiam geno iiki% 
fajttif^aiam mtui Uria ofdifii^Gmm mni tertndhiwii 
Tini iri9K> lUjnnovTA wm^j DjjrMmQcn 

160 AUNEIDBA [302-^12 bummi— ucaI. 

siDiAE. — TuM VERO marks as usual the acme, the extreme degree. 
He had first heard the noise, increasing continually in nearness 
and clearness (et magis atque magis . . . clarescunt sonttus, 
ARMORUMQUE iNGRUiT horror), but now from tho top of the house 
(tum vero) all is plain. 

Manifesta fides.— "Non somnii, ut quidam volunt, sed 
fraudis Graecoruni," Servius, La Cerda. But the "fraus Grae- 
corum'' being the very thing of which the dream had told, the 
"fides fraudis Graocorum," /. e., the trutli of the Grecian fraud, 
comes to be the truth of the dream— tum vero manifesta FmES, 
then indeed the triiUi of what the dream had told was plain; 
DANAUMQUE PATESCUNT iNsiDiAE, and the iNSiDiAE of tkc Dttfiat are 
open to my senses. I cannot at all agree with Conington, that 
"it matters little whether manifesta be taken as a predicate, or 
FIDES constructed with patescunt.'' The two distinct predica- 
tions, FmES [est] MANIFESTA and insidue PATESCUNT, have-double 
the force and energy of the single predication, manifesta FroBS 
iNsmiAEQUE PATESCUNT, and Virgil prefers wherever he can to 
make distinct separate sentences— the making one verb serve 
two clauses being with him the exception, not the rule, unless 
where some advantage is to bo gained by tlie contrary proceed- 
ing. Even taking the words as they occur in Livy, 6. 13 
("manifesta fides, publica ope Yolscos hostes adiutos"), to 
guide us in our analysis of the Yirgilian sentence, we have still 
the double predication:— Then indeed (there is) clear proof, 
clear evidence (in other words: the truth is clear); and the 
iNsmiAE of the Danai are exposed, lie wide open. The second 
clause is, as so often elsewhere, explanatory of the first. The 
Latin fides is here, as always, precisely the Greek niavig. 

I do not at all doubt but that there is a direct reference in 
the words to the words of the chorus in Aesch. Sept, c. Theb. 
846 (ed. Blomf.). The chorus who have heard from the 
ayyeXog the account of the death of the two brothers by each 
other's hands sees the two dead bodies brought in on the stage 
and says: 

ij>./>6 ai- 
itxju 7ti]^na^ Of koyuj. 


BOOK 11. 


man if est a fides was a current expression among the Romans. 
Our text affords one instance of its use. A second instance 
occurs in Livy as above quoted; a third in Liioan, 1. 522; and I 
doubt not there are many others. The precise expression in the 
precise sense has descended into the Italian. Compare Biagioli, 
on Dante, JnfernOf 2, 98: ''In provti della prima parte si puo 
addurre . . , queste parole del Coorito, che ne fanno manifesta 

1a3i FROXDirs ARDETT UCALEGON. — The prosopopoeia is plain 
and unobjectionable: Ucalegon for Vmlegon's house. It is 
seldom our author uses the figure so happily, only too often he 
introduces with it confusion into a pictiu*e otherwise faultless, 
ex </r, (a), .4*^?^. J. 203: 

^'aamque fareas aniini dum proram ad saxa suburguet 
interior spatioque subit Sergestu^ iuiquo 
infelix saxis in procurreotibxis haeaii;'' 

here it is the real bodily Sergestus who is '^furens'' and 
'^infelix/* and who ^'suburguet,'' while it is only the figured 
Sei^stus, i, e,, the ship of Sergestus which ^'subit'' and ^'haesit/' 
Also (6j, 5, 270: 

'^cum saevo ft scopulo multa vix arte rtmdnts, 
amissis reniis atque online dcbiU^ uno, 
irrisam sine houore ratem Sergtstns agebat;*' 

where it Is the real bodily Sergestus who ^-agebat ratem/* 
while it is only the figured Sergestus, i, <?., the rates itself 
which is "revulsus" and '^debilis''; anil (c), 10. 207: 

"tl gravis Atdeste^, centeDaqua arbore fluotum 

vmrbtriMi assurgens: 

fame vehit immanis Triton/* 

ere, if we understand Aulestes to be a prosopopoeia of the 
ship, I. e.j to mean the ship itself, we have the ship carried by 
itself the ship on board the ship (*'hunc vehit immaiiis Triton*'); 
and if we understand Aulost-es to be the veritable captain 
Aulestes himself, we have the veritable captain Aulestes hiraself 
not only heav>^ (*' gravis") but, notwithstanding his heaviness, 
rising to and hishing the sea with a hundred oars, a piece of 
confusion worthy af Bavius or Maevius, 


162 1£N£IDBA t^20-d2? sacra— teAils. 

Instances of this sort of confusion, this intermixture, direct 
and figurative, are unhappily of so frequent occurrence in our 
author, that I have sometimes been disposed to explain ^^ ilium 
expirantem" (where see Rem.) in a similar manner, and to un- 
derstand "ilium*' literally in respect of "expirantem transfixo 
pectoi*e flammas," and figuratively, or as a prosopopoeia of the 
ship, in respect of ''turbine conipuit scopuloque infixit acuto": 
an explication which I have however been prevented from ulti- 
mately adopting, first, by its too great aberration from the 
Homeric myth; and secondly, by the too great lameness and 
commonplace of the picture it presents. 





vix ea fatus eram gemitu cum TALIA REDDFT 


Sacra . . . trahit. Compare Callim. Lavaer. PaUad, 38 (of 
Eumedes, priest of Minerva): 

o<; noxK ^ovkevrov y'vovg ini ot ^tivtcrov 
Sttfdov troifjLa^oPXtUt (fvytt Ttov iqov ayaXfjta 
toxit f/on/^ Kqhov cf tig OQog (oxiaaro. 

Deos is the explanation of sacra, and the meaning is, not the 
sacred objects and the gods' ifnages, but the sacred images of the 
gods, first because Pantheus would be too much encumbered by 
three diflFerent objects— sacred things, gods' images, and his 
grandson; and secondly, because we find sacra, by itself and 




without any explanation, meaning Hacred images, or images of 
the gods, as Ovid, Met, 10, 096: "sacra retorsenint oculos." 
Ilnd. 624: 

. , . ^'saera et, sacra altera, patrem, 
fert humeris, venerabjle oaus, Cythereiiis heros." 

OTid. Fast h 527: 

^^iam plus Aeoeas $aera et, aacra altara, patrem, 
afferet, lUacos excip«, Vesta, deos/' 

Ond. Heroid. 7. i57 (Dido to Aeneas): 

^*ta mado per niati^m frateniaqae tela, Mgittaa, 
perque fugae comitea^ Dardana sacra, deos/' 

This use of sacra to signiiy, /.a^^ ^^ox^y^ the images of the 
gods exactly corresponds to the use of insta to signify funeral, 
of tithes to signify the special tenths which are the churcii's 
dues, &c. 


The moaning of this passage, so much and to so little purpose 
disputed by the commentators, is placed beyund all doubt, tin 
less by Silius's imitation, 1, 598; 

^^0 patria, Fidei domus iaclyta, quo tua naac sont 
&ta loco? sacraeoe maaent in collibus arces?'' 

be first clanse of which is the first, and the second clause of 
which is the second clause of Yirgirs sentence expressed in 
different words, tlian by Plautus s prototype, Mercat, 986 (ed. 


^^ubl loci fijet res summa publica?" 

Quo LOCO, not, where? but ifi what condition? Compare 
HippoL 358: 

boa. ^*altrir, profare; quid feras? quomm m lo<*o eat 
regina? saevis ecquis est flammia mcKlufi?" 

[ool^ where is, but in wimt conditian is the queen? as shown 

by •^saevis," &c,, and by the answer ''spes nulla," &c,]. Lucan, 

a r>57: 

^'neacia, poer im probe, Deecis, 

([ua tua sit fortona fofQ'' 


l64 lElJUlDBlA t820-32? sacra.— tfeAHfi. 

[in what conditum thy fortune is], Terent Adelph. 3. 2. 46: 

^•peiore res hco non potis est esse, quam in hoc, quo nunc sita est" 

Quo RES suMMA LOCO? In what co7idition w the State? Res 
MUMMA, mir all, the main chance , that on ivhich everything hinges, 
by consequence, the State, "salus suprema publica.*' See Aen, 
11, 302; Ovid, Heroid. 7. 12; C. Nepos, Eutnen, 9. 2; Liv. 
38. 7 and 8; Hist. Rom, Parth. App. tributa: q>ofio) de 7ceqt 
cov avft^carrog, af.ia "Mxi 7to^io tov Ttaidog, Procop. de BeUo 
Gothico, S. 13: BeliaaQiog de 7ceQi te tij Pwfxtj xat toig oXoig 
riQay^iaai deiaag. La Riforma [newspaper], Firenze, 4 Gen. 
1868: "Vedendo la persistenza del conte Menabrea [prime 
minister] a voler tenere in mano la somma della cose italiane." 
Milton, Par. Lost, 6. 671: 

''had not the Almighty Father, where he sits 
shrined in his sanctuary of heaven secure, 
consulting on the sum of things, foreseen 
this tumult, and [)ermitted all, advised;'* 

and again, verse 697: 

. . . ''which makes 
wild work in heaven, and dangerous to the main'' 

Quam prendlmus arcem? — If we throw ourselves into the 
'^nrx,'^ what kind of an arx shall we find it to be? is the ^^arx^^ 
any longer defensible? Compare Cic. ad Fam. 14. 5: "Etsi in 
quam rempublicam veniamus intelligo/' Prendimus is nearly 
as in Caesar, BclL Oir. 3. 112: ^*Pharon prehendit, atque ibi 
praesidium posuit." Aeneas uses the present tense because he 
is actually (see vei-se 315) on his way to the "arx" at the 
moment when he meets Pantheus coming from it, verse 319. 

The questions quo res summa loco? and quam prendimus 
ARCEM? are not to be considered as two distinct independent 
questions, but the second as supplementary to the first, the 
RES summa being lost if the "arx'^ was lost. Compare Aris- 
teas, ///.s7. 72 inlerpretum (Gallandi, vol. ii., p. 784), of the arx 
wiiich stood beside the temple of Jerusalem: tov dri legov trpf 
jcaaav eivai (fvlaxtjv iriv a/^av. The second clause of the verse 
is thus a variety of the first, and sets before the reader in the 

8ACIU — TRA19S.] 

BOOK 11. 


?te form that which the first presents merely in the jtb* 
straet See also Sil. Itah, as above, where precisely the .same 
• two questions stand in precisely the s<ime relation to each other. 
IxKLrcTABiLE TEMPus. — Not inevitable^ but out of irhieh there 
is no possibility of escaping htj any twertion ; therefore, final, 
thai shall finish and utterly deMroy ns. as Stat. Thrb, 5. 45 
^of the Nemean forest): 

"qmppe obtenta comis, et inefiteiahtltfi uiiibra 

(so denge, intricate, and large, ttiat no exeition would get you 
out of it|. Senec. Nat. (^uaest, 6. 7: ^^Ineluetahihs navigiu 
paludes, nee ipsis quidem inter se pervias quibus incoluntiu." 
Ibid. 6, 8: ''Pervenimus ad immensas palurfes. quarum exitum 
nee incolae noverant nee sperare quisquam potest, ita implicitae 
aqnis herbae sunt; et aquae nee pedili elncfah/les, irec navigio, 
quod, ttisi parvum et unius capax, liniosa et obsita palus non 
feral" Compare our author's use of the similar verb at Qeorg, 
2, 243: ^^aqua eluctabitur oranis*' [the whole of the water will 
make its way out]. Jtamtkmo^oc seems to be used iu the same 
sense by Euripides, Alrest, 88!^ led, Fix.}: {vx<(, trxct ()rfj:r€t 
laiamg ijxci [fatum, fatum ineluctabile venitj; an*! afi/aog by 
the same author, one hundred lines farther nn in the same play : 
xai a £v aipiyrotat x^^'^^ ^'^^ ^^^ (ha f tote. 

Fi!iMtJs TROKS, Fcrr iLriTM.— The full f*uve uf these t^\pre?s- 
sions will be perceived by those readers only who bear in mind 
that among the Romans the death of an individual was, not 
unfrec[uenth% announced to his friends by the word fuit; see, 
in Wemsdorfs Poetae Lalini Mhiot-es, '^Elegia iuferti auctoria 
de Maecenat morib/': 

'^mollibus ex oculis jdi(|uis tibi procidcit buaiur, 
cum dicar subita voce, fulBsr, tibi,*' 

als<i Piautus, TViie. L 2. 93: 

**horr€»3co miaera, ineatio quotiea tit imrtioma; 
ita paen6 tibi fuit Fhrcmesiurri;' 

and P^eud, 246 (€4. Ritschli: 

, . . '*Ba, Qois est, qui moram mi obcupato inoiefitarn optulit? 
Pfe. Qui tibi sospitalis fiiit, Ba. Hortuo«t, qui fuit: qui t«t, lh vivost" 

166 AENEIDEA [820-327 SACRii— tbuib. 

(where there is a play upon tiiis meaning of the word). Ibid. 

Mostell. 820 (ed. Bitschl) Simo (selling his house): 

. . . "Pol mihi 
eo pretio empti faerant olim. Tran. Audin ^FuermU* dioere? 
vix videtnr continere lacmmas" 

(where there is a similar play upon the word "fuerant"). CkMn- 

pare also Cicero's announcement of the execution of the Catili- 

narian conspirators, "vixerunt;" and Schiller, Mar. Stuart^ 

act 4, sc. 11: 

"jene hcU gelebt, » 

wenn ich dies blatt aus meinen hiinden gebe." 

Charlotte Corday in her letter to Barbaroux, written on the eve 
of her execution, and preserved in Lamartine's Histoire des 
Oirondins (44. 30), refers to this Roman mode of expression: 
"C'est demain a huit heures que Ton me juge. Probablement 
a midi faurai v^cii, pour parler le langage Remain." So also 
Manzoni, // Oinque Maggio (of Napoleon): 

'•ct fu: siccome immobile 
dato 11 mortal sospiro 
stette la spoglia immemore 
orba di tanto spiro, 
cosi percossa, attonita 
la terra al nunzio sta." 

Accordingly the meaning of our text is not: We were Trojans, 

but we Trojans no longer exi^t, Ilium no longer exists, all is past; 

exactly as Ae?i. 7. 413: "sed fortuna fuit" [its fortune is past 

and gone]. From the Latin fuit, used in the above sense, come 

both the Italian fu and the French feu, defmiet, as is placed 

beyond all doubt by the plural furent — "Les notaires de quel- 

ques provinces disent encore, au pluriel, furent, en parlant, de 

deux personnes conjointes et d6c6d6es,'* Trevoux; and to the 

same effect, Furetiere. Corresponding to this use of the past 

tenses of the verb sum, emphatically, to express death, i. e., the 

cessation of existence, was the use of its present tenses to express 

life, i. e., the continuance of existence (as Stat. Silv. 1. 4. 1: 

'-''estis^ io Superi, nee inexorabile Clotho 
volvit opus." 

Matth. 2. 18: ''Rachel weeping for her children, and ^ould 

390-^335 PORTIB— RESIBT.] 



be comforted, because they are not {orA ciae)." Soph, 
fJhf tig. 567: 

(tXA rjdf utvtot uri Xfy. oi* yicfj tar' iti\ 

' of its future tense, to express future existent'e, /. €., existence 
'after death, as Cic, ad Fam, 6. 8: '^Nec eiiim, duni rro, augar 
alia re, cum omni vaeera eulpa: et si mm era, seiisu omnino 

Et DiGENS (JLOKiA TEUCRORUM. — Heyne oeed not have doubted 
that these woi-ds are a translation of Euripides, TroaiL 581: 

ne similarity is far ton great to be aceideotaL 
Transtulit aroos- Compare Liican, 2. 136: 

*'tunc cum paene caput uiuotli, rerumquo potestaa 
muta\'it iransktia locuiir' &:c. 




OPrOSm STAT ferri acies mucroxe corusco 



innsquAM [or numquam] D f 4. UI Prinov; Veii. 1472, 1475; Mil. 1475, 
J 4^; Bresc,; P. Manul; D, lleins.; BeJ-^m, 

168 A£NEID1L1 [330-336 pobxis— besist. 

UNQUAjf [or uMQUAii] I PcU., Med. II |^; cod. Gamer. (Beram.); cod. 

Canon. (Butler). HI Auson. in perioch. 20. Iliad.; Ven. 1470, 1471; 

N, Heins. (1671, 1676, 1704); Hoyn.; Brunck; Wakef.; Pott.; Wagn. 

(ed. Heyn., ed. 1861); Thiel; Stipfle; Forb.; Lad.; Haupt; Ribb.; 
Vat., Rom., Ver., St. Oall. 

PoRTis BiPATENTiBUS. — " Variatum pro simplici : patentee, 
apertae," Heyne. "Intelligemus portas duarum val varum," 
Wagner (ed. Heyn.). The gate was two-valved, bifores, other- 
wise there would be no bi-; it was also open, otherwise there 
would be no patentibus: and so Wagner (1861j. Compare La 
Naxione (newspaper), Giugno 3 e 4, 1867: "Qnesta ospitalit^ 
che apre a due battenti le porte," and see Rem. on 10. 5. 


abesse malim, quot enim ex illis millibus per decern annos 
caesos esse putare licet!" — Heyne, mistaking a mere exag- 
geration, very natural and proper in the mouth of the ter- 
rified speaker, for the positive matter-of-fact enunciation of an 
historian. Heyne's error has been pointed out by Voss, and, a 
rare thing for that critic, without any bitterness towards a man 
whose deserts in respect of Yirgil were at least not inferior to 
his own. He contents himself with quoting Heyne's expla- 
nation, and adding: "Melius, augendi gratia, cum Servio." 
Servius's explanation is even better, more full and explicit, 
than it has been represented by Voss. His words are: "Ita 
vel augendi gratia, vel perturbatus, dicit tantos esse Graecos 
quanti olim venerint, quasi nemo perierit decennali beUo." The 
only defect in this explanation is that two things are separated 
which should be united. The explanation should have been: 
"perturbatus (metu) auget." In similar circumstances now-a- 
days one would say: all Greece is at the gates. The expres- 
sion, without however the exaggeration, is Homeric: see //. 2, 

ov yao ayto a to (frjui /(QtioTiQov ^qotov allov 
ififitvm, oaaoi afi AiQfiSrja* vno IXiov tjld-ov. 


35 T^mts — iiKsiST.] 



imu mtruitn eollocati, vd periculo priiiii," Serviiis (ocl Leuuf, 

followed by Thiol, Forbigor, Waicner (eH. 1861 and Quaest. 

VirgiL\ and Conington. "Die posteii der orsten nachtwaehe,** 

Ladewig. Gossrau, I agree entirely with Servius and Wagner. 

Compare Sil. 6. 1; 

^*jaiii, Tartessiaco quo$ solyerat aequo re. Titan, 

Cfjuos iurigebat Eois 

littoribus, pnmit\Me novo Phaethonte rebecti 
Serea lanigeris rej»ete1>ant vdlera lucb/' 

where ^^prinii** luid "Seres'" occupy, respectively, the snme 
positions in the verse as the primi aiiti portauum vigilfs of 
our text, and wliere the meaning is, nearest to the shHj the 
first to be touched by the rays of the sun; as in onr text the 
meaning is, ftearesi to the etwrny, the first to come in the way 
of the enemy. Primi poktakum vinnxs may, therefore, be 
looked tipon as the translation of the Greek 7r^or/^r Aaxec (our 
ffkkets) — ^VK«iLES> as ^rAttxec, expressing the fuortion, and 
PMMK as nqo, the forward rsr forerao!?t position, tlie posi- 
tion towards the enemy. Cnnipnre [a\ Aeneas, PoHore, 22: 
By^r^yoQivai tt log niaorotg atteirov fv roic •/jrdvroic, /mi /ravta 
(f'vla^ai ev trij nytrt, tv rue: rtlimrm ^af^* eyMOtnv <jpi Aaxjjy 
rgoffvlaaai'tni, (ft), Aeneas //>. ; irqoffv'kaaaoitv t m* cjc uov 
em tvi titya ifv}.€tAV)v nqoffiXetAtg vidt, {e\ IlmL 26: , . . 
tptt}vovvta<i: rt rcOQ^v}^et\ onioi: av eye^i'hj ear >t«**>n'dij o riQo- 
fpvXaS, %ai Tt^aQaffAiraGtirai anoxqtvml^m to eQt'tiMueror. (d), 
Xenophon, Anaih 2 (ed. Hutchins. p, 120): (h ^V em i\ki>ov 
/r^o^ r o re ^t QotfrX a / a c , tZi^ ro rv r o tc ftox^i' rac, tra n s ! a ted : 
hi eum ad primos excubitores venissent, nbi duces essent quae- 
rebant. Compare also, {e]. Ami. 12. 577: 

*'di9camint alii nd portiis priwo^que tnicidant," 
where **priiTios" (not her*? termed vigiles because it was not 
night) m\ist be the sjimc n(io(prkay^Fg, or piekets. And (/), 
Aen. 12, 659, where we have n picture precisely iIk* fiandlel of 
that before us: 

. . . ' soh pro port is Messapus et accr Atmas 

suBteotant aciem/' &€. 

170 ABNBIDBA [341-367 ohoikwb.— i 



Choroebus. — Choroebus is the Othryoneus of Homer, //. 13. 

iv&u, fjLfatunoktOi 7if() ftov, Jttvuoiai xtXfvottg, 
fSofAfvfvg TQtataai fdfntkfifvog fv (fofiov (OQoev. 
nftfvf yaQ OS-Qvovrja, Ku^rjaod-fv (vSov topTtt, 
og Qft vfov 71 okfjLLoio fjL€Ttt xXfog tilrjXov&H' 
TjTif cf* fFoutfAOio d-vytcTQCJv fiSog aQiarriv, 
XttaanvSQrjv, avaf&vov vittaxfto St fAtya (Qyov, 
fx T()oir]g luxovrug ((jitoafufv viug A^auav. 

Insano cassandrae incensus amore. — Commentators are 
divided between two opinions concerning the word insako, 
whether it means that it was insanity of Choroebus to love 
Cassandra at all, or at least to love her under the circumstances 
of the war ("Insano, quia beUi tempore amabat," Servius's 
aliter, "Insano, because it hurried him to his ruin," Conington. 
"Denn ihn brannt' unsinnige lieb' um Kassandra," Voss), or 
whether it is to be taken as the ordinary epithet of love — "aut 
perpetuum epitheton amoris est," Servius's first interpretation, 
adopted by Thiel and Forbiger, and with which I entirely agree. 
Insano, as here used, is not at all insane, in our sense of the 
word, but insane in the sense in which everything is insane 
which is violent or passionate, as Hor. Od. i. 16. 15: 

. . . ''Hnsani leonis 
vim stomacho apposuisse nostro.'* 

Ovid, Heroid. 7. 53: 

^^quid? si nescieris insana quid aequora possint" 

It is neither madness nor foolishness in Choroebus to be in love 
with Cassandra, but he is in love with her to madness, passion- 
ately in love with her, or, as we commonly say, desperately in 
love with her. Compare Plant Cure, 1. 5. 20: 

''nam bonum est pauxiilum amare sane; insane non bonum est'* 

1341-357 caoitois.— tuBOEs] BOOK II. 


[it is not good to love passionafelyj: and especiidly Ovid, Art. 
Amat h 371: 

'^\\\m de te narret^ turn persuadeDtia verba 
addat, et hisano iiuet arnnn* fnori," 

^insano/* being r*/('ommendat»M"\ ut the love (*'porsviu- 
Itia verba"), can by no possibility signify the love's irration- 
ality, can only signify its intensit>\ 

Understood in this sense^ the epithet raises our respect not 
only for Clioroebiis bnt for Cassandra, in the Kanie degree as, 
understood in the former sense, it lowers it: and most readers 
will, I think, agree with me that that interpretation wliich tends 
to elevate both characters in our estimation accords better with 
the drift of the whole passage than thut whir-h trnds to de|n*e- 
ciate both. 

Et oenkr , , . Ftnii-^AT.— Supplementary to vestkhat, as 
'^peplumque ferebant/' L 484, is to 'ibant/* 

Infklix.— As "suppliciter/' 1. 485, belongs both to ''ibant'' 
Id "ferebant," but principally to 'Mbant," so here i>FELrx 
belongs both to venerat and ferebat^ but principally to 
vi^^EBAT. Wagner has done well to remove the Heynian period 
after ferebat. 

Super his.— "His verbis; supkr, autem^ insuper." Serviu«, 
correctly (compare L ^3: '*hLs aceensa super"), and correctly 
followed by Weickert, Forbiger, and Wilms, Heyne, oscplain* 
ing SUPER HIS ''posthaec, inde;' and Wagner (1861), explaining 
las, ''ttd hos,'' have missed the true sen«e. 

luvEXES , . . RrAMUS^—The elder Heindiis incloses all tin* 
words from si, the younger all from iivkn^ «it, as far as stetekat 
inclusive, in a parenthesis. Both are wrong, and Warner ia 
right. There is no parenthesis; the tniin of thought runn on 
uninterrupted: si vobls cupido , . . vroETfs . . . KXrrawKRE, with 
its climax, succubbttls . . . rtamus . . , soauinrE. 

MoRLviitfR ET IS MEDIA arma RtrAXTS, a tmtqov rtQOtf^m of 
ich we have an exact parallel in Eurip, !hr. ^fjft 

172 ABNEIDEA [341-^7 ghormb.— rabus 

also, Aen, 11. 593: 

'*post ego nube cava miserandae corpus et arma 
inspoliata ferain tumulo, patiiaeque reponam;'* 

Ibid, 5. 639: 

^'sed fugite, o miseri, fugite. atque a littore fanem 


RiUM HOC STETERAT.— Macrobiugs says {Sat. 5. 22): *'Hoc unde 
Virgilius dixerit, nuUus inquirit; sed constat, ilium de Earipide 
traxisse qui in fabula Troadibu^ [23] inducit Apollinem, euro 
Troia capienda esset, ista dicentem: 

kuntx) TO xkftVOV lUoV ^(OUOVS T tfAOl'i' 

torjttut ytto noXiv oxav X«^f} X(txq, 
voatt m jtov O^fow ovSf ri^Aua&iu ^iXki. 

Let not Christians mock a touching and picturesque superstition 
which still (how few are aware of it!) exists among themselves, 
handed down to them by the piety of their pagan forefathers. 
See Ruga e Panisit, ed. Rom., 1845, quoted by Camarda, appen- 
dice al ''Saggio di Grammatologia comparata sulla lingua 
Albanese/' Prato, 1866, p. 16: ^^Calezoime pra si ka kjilue 
t' icunit Zoies e Shkodrcs, e massannei mennoime me dobii te 
shpirtite si me c sbutte per mo passe miscirier. Njate Shcodres 
ashte nji kjishe tash e rennuome, ne te tsilen ishte 'nne rue nji 
figure e bukure sheitnushmes Meri. Pos masi forti i fort 
Shkanderbek dikj, Shkodra raa 'nner duoro turkjevet e kje 
vume 'nnen charace. Ate chore bani vakji, e \x\^\\ kan shkueme 
tre kjinte o shtate dhete e tete viete kji Zoia e beecueme tui ike 
prei assaL kjishe, shcoi afer Rhomes 'nii(» nji te vottser catune 
kji thochete Genazzano: atie kje, cdhe ashte 'nneerue prei gjith 
populite, perse ka banie, e ban deri soto shume mereculi. Te 
luuiete ato di hoNakje (ijorgjite e JSklavis, kji pas kan [sic\ 
nafalxje me pertsiele (persiel) figureu e mi*eculuoshme Zoies e 
beecueme, prume prei nji shtlile ziermite naten, e prei nji shtiile 
ereiete diten! Por te shemete iu, o te kershtenete emii, kji 
'mmeteni pa nannen e dashtnushme! . . . E pse o nana dasht-. 


BOOK 11. 


nushmeia, pse bral'iise ieHmitr e tuu, pa *nnime ciimira anmik- 
^javet. pse s' kee mmp f»er birte tui» kji kjain, kji gjimoin tash 
per katter scekule pa tii? Ah! me liukete, kji zom boe- 
cueme m' pergjegje: ahf une ika pi*ei Shkodres per mecatete; e 
s' iam njite allaa pei^e s* kan pushuenie aJkia mecatete; t* pushoin 
mecatete, e uae kame per me iijite prape! , . . "—thus trans- 
lated by Caraajda: ''Narriamo dun que come 6 accadiita la fuga 
della Si/^oora (Madonna) di Scodra^ c quindi penBiamo con van- 
taggio deir anima come placarla per ottenerno misericordia. 
VMcino Scodra e mm chiesa ora diruta. nella quale em onorata 
un' immagine (%iira) bella di Maria santissima. Dopo che 11 
forte trai forti Scander^h mori, Scodra cadde nelle mani dei 
Turchi, e fu posta sutio tribute. In quel tempii fece davvero 
\po»iiiro\ ed ora sono pa&satl ti*ecento settant' otto anoi che la 
SigQOra beuedetta partendo (fuggendo) da quella cbiesa, pa&s6 
Tidno a Roma in tin piccolo paese, che si domanda Genazzano: 
ivi fu ed v miche ora onorata da tntto il popolo, perchu ha fatto 
e fa sino ad oggi molti miracoli. Beate quelle due famigUe di 
Giorgio e 8clavi che hanno avuta la fortuna di segaitare Tim- 
marine miracolosa delJa Signora benedetta portata da una 
colonna di fuoco la notte, e da una colonna di norola il gioitjo! 
Ma disgraziati voi, Cristiani miei, clje «iete rimaf^ti swnza la 
mamma amorosa! , , . E percb^, O madre amoroim, perch^ hai 
abbaudonato gli orfani tuoi sensa ajuto contro i nemici; perch^ 
non hai piet^ dei ti|;rH tuoi^ che piaogono, che gemoiio^ ora Mon 
fieini quattrucento anni, seiiza di te? Ah! mi pare che la 
Signom benedetta mi resspODda: *9^l io mi partii da Hcodra pei 
peccati; e noo sono ritornata (riaccoi$tata| micx^ra (?) percbd 
noa sono oessati aneoia i peccati; che ceRnioo i pecc«ili, ed io 
ritufnerii indietrof'" 

Ussx SALrs ncn&y Ac — Compare Ammian. 18. 2: ''Di aotel 
abnipta saepe diBcrimina salatis ultima deitperatia propaJMre/* 
Trog. Pomp. 20. S; ""Dam honcnte mori qtia&mnl. folieiler 
vieerimt; nee alia caosa nctonae fuit, qu«un quod 6c9pemwt^ 

Salus. -Not safety, bill pio g onr ation of life <(ir arjt^a). 
We cannot expre«« die metmiog bjr a jirngle iti^rd m Englinb* 


AENEIDEA [341-36t cHOBOKb,— ftABttS 

We come nearest to it in the words life and Bolvation: "the only 
diance we have of life (of saving our lives, of salvation) is to 
despair of life (of saving our lives, of salvation),** How preg- 
nant of meaning the expression is, is shown by its repetition in 
the same line —, salutem. We have an example of this 
use of sal us in Ammian's translation of the reply of Alexander 
the Great to his mother, when, like another Hert>d*s wife, she 
pressed him to put a certain pei'son to death in oijmpliment to 
lier (14, 11): *'Aliam, parens "optima, posce mercedem; hominis 
onim salus heneficio nuJlo pensiUur/' Compare aUo Turn us to 
Drances, Aen, 11. 399: ''nulla salus bello" [noi there is no 
safety in war, but there is no salvation for us in war; war will 
not save our lives and liberties]. 

Addhts (verse 355) i-efei-s back to super, verse 348. 

Impboba vKXTiiis , . . RABIES. — Improda: *'magoa/' Heyne* 
*' Magna insatiabilis voracitas, et fames crucians/' Forbiger. 
'VAvidus, insatiabilis, et ob id audax et perstans/' Forcrellini — 
»ll ult»;*rly mistaking our authors moaning, no less than Wag- 
ner, who j'efeis us to (jeorg. I, 119^ where he observes on 'Hm- 
probiis anser'^ ''Iniprobus commune nocentium et rapacium 
bestiarum epitheton, avidam voracitateni ind leans, ut Aen. 9, 62; 
12, 250; omnino improbiis est quisquis modum nun servat 
pruptereaque improbari potest— cornix assidue crocitans, versa 
388; mons vehementissime ineitatus, Aen, 12, 687, Turn idem 
epitlieton in laodem versum iaborem imprimis acrem indicat, 
infra vers, 146; de pervicaci studio insidiantis Ammtis, Aen, 
11, 767. Intelliges autem feros an seres, non doraesticos/* 
Nothing can be plainer than that all these so various and even 
contradictory meanings have been assigned to the woid im- 
p rob us without the least regard to the proper signification of 
the word itself, and merely because the meaning so assigned was 
consistent or at least not inconsistent with the context; merely 
because in each case, the word being understood in the arbitrary 
sense assigned to it^ the passage satisfied the a priori expectation 
of the commentator, '^Improbus mons" was '*raons vehemen- 
tissime ineitatus" because a mountain which fell at all could not 
but fall very rapidly; ''iniprobus" applied to ''labor" was a 



term of as great praise as, applied to a goose, it was a term of 

^ great dispraise, for no other reason than that labour was in 

itself praiseworthy, while a goose, and especially a wild one, 

I was worthy of all reprobation for its destructiveness to the 

I grass; and in our text^ improba yenthis r.uiie8 was magna 

, vENTHis RABiKS, becausc nothing could be more natural than 

> that the wolves should have a most voracious appetite. But 

improbus does not signify either '*magnu8/* or ^'avidus/* or 

I "^insatiabilis;'* neither is improbus ever a laudatory term. 

Improbus is always a terra of reprobation^ always moans 

simply wicked. The falling mountain is "improbus'' (wicked), 

on acc^junt of the ruin it brings on everything which comes in its 

r; the goose is 'Mmprobus" (wicked), on account of the harm 

loes to the grass and crops; labour is '4mprobua'' (wicked), 

because it is painful^ because it is labour; and for the same 

reason, viz., because it is painfiiU the vK^rrRis rabhes of the 

wolves in our text is difsoba (wicked). The coramentatorB 

here, as so often elsewhere, have not been able to discern the 

poetry : have been completely puzzled and defeated by the 

ascriplion of moral delinquency, not merely to brute animals but 

to objects incapable of all feeling; have forgotten the )Mag 

avatdifig of Homer (//. 4, 521; Od, J J. 597)^ and tho ^villanouii 

saltpetre" of the English dramatist King Henry 4, finit part, 


''and that it vat ^tmi pity, fto it «aa, 
this riliancfUM MoUpeirt alwmld be digffid 
out of the boweb of tba lurmlgi aartli, 
whidi mwy a good taQ idkm htA dm^tg^cfwA 
so oowdljr'* 

176 AENEIDEA [deO nox— umbba 



"Hie accipere possumus perseverasse quidem lunam, sed fumo 
obscuratam eius lumen, qui ex magno civitatis incendio move- 
batur," Donat "Hinc apparet occidisse iam lanam," Servius. 
"Nox CIRCUMVOLAT, quippe alata," Heyne, comparing 8. 369: 
"nox ruit et fuscis tellurem amplectitur alls," 

personifying night and perceiving no difficulty. "Allerdings 
erhellt der mond die nacht, aber er wird . . . zeitweise dorch 
wolken verhiillt," Ladewig. "Die nacht hat auch wenn aie vom 
hellen mondlicht beleuchtet ist etwas dusteres^ ein ihr eigen- 
thiimliches helldunkel; in diesem erscheinen die dunkeln gehalt- 
losen schatten, und erhohen gerade durch ihr dunkel die unheim- 
lichkeit der nacht, durch diese hohlen schatten zeigt sich gerade 
recht in dem mondscheine die schwarze natur der nacht, die 
schwarze nacht," Kappes, Progr. des Lyceums xu Cofistanz, 
Constanz, 1863. "Nox . . . umbra aliunde assuta ess^, conf. 
340, coniecit Ortuinus, cui adsentiri mavult Peerlkampus quam, 
ex Hor. Senn, 2. 1. 58, nox in mors mutare; et legit xpx 
Servius: nobis tibicen sane, sed is Vergilianus videtur, cf. 397, 
420, 621," Ribbeck. 

At the bottom of all these glosses lies that great and funda- 
mental error which I have so often had occasion to point out in 
the course of these remarks, viz., that of taking figurative and 
*poetic for literal and prosaic: an error scarcely less fatal to the 
exposition and undei-standing of Yirgil than of Holy Writ, 
although — happy chance for Virgil's commentatoi-s no less than 
for tlie world! — not to be arbitrated by the same arbitrament 
It is not literal night which circumvolat, flits about, Aeneas and 
his companions; it is the night of the tomb, the darkness of 
the grave, the shadow of death. Compare 6. 866: 

''sod nox atra caput tristi circiunvolat umbra." 

L^^OX— IMBftJlJ 



le worris are almost irlendcaU yet no one dreams or ever 
dreamt that it was real litenil night which Aeneas and the 
Sibyl saw flitting about rhe head of Marcellus. As surely 
as it is the gloom of death, tlie shadow of a premature toiub 
which flits about the head of Slarcellus, so surely is it die 
shadow of a premature death which tlits about Aeneas and bis 
compamous — vabimus haud dubiam in mubteai, the theme (see 
Rem, on L 550), of which our text is the variation. In both 
places — here, as in tlie sixth book— it i^^ fUjurafivc not rml 
night which is spoken of, exactly as it is fujurative not real 
night, the darkness of death, the darkness of the grave, which 
is ^oken of in the Homeric original ( fkh 2fK 351\ where the 
destruction which is about to overtake Penelope*s suitoi-s is 
spoken of under the same allegory under which the destruction 
impending over Aeneas and his party is spoken of in our text: 

I Compare also {a:)y Quint Smym. 12. 540 (Cassandra warning 
the Trojans): 

tt ^ktXc^t T* xti^op Totff :titaj(tTt; vvxri fjtr luftav 
fUtmrm xiffttlttt rt , nanatunu r* , vnUh i* yoi-vw 

tt4mlmv dt nktat" n^to^v^otf ^ nlut] &f sua ttvlrf, 
tt^wun* Eijtiioftit ino io^uv fit has dt 

kivyithov nHVJf] iT* itotuna duxfttntmn 

(6)^ 8il. 9. 44 (Aemilius Paullus adjuring Varro not t*> expose 
his soldiers, '*has aniraas,'* to certain destioiction by im- 
mediately engaging in battle with Hannibal— adjuring them 
(00, not in the night, but in tJie broad daylight): 

* * per toties." inqmt, 'coneussae niocnin Boma<?, 

pen|ue lias, uax Stygia f^uas iaoi circumpitht umhtQ, 
insontes antinaa^ cladi [larce obvius ire/ " 

f(e\ and the less figurative, let^ mistakable. language of Homce, 
Sat. 2,7. 5ti: 'Hoi's atiis circumvoUit alib,' where we have not 

nxXHS', AKXiaWiU, VOL, IL 12 

178 AEKEIDEA [360 nox— uiiBkA 

only the circumvolare but the very ater of our text ap- 
plied to death under his own proper name, (df), and of Falisc. 
Cyfieget. 347: 

" stat fatuin supra, totumque avidissimus OrctAS 
pascitur, et nigris orbem cireumsonat alls," 

where we have death again ('^Orcus") preying like a greedy 
vulture on the world , and swooping round it on his black 
noisy wings. Also (e\ Stat. Theb. 1, 46: 

^ impia iani merita scrutatas lumina dextra 
merserat aetema damnatum nocte pudorem 
Oedipodes, longaque aniniam sub morte tenebat. 
ilium indulgentem tenebris imaeque recessu 
sedis, inaspectos caelo radiisque penates 
servantem, tanien assiduis circumvolat alis 
saeva dies animi, scelerumque in pectore Dirae," 

where consciousness, the figurative day or light of life, flits 
"assiduis alis" about Oedipus, exactly as in our text death, 
the figurative night of life, flits cava umbra about Aeneas and 
his companions. (/), Stat. SHv. 5. t 216 (of Abascantius 
mourning at his wife's funeral): 

. . . ^ sed toto spectatm* in agmino coniux 
solus; in hunc magnae flectuntur lumina Romae, 
ceu iuvenes natos suprema ad busta fei*entem: 
is dolor in vultu; tantum crinesque genaeque 
noctis habent " 

[there is so much of nifiht, i. e., th£ night (the darkness) of 
Hades [of death, of the grave), about the7n\ {g\ Lucan, 7. 
177 (of the omens preceding the battle of Pharsalia): 

•* inque vicem vultus tenebris mirantur apertos, 
et })allere diem, galeisque incumbere noct^rn^ 
defunctosque patres, et cunctas sanguinis umbras* 
ante oculos volitare sues ' 

[ tJieir faces are covered imth darkness ; the day loses its colour, 

and 7iight (i. e., the gloom of death) broods o?i their helmets]. 

As lux is life (see Rem. on 6. 721), life considered as light. 

* This reading makes better sense than the aliter: 

" defunctos ululare patres, el sanguinis umbras." 

NOX — dmbra] 




nox is deaths death considered as darkness, Hades ^ /. 
ftJijc:» ubi Hon est videf% as {h)^ Aen. 6. 828: 

' Concordes anima« nunc, et dum ttoete premuntor, 
heu, quantum inter se belltim, at lumina vitae 
attigerint, quantas acies stragemque ciebunt!" 

Compare, in addition to the above (i), Hor. Cann, 1, 4. IH : 
**Iain te premet nox, fabulaeque manes'' (in both which 
examples nox, the night of deaths /. €., death, not cireum- 
volat\ flits about ready to alight on you, but actually alights 
and oppresses (premiti), (j)^ Hor. Od. L 28. 15: 

. . . " onmes una maaet new, 
et calcanda semel via leti'' 

(in which example "nox" (death) neither oppresses nor flits 

round threatening to oppress , but awaits at a distance. We 

have thus the three decrees: manet, at a distance; el/ cum- 

tvlai, close at hand; premit, actually on you: to which may 

added a fourth degree, more than eireumrfjht and less than 

'eniii, viz., elrcnmdfiL entirely surrounds and encloses; an, 

(imrrf. 4, 497 (Kurydiee speaking): 

. . . • feror ingeuti circunidata noci€^ 
iovftlidttsr^ue tibi tendena, heu! non tua, palmas")* 

Compare also ik), Eurip, Ion, 1465 (Crensa, who has just 
found her son Ion alive, whom she believed to have perished 
when he was exposed at his birth): 

n Ti yfiy(V(T«>; Souoi; oixiTt vvxjtt ifQXfrtttf 
nt^Jiinu ttrtt^l&Titt kaunaatp 

(where wo again have in the one sentence both figures: seeing 

night equivalent to dead^ and seeing the light equivalent to 

HHng: as we have also both figures (II, Senec. Theb. 247 

(Oedipus speaking) : 

, , , • protinus quoBdam editos 
nax oocapavitf et novae luci abetulit"). 

l), Aesch, Cimeph, 51 (ed. Ahreos): 

^po<fot xuX vn TO vai ^oti otw 

itanQfun* 9 it put ot at 


180 AfiNElDBA [360 nox-^umbsa 

[siinlesSy liatefidy darkness covers the house tcith deaths (i. e., 
the darkness of death covers the hoitse)]. (n), Soph. Oed. 
Colon. 1680 (Antigone after the death of Oedipus): 

Ti '/(((}, oro) urjT ^Qt\^ 
utjTf- 7tovro<; avrtxvQatv, 
aaxoTioi Sf nXaxfi tfjiaoiltttv 
tv atftcvfi Tivi fiOQto (f foauivov ; 
TttXfUVa' V(OV (T* oXffi-QKt 
vv^ in ofAfiaaiv pi^axi, 
Tibii; yttQ »; riv aniav y€W 
novTtov xlvSa)v aktoufinu (iiov 
ivnoinrov t'iouti' j^otftiv: 

[night (i. e., the shadow, the darkne.^^s, of death) hath come 
over my eyes: "Quid enim? utpote in quern nee Mars nee 
pontus irruit; sed quae oculos fugiunt, inferorum loca eura 
ablatum absorpserunt incomperto leti genere"]. (o), Horn. //. 
16. 567 (of Jupiter bringing, not real night, but the darkness 
of death, vir^x* oXoriv, over those who were combating for the 
corpse of Sarpcdon) : 

Z^i'i," (f t7H vvxt' o/.otiv Taviat X()((TtQf] vOfAivrj^ 
o(f o(t if t).(o Ttf-ot 7i(aSt uit/rji; oloo^ /foi'Os tif]. 

ip), Ovid. Met. 1. 721 (apostrophizing Argus, whom Mercury 
has just killed): 

*• Arge, iaces 

. . . centumque oculos twx occupat una" 

[one darkness of death]. ((/), Ovid, Met. 5. 70: 

. . . " at ille 
iatn moriens, oculis sub 7ioctc natantibus atra, 
circumspexit Athin '' 

[the approach of dark night (i. e., of death)], (r), Claud. Rapt, 
Pros. 2. 221 (Proserpine to Dis): 

** node tua contentus abi; quid viva sopultis 
admisces? nostrum quid proteris advena mundum?" 

[content with thine own night (i. c, the night of Hades)]. {«), 
Claiul. Bapt. Pros. 3, p. 220 : *' nox sua prosequitur currunr* 

soac— umbra] 

BOOK 11. 


iiif otvn night {the darkufHs of Harks] aceom panics thr rhan'ot 
nif DisH. it), Claud Bnpt. I^m, 3, p, 80: 

" sed tnnc ipsa, sm mm Don ambagibus ullis 
niiDtia. mat4?rtio facies ingcjsta sopon. 
Dftuiqu© videbatur tooebroso obtectn recess u 
earceria^ et saevis Proserpina vincta calenis, 
DOtt qualem Siculis olini mandavorat ai-ds, 
000 ^ualem i-oseis nuper eonvallibus Aetnae 
suspexere deae. sqaalebat, pulr-brior auro, 
caesaries, et nox oculorum infecerat ignes, 
exhaust usque getu pallet rubor, jlle super bi 
flamn>eus oris houos. et nou cessura pniims 
membra coloranhir picei calipne regoi.' 
{Ul Sil a 100: 

" heu sacn vatum ♦-rrores' dtin) nuffuna ttfu'tt^ 
eliciUDt, spondent/|Ue nov^is medioaniiria curis, 
quod vidi decepta oefaa? ' 

b), Si]. 13. 707 (the shade of PaulliL» lu .Sipio): 
*• lux Italuiji . vuius spectavi Martia facta^ 
miiltum nno maiora viro, deHcendere w/jt/i. 
atque babitaadu seroel sabigit quie vi»ere regiia?' 
{W\ Sil 5. 241 : 

,,,-'' fiiiu qaem Deoa ima colentom 
damimaset Stvgiae nat^iu^ 

(x)* Sen. Here, Fur. 270 <; Moarara ralline **n Ilertulcj*. wh«i 

is in Hades, to retiim i 

* emerge, cociux, atque di-fm^ar manu 
ahrumpe t^oebras; ciiilla >ii retro ^ia, 
iterqne olausnm Mt, orl»€i didacto r^di; 
^ qutdquid atra norfe poaiieiiHittii Ut^, 
emitte teuuiii, ' 

where *Menebra&" is the darkneflH of Hadeii, and ^aim nocte^' 
the dark night of Hade«, (j/j, Sil 13, 270: •*diim ropjn noctifi'' 
[whilst we imte ihe poitp* '" '^i^ nh'i^t >**- ittaij die if *** 
fimm\ {%\ «! 13. 12K 

x, fclixqu< ' • itn 

4ujiiv »u^-iv-^ - fij.^j4:Mi <«T4jL*c»c^ per aoi¥>». 
secloruni num^ro T^oiuiia OQodila taota 
aei|uabal: aed mtm kofo mos Ttparat wor* 

atam ouae. 

4e ^^irra, al»|v»d dmi liabil, ffttaaMrni wMfti* 

182 AENEIDEA [360 nox— umbba 

Compare also (a-), our own Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, act 5, 
sc. 8 (Brutus after the battle of Philippi): 

** night hangs upon mine eyes; my bones would rest, 
that have but laboured to attain this hour." 

To all these instances we may, perhaps, add, finally (6^), 

Sil. 2. 574, where the true reading is very probably not 

''morte obita," but, with the Oxford and Cologne MSS., "nocte 


As nox is, figuratively, death (the darkness of death), so 

it is also sometimes figuratively sleep (the darkness of sleep), 

ex, gr\ 4. 529: 

. . . ** neque unquam 

solvitui* in somnos, oculisve aut pectore noctem 

where the second clause is a mere variation of the first, and 
'Mioctem " (the darkness of sleep) is used instead of "somnos" 
(sleep itself), in order that the identical word may not be 

With the use of nox for mors compare the use of lux 
(and (paog, in Greek) for sal us (Germ, heil, Engl, salvation)^ 
as Aen, 2, 281: 

" lux Dardaniae, spes o fidissima Teucrum," 
and Hom. //. 17, 615: 

xiu TOJ ^tv <f((og rjkd^ti', auvvi &€ vrjXffg rjjunQ, 

where ffaoi; is so entirely solus, and the original meaning so 
entirely out of view, that (paog is opposed to rif.iaQ, exactly as in 
our text NOX is so entirely death and the original meaning so 
entirely out of view, that our author is not prevented from using 
the expression illius noctis in the veiy next line by any appre- 
hension that the reader might understand the noctis of that line 
to be the nox of the preceding, and to have exius added to it 

DOtioni significandae passim adhibuerunt summi poetae. Ita et infra vs. 270; 
8. 141 (^Di longae noctis'); 0\nd, Heroid, 10. 112 : ^ aetoma nox.'" These 
observations Ernesti would hardly have made if he had been aware of 
the word having been equally " nude positum " in the same sense no less 
than twice by Virgil, and of the constant use made both by his own author 
and Virgil, and others, of lux without any explanation ad^junct, in the 
sense of life. 

360 SOX — umbra] 



for the express purpose of fixing it to ho su. and of provfuting 
the reader fi-om mistaking it for any other (see Reni. on 2. 
586). Compare Eurip. Eleefr. 866 (ed, Fix) (Electra exulting 
in Orestes* murder of Aegisthus) : 

tJtii rtittfioc TtBntmxtP Myia^og tfmftv^ 

(where the qiyyog and iiO^qitiuov \ihov ailta: are not the n^al 
li^ht Iff day and splenrlnur of the fonr-in-liand sun, but spiritual 
light, the light of the soul, f\f\. joy and rejoicing; and yma and 
wSj not eaith and night, hut. as we would say, the mortal 
gloom or darkne?^s of t!ie soul, /. e., sorrow itnd niourningy 
Compare also Eurip. Med, H27 (ed. Fix): 

Quint Calab. IL 507 (of the combat t»et^^een Memnon and 
Ai*billes, in which Menmon is killed): 

xm i^v xt 6>} unxfiiffaaii^ uutui^fo^ mjitat <fj^{^iv, 
H fiti iJi' frytatrioi . /lo^- f4f'yHXoi1iJtf.t(TUO 
ifoifet «(j" itiitfintooitJt ihfw^ txttjt^}*^ TTiujiOTitr 
KiiQtt;^ t (tilt rut ti /**!• e^ri jiqh Mt^voros riio{i, 

See ReiiL on ''morto resignat/' 4. 214. 

ClRCTMVOLAT, /iCQhietf^rat^ jcf^^t /toi ar €it ^ flits about like a 
rapacious bird— a hawk, m- kite, or eagle— ready to pounce 
upon ittt prey. Compare Ovid, Met, J. 716: 

at voiums visis rapidissima iniluus extifi, 
diun timet, et densi circumstant sacra Diinistri^ 
fleutitur ia gyram, nee longius audet abire, 
gpcmque suam motis avidtis circumwUU alis/^ 

(M, Tfjr, 481 (Cbor., of guilty Oedipus) : 

fit d 

^myJti -I t (jiTi o jiititi 

[the Delphic oracles fly aknit liim alw^ays no matter when* 
he goe^J; 

184 ABNEIDBA [360 nox— niBRA 

Independently of all argument drawn from the parallels 
afforded both by Virgil himself and other writers, this word 
alone is sufficient to show that the night spoken of C5an by no 
possibility be natural night, the night time, inasmuch as natu- 
ral night, the night time, whether literal or personified, never 
flits about (circtjmvolat) , ready to alight, but not alighting, 
but on the contrary is always either present or absent, or if 
neither, is coming, or going, never flits about without alighting. 
Therefore nox silet, incubcUj praecipitat, t^dt, est, aufert, subity 
operit, tenet, torquet, contingit, invertit, abit, adest, agitur, in- 
cipity venit, transit, but so far as I know never circtimvolat. 
It follows that the xox of our text is neither literal night, the 
night time, nor the literal night personified, the goddess Nox^ 
but figurative night, the night or darkness of death or the grave. 
If it is the real literal night which circumvolat about Aeneas 
and his party, they must be in the day, and only occasionally 
shadowed by the night, which is absurd. If it is the goddess 
Night which circumvolat about Aeneas and his party, why 
does she only flit about and not alight? why does she only 
circianvolarc about those Avhom night, no matter whether phy- 
sical or pei*sonified, has already involved — 

'' vertitur interea caelum, et ruit ocoano nox, 
involvens umbra magna torramque polumque 
Mynnidouumquo dolos." 

How is this picture to be reconciled with the alleged picture 
in our text, whether of real literal night or the goddess Night 
only flitting about, not already alighted on, Aeneas and his 
comrades ? 

Xox ATRA CAVA CIRCUMVOLAT UMBRA oucc rightly Under- 
stood, a new light breaks in on the whole context, and the 
etiology of the description stands clear before us. Death, death, 
death, every wlicre, before, behind, around, is the picture the 
poet has in his mind, and which he presents to his reader in 
every variety of form and colour. Death has been suggested 
to Aeneas in his dream by the vision of the mangled Hector. 
Death is his first thought, as, roused from his sleep, he rushes 
out of his house, ••pulchrunujue niori succurrit in armis/' Death 


BntiK 11. 


LIS rnt- hrsi wurd nf thi' first person ho niLvt>— " I'^iimii^ Troos:'' 
itrr art* all Iml, all flead a/td tfonr, Drmth u hia own first 
[word to the little band which g*athei's rouml him (morumuu et 
\xs MEiir\ .VRMA KUAMUs). It is to death he goes with them 
(rAi»nn> ii\rD duhivm in jiorto.m); it is death, the darkness of 
death f wliich tlifs Alnnit theiii as they go (xox \m\ cava 
LCiRcrirvoLAT ubibra). "Who/* he exclaims, *^ shall tell the deatljs 
[of that fatal ni^HU?" ^ 

It is death id itij eoneretest furm whiuh is «*n every side of thenu 
in the streets, in the houses, in the very temples of the gods— 


His very eneniiei^ are dying* beside him (vicrui^iisijuic cadunt 
wakai), and every iliing is one picture of mouruiDi?;, fright, and 


Tn the objeetioD that Aeneas dues not die— un the contrary, 
m*a[ies and lives to tell the story— the answer is supplied by 
Aeneas himself. The wlude rd' the little band exeept three, 
viz., Iplutns, FVlia;^, and Aeneas himself, peri>;ti</s, Ulioroebns 
falls, Kipheus tails, Hypanis falls, Dymas tails, Pantheiis falls, 
and if Aeneas himself does not fall* it is because the fates do 
not allow it, not because he waj^ not every moment in danger 
of falling : 

* Iliaci cinerf'S et tkmma extretna tti€W)n»nj, 
testor ID wcasu vcfttro oec tela aei? uUas 
vitavissc vices Danaiim, et, si fata fuisseut 
at caderem. meruisi^p inn mi," 

Similar tu the indication of death, whetlier present or near 
ai hand, by darkness, but rif les^^ frequent oecuiTence among 
writers and infinitely more striking, is its indication by mouldi- 
ness, as Uallntft lU (IftrntihKt ti'amitrda, uppendice, p..S*H) (Oaitm' 

186 ABNEIDEA [360 nox— umbra 

tina addressing the ghost of Constantine, which ^he takes for 
Constantine himself): 

KoaravTive, if^e fieXtty 
vje ageyye re xetffe ov ago/e [ms. agoyej, 
x()n/eTe [ms. xQayJ tov [ins. t evcfe? re] ')yeQi re 
juve re jnovyovkovufAi re [fiov^rovlovain re]. 

rttQevTive, /tioTQn ifie, 
x((fxvoi ogxovTieTicfieT 
x{t(i/eTe [ms. XQayeteJ fAC uovyovXoi. [fiov/ovkoi] ; 

thus translated by Camarda: 

** Costantino, fratel mio, 
an segno fiinesto io veggo, 
le spalle tue spaziose 
sono anunuffate. 

" Garentina, sorella mia, 
11 fumo del moschetti 
le spalle mi covri di muffa [mi fece ammuffire]." 

Cava. — Heyne is right ("Quatenus ipsi ea circumdantur "), 
and Conington well quotes 1. 520, "nube cava . . . amicti." 
The English expressions under cover of the night, under cover 
of the darkness, are analogous. Compare also Sil. 13. 254: 

** et, ni caeca sinii terras nox conderet atro," 

where the same notion, viz., of embracing, containing, or en- 
veloping, is expressed by "sinu," as is expressed by cava in 
our text. 

It is, however, questionable whether cava should not be 
regarded as equivalent to iuane, Germ, leer, Engl, empty. 

361—369 (JU1&— iHAoo] 

BOOK 11. 



iLLirs KorTLs. — ^Not referriug at all to tho nox of tbo imme- 
diately preceding verse (which, as we have just Keen. is. not the 
real literal nijsjht, or night time, the figurative night of death), 
bm to tlie night whicli he han been for some time flescribing, 
and which has not been specially mentioned since verse 250: 

■ vortitur iiitei'ea ca£»lam et ruit ooeano wojr, 
involvcris umbra magna tcrramque poliamque 
M>TmidoDUni<|ue dolos." 

Therefoi-e the nxivsjhfti night, ihnt fatal flight Jh- laM of Troy. 
The only excuse which occurs to me for this so deceptive use of 
the same word in one vei:se in a figurative, and in the very next 
in a literal, sense, is that the passages to which the two verses 
Mong may have been written at different times, and afterwards 
|mt together without sufBcieut circumspection. The excuse 
would be more valid if it did not unfoitunately happen that 
we find a similar confusion of expression occurring so often 
elsewhere, and even where no such excuse is possible, viz., 
within the limits of a single sentence: ex.yr,^ 12,684, "^montiji" 
ift literal, and means a mounbun, and in the same sentence. 

* Lahotibs, Med,; om. in the other first-ctoss MES,; m atj»<> Ed. Prino.; 
P» KaQtit^', D, Heias,; N Heins.; Phili|n»e; Pottier; Haupt; RiUbcck, 

t Stkuxunti u , PnL uud Med.; om, in tho other finst-cIusH MS8.; 80 
also £d, Pnoc, and the editions of P. ManutitiH, D Heinsios^ N. Heinaiua 
(1670), Phihppe, Pottier, Haupt, and Kibbeck. 

188 AENEIDEA [361-369 quis— imaoo 

verse 687, " mons '' is figurative, and means a great stone which 
has fallen from the top of the mountain ('^ mentis ")— a confu- 
sion of literal and figurative inexcusable even in an Eton ode. 
See Rem. on '' sequor," 4. 384 , and compare the similarly in- 
considerate application by Lucan (4. 452) of "moles," in one 
verse to a ship, and in the next verse but two, to a rock: 

. . . '* nee prima, neque ilia, 
quae se<iuitur, tardata ratis; sed tertia moles 
hacsit, et ad cautes adducto funo secuta est. 
impendent cava saxa mari; ruituraque semper 
slat (mirum!) moles; et silvis aequor inumbrat." 

Inkrtia.— "Imbellia, ut senum. infantum, feminarum," Heyne, 
Voss, Wagner, Thiel. I think not, but which had offered no 
resistances which had died inertly, as was to be judged by 
their being found lying there, ex. gr., killed without either arms 
in their hands, or arms on their persons, without any signs of 
struggle or battle, and without any dead bodies of the enemy 
being mixed up among their own. Compare Ovid, Met. 7. 542 
(of the war-horse dying by disease, in his stall): 

'' veterumque oblitus honorum, 
ad praesepe gemit. leto moriturus inert i.'^ 

Ibid., 12. 361 (of the pine trunk which Demoleon had thrown 
at Theseus without hitting him) : 

" non tamen arbor iners cecidit : nam Crantoris alti 
abscindit iugulo pectusque humerumque sinistrum.'' 

That it is not terrified or wounded, and still alive and breathing 
bodies which lie prostrate (stern'uxtvr ) , but dead bodies, is 
shown by the immediately succeeding xec soli poexas dant 
SANGUINE TEUCRi, . . . vicTORES CADUNT DANAi, informing US that 
Greeks have in some instances fallen also , viz. , in those 
instances in which the Trojans have mustered up sufficient 
courage to resist and attack the aggressors in their turn : 


And that the bodies so lying dead and prostrate are not merely 
the bodies of old men, women, and children ("imbellia corpora,"* 

361 -a09 guts— iMAocj] 

Book 11. 


Heyne, Toss, Wagner, Thiel), but fhe bodies uf unresisting 
persons (inestu corp<.>ra), is sfiown by 


[informing us that in some instauees resistance has actually 

been made, and the ag^rossors too have fallen. Thus flurima 

IcoBf^oKA has its tally in quoxdam victores da^.u; STERNrNxuR, 

Lits tally in cadtjnt; and inertia, its tally in vicris redit in 


The word so wholly mis understood by modern commen- 
[tators has been more or leys nearly ^nesseil at by some of the 
iBncient. Thus, while Servius hesitates between ** non repug- 
inantia/' *Vlvertia dum occiduntur," and ''per somoum iNtamA/* 
[Cynthiiis Cenetensis art*epts the first of tlie three guesses* nnd 
Udds: '*ut inquit Didys Cretensis, viee peiuduiu intertiriebuntur 

DoMOS.— In my *' Adversaria Virgiliana'^ I connected domos 

RKLioiosA DKORUM LrsiiNA intimat<*ly together, so as to make 

' sen so domoH reliqioms dcortnn, I liuve been induced to 

[change my opinion and to consider domos jis affording a 

I separate view from RKhrcnosA dkorcm limina, lirst, because the 

picture gains thereby in richness, not only the strec^ts and 

temples being tilled with dead bodies, but the palaces also; and, 

[secondly, because In the precisely stniilar picture presented by 

\^\MS>t, BftiL CaiiL 50 : ^* Fana atqne <io?wo^ exspoliari ; caedem, 

'ioeendia fieri; postremo armis, eadaveribns, cruore, atque luctu, 

(Omnia compieri/' as well as In the not very dissimdar picture 

presented by Tacitus, Hist, B, 33: *'Quas |faces|, ubi praedara 

e^esnerantjn vacua** dmnos et inania tomphu per lasciviam iacu- 

kbanturr thei^e is no room for doubt that '* domos*' is not 

I templ€J< of the (/odsj but the divelliuys of thr nther citixeii^^ the 

llMihees, as there is also no doubt iti the following passages: 

Ovid. Met, 2. 76 (Phoebus to Phaeton |: 

*^ torsi tan et iacos illic urbesquo c^owosque 
cODcipia« auia^o, dehibraqne ditia donia 

Lucan. 7. 71 »i: ^' fiandunt templa, domos,''' Stat Theh, JO, H8I : 
• et trODcas rapes in templa dontofqn^ 
[»ia( t LptUt, frangitqae suis iam moeaibua urbem/' 

190 AEiNiilDEA [^61-369 quis— buo^ 

Aristides, Rhodiaca, Qavavoi xar oiyaaq, ev ugoig, ev dvqaigj 
€v Ttvlaig. And our author himself, 11. 882: 

. . . " inter tuta domorum 
confix! expirant animas/' 

DoMOS, the houses par excellence, i. e., the great houses, the 
palaces, Fr. hdtels, the common houses being "tecta." Compare 
Tacit. AnnaL 13. 18: "nee defuere qui arguerent viros gravi- 
tatem adseverantes , quod dornos^ villas [sciz. Britannici], id 
temporis, quasi praedam divisissent.'' Ibid. 13. 4: "Discretam 
domnm et rempublicam " [tJie royal palace arid the republic 
should be kept distinct]. Stock, ad Tacit. Annal. 15. 41: "Tota 
in urbe, iuxta Victorem, fuere insulae 26602, domus 780." 

From this use of domus to signify a great house or palace, 
a house standing by itself, flows naturally its use for a temple, 
a temple being 2?ar excclletice the house, not only on account 
of its great size and splendour, but on account of its being 
consecrated to a superior being; and accordingly, we find even 
at the present day the principal church in a city called il dumno. 
The same use of oiv^os; is common in Greek. Compare Procop. 
de Aedif. 1. 10: f^iexQi eg tov u'iqeog y,aXovf.ievov oitlov. Aesch. 
Sept. c. Tkeb. 279 (ed. Schutz): 

Eeligiosa: "religiosa sunt quae non vulgo ac temere, sed 
cum castitate ceremoniaque adeunda et reverenda et reformi- 
danda sunt magis quam invulganda,*' Aul. Gellius, 4. 9. 9. 

VicTORi<:sQUE CADUNT DAXAi. Compare //. 17. 361: 

. . Tot (T' (cy/iGTivoi (n in TOV 
viXQOt ouov Tqmcjv xai vn fQu (vfMv tnixovQotv, 
Xtti zlftviidjv. oiS 01 ytcQ (ivaifiojTi y i^uj(Oino. 

Plurima MORTIS IMAGO. — " Aut dcfinitio timoris est, aut 
varietas mortis ostenditur, i. e. , gladio, igni, ruina. Aut fre- 
quentissima, aut praesentissima ," Servius. "Plurima mortis 
IMAGO, //. 6., ubique caedes facta cernitur; passim caesorum 
cadavera proiecta. Magis hoc accommodatum antecedentibus, 
quam varias caedis formas et genera intelligere," Heyne. 

361-360 Qms—TMACio] 



''Imaoo; forma, genus/' Wagner (1861), qutiting Tacit Hist. 
3. 28: '^lotegri eiira saueiis, semineees cam exspirantibus vt>l- 
ruDtur varia pereuatiiim forma, et otmii imagine morHum/* 
•^Imaoo mortis est, credo, quod Valerius Flaccus, 6. 419, dixit 
— forma neeis ,** Peerlkamp. 

PiATUM A MORTIS IMAHO is uot '* iibique caedes facta cernitur,'' 
because we have had ''ubique caedes facta ceinitur " already, 
viz., verse 364 : 


and although such repetition were ver\' usual and allmvable in 
the form of variation to a therae, it had been intolerable here, 
as the ivinding up and peroration of a long passage already 
eontaining the identical thought Neither is pluriiu Moims 
uucKi "'variae fomiae et genera caedis," because although, aa 
shown by Wagner's quoution from Tacitus, the words might* 
under^diffeivnt ciroumsitances, vi^., where such meaning wan, aa 
in Wagner's quotation, pointed out by the context, or even where 
such meaning was consistent with the context be so intei-pretfsd, 
they cannot be so interpreted here, where such meaning m not 
only not pointed out by the context but is inconsisti^nt v/ith th« 
ttf since tD say that the alaagbt^ wag of different kinds 
affords a peroration so weak and unimpressive as to be iM:;arc:ely 
less unsuitable than tbat afforded by the interpretation propofkod 
by Heyne, What, then, is t'LusiitA icoimif imaoo? I rfiply: 
a very great picture of dcsitlt « very great Ukeness or appear- 
ance of death— ^eath appeared efitrywhtfre around and about, 
everything which was to be aeeo spoke of death, sugigeiitad the 
idea of death; the very aenae in whidi the word imago is tiaed 
\m\ by Servioa, at 12, 606: ""Mom fail apad retertiv ut ante 
n^iim bumaoiia anipiia eflbiiderilttCi rel aqjiirunaiti vel 
[tomm; quonjiD d oopta forte Hon fniiiet, laaiaatea feiua 
saoni^effundebant cniarem, ui rofpa ills imago nstiiaereCiir ^ 
[tIx., the anieamioe, ilKifr, of hnnao blond), (ft), bjr VifiyU 
hiiiifiel4;8. &57 

192 AENEIDEA [361-369 quis— imago 

[the picture of war, the appearance of war, is greater than it 
was before; there is a greater appearance of war than pre- 
viously; war appears more imminent, more immediate than 
ever], (c), by Val. Flacc. 2. 640 (Cyzicus addressing Jason 
and his band of Aemathian chiefs): 

. . . *^ terris nunc primum cognita nostris 
Aemathiae man us, et fama mihi maior imago'' 

|"0 image, picture, greater than your fame," /. c, "0 greater 
than the image, picture, which fame had presented of you." 
The objects which Aeneas and his part>' saw and heard (viz., 
the dead, dying, wounded, the lamentation and terror) were' 
the very picture or image of death: the objects which Cyzicus 
saw, viz., Jason and his companions, were greater than the image 
or picture which fame had presented of themj. (d), by Ovid, 
Met, 12. 233 (of the battle of the Centaurs and Lapithae): 

'* ra]»taturque comis per vim nova nupta prehensis. 
Eurytus Hippodamen, alii, quam quisque probarant, 
aut poterant, rapiunt, captaeque erat urbis imago, 
foniineo clamore sonat domus " 

[there was the image or picture of a captive city, the scene that 
presented itself was the picture of a captive city, viz., because 
the women were treated with violence, as on the taking of a 
city, everyone carrying off by force her who pleased him best]. 
(e), by Claudian, /;/ Rufin, 2, 236: "en iterum belli civilis 
imago!'' [the picture of civil war]. (/), by Ovid, Met, L 238 
(of the wolf into which Lycaon was metamorphosed): 

*' canities eadem est eadem violontia vultu, 
idem ocuh lucent, eadem feritatis imago " 

|the same picture of savageness was presented by the wolf as 
had previously been presented by Lycaofi, the wolfs picture of 
savageness consisting of the particulars previously enumerated, 
viz., the grisliness, the fierce countenance, and the glaring eyes, 
exactly as in our text the picture of death consisted in the dead 
bodies which lay everywhere scattered about, the crudelis 
LUCTUs and the pavorJ. (f/), by Cicero, pro Sext. 19: "Alter, 
Dii buni! (juam totor incedobat! (juani truculentus, quam 

S61-8r»9 Quis— imago] 



terribilis aspecta! Uniim aJiquein te ex barbatis illis, exomphim 
imperii veteris, tmaginem antiquitatis, columea reipublicae,diceres 
uitum" [pictxire of old times], (/i), by Ovid, Met. IL 650: 
^dupticataque Dcictis imago est*' [tho linage of night (viz., that 
alitBady prod need in the miod by the usual sign8 of night) is 
doubled by the ud usual darkness produced by the thick eloudti]. 
(<), by Silius, 14, 616 (ed, Rup): 

, . . "commtmis ubique 
in deom, atqae eadem lethi Tersatnr imago'' 

\m plainly as possible, Silius's usual appropriation of the Vir- 
giliaB text]. JknA {k\ by Tadtus, AntiaL, 2. 53: "Igitur 
paocog dies insumpsit [Gerroanicus] reficiendae dmai: nimul 
sanns Actiaca rjctoria inclitos, et sacratas ab j^ugosto oianubian, 
castnqiie Antonii, cum reeotdatione maioruin soonini ailtit; 
Damque ei^ ut memoraTi, aTunculi^ Augtisttts, avu« Antonitm 
erant^ magnaque iliic imago trtstium laetorotnqoe *' (a great 
picture both of sad and jojfiil erents]. 

Id ail these passages, as in our text^ certain objects^ which 
resemble another object so much that the night of them ioggftts 
that other object to the miod, are itated 10 be ibe *^iamgo^^ 
image, or pieturB, of that ocher olqecl, the conipariaon or lik^ 
neaa between being eotirelv of objects; — ^ta our text, of tbi 
aighta and sounds which etrock the aenaea of Aeoeai and bis 
party^ ta death; im the iianasge of Serrsoa, of wofship oBend 
to the gods by woishifpeis witli HfiBdtng doei^ io wopihip oflbod 
to the gods with Ueeding Tkttms; ta Am. 9. 657, of the aetusl 
appearance of the Artadtan caralrj ntarchtnf forth, io tbetr r^ 
potation; te TaJeriw flaecoi^ of the isal imom aad faia bndi, 
kf the reimseBlaticm gifia of Jaaoo aad bis band kf fipoit; 
ta Orid, AM. 12. 223, of^s riokme» and tuouH al tb^ teal 
of tbe Centanis and iMfUut. io tbe violaiica aad taamll wUdl 
take piaoe when a tiif m takes bj sierm; to CterOf of a mm 
of the aodern linin. io ite flwi of mtimH tfaMs; to Orid, JM. 
//. 550, of tbe daitoev pwiiwd bf tioiids io Ibe nif^Mltm, 
to a dooUh^ cf night Im aU tbse tetaim Ite nwrnMonm 
by imofo is of cm tbiag to aanibir teog. Maetff as 



194 AliKSlDEA [361-d6d quis— UiAdd 

in the case of a statue or picture, the resemblance expressed 
by imago is of the statue or picture to the original. Paralld 
expressions in English are:— That child is the very picture of 
health. That face is the very picture of happiness. That day 
is the very picture of winter. That corn-field is the very picture 
of plent}^ That poor beggar is the very picture of want That 
condemned culprit is the very picture of despair. 

There is an entirely different use of imago, 9. 294: 

^'atque aniinum strinxit patriae pietatis imago,'' 
and 10. 824: 

'^et mentem i)atriae subiit pietatis imago'* 

In both these places "imago" expresses the resemblance not 
of two objects to each other, but of one single object to our 
perception of it There is, indeed, the same resemblance as in 
our text, in 8. 557, in the passage of Servius, and in the passage 
of Valerius Flaccus; but that resemblance is not of two dif- 
ferent objects existing outside the mind and compared together, 
but of one object to the impression which that object makes 
on the mind. "Imago" in these last-adduced passages is the 
picture, image, eidiolov, idea, in the mind — in the one case in 
the mind of lulus, in the other case in the mind of Aeneas. 
In both cases it is the "imago," eidiolov, or idea of paternal 
afTection ("patriae pietatis"); and this "imago," etdcoXov^ or 
idea of paternal affection is excited, produced, or called up, in 
the mind by objects presented to the senses, between which 
objects and "patria pietas" there is no resemblance whatever, 
those objects suggesting or calling up the "imago," eidtoXov^ or 
idea, only by association. Therefore the lines close the accounts 
to which they belong, respectively; and in the one case lulus, 
in the other case Aeneas, is left reflecting on this new thought, 
viz., that of "patria pietas" (the affection of a father for a 
child), suggested to him, called up in his mind ("animum strin- 
xit," "animum subiit"), by the objects which have just been 
presented to his senses, of which objects the new thought is not 
the image, but only suggested by association, exactly as, 2. 560, 
"subiit cai'i genitoris imago," the picture which presents itself 

tO-383 PRIMUS— ARinsj 

BOOK 11. 


to the mind of Aeneas is not the image or resemblance of any- 
^ thing pi-eseuted to his senses, but an ima^e which the objects 
■ presented to his senses suggest to hit* mind, ciUl up in his 

mind by the way of association, 

IPlurima, very great, very much, very strong, as Geonj, S. 52; 
^cui turpe caput, cui plmima cervix;" Ovid, Met, 14, 5S: 

''medio ciim plurimas orbe 

sol erat/' 

_8ee Reram, on ^'raaior Martis iam appan^t imago," 8. 557, and 
m ^'pietatis imago/' 9. 294; 10. 824, 




] moics RK, pANAtni MAGNA oounANTB OATKBVA ILI I). Heins.; N. 
H«iiJ8.; Heyne; Wagoer (ed, Hoyn,). 
[pund,] ranius se danaum, maqna caMTTAMTE catkrva III Voss; Wagner 

iPrar^t.); NaucL 
[pwwrf,] noMrs sk danaum magna comixantk catekva III P, Manut,; 
^ Ribbeck. 

^^^iU?. LECT, 

^flpumi.] LRRuiMiJS, i>x2«a]s III F, Mnnut. ; D. Hems/. N. Heins.; Heynev 

" Wagner (ed, Hoyn. and Praest). 

,{pi»w/.] TRHOiins DKNsis 111 Yoss; Rjbbcck. 


Pejjtus SB DAiTAtm, MAGNA comitante caterva, &c. — ^The structui^ 
undoubtedly primus danaum, not caterva danaum — fii'st, on 
ix^ount of the so much better eudence of the line, when 

196 ABiiflSmEA [370-383 Tmam—Asim 

divided at danaum than when divided at se ; and secondly, on 
account of the exact parallelism of verse 40: 

^^ primus ibi ante omnes, magna comitante caterva/* 

where the division of the line is just before "magna comitante 
cater\'a,'' and cannot possibly be anywhere else. If it be al- 
leged that verse 501 of the first book, 

^'incessit, magna iuvenum stipante caterva/* 

is divided exactly where our text is divided by the Heinsii and 
Heyne, and has a genitive ("iuvennm") exactly corresponding 
to the DANAUM of our text and depending on the very same 
"caterva/* I put in the double demurrer; first, that the divi- 
sion after "inccssit" — although at first sight a division after 
the same number of syllables as the division after primus 
sE — is yet a division of an essentially different kind, partakes 
not at all of the awkwardness of that division, on the contrary 
is full of grace and eloquence, being in fact a division not after 
the commencement of a sentence, not after the three syllables 
in-ces'sit, but after the ending of a sentence, after the long 
protasis "regina ad templum forma pulcherrima Dido incessit;" 
while the division after primus se is a division not merely at 
the very beginning after the first three syllables of a paragraph, 
but immediately succeeding a monosyllable consisting only of 
two letters, a situation than which it is hardly possible to 
imagine one more ungraceful, unless in altogether peculiar cir- 
cumstances, for a division. And secondly, that whereas 
verse 501 of the first book after the division at "incessit" runs 
on *' magna iuvenum,'' not ''iuvenum magna" — the emphasis 
being thrown (see Rem. on 2. 246), not cm the troop's consisting 
of young men, but on the greatness of the troop — our text after 
the division at se would run on, not "magna Danaum,'' the 
emphasis being thrown, as it should be thrown, on the greatness 
of the tioop, but danaum magna, the emphasis being thrown 
exactly where it should not be thrown, on the circumstance 
that the persons accompanying Androgeos were Danai. 

Irruimus, densis et circumfundimur armis.— The stnic- 
ture is not, dknsis aumis irrulmus i:r ciucumfuxdimur, but 


tt&^-SOS tK>LUS — WlMfflTUIl] 



mRCDfTs, ET DEXSis ARMI8 ciRCCMFUNDfMUR, anH the cnmiiui there- 
fore required; first, because it is Virgirs habit so tu divide his 
lines after the first or second word; and secondly, on account 
of the division immediately following this word in the same 
position in the verse, 9. 554: 

'^*hatid alitfV iiivi'nis iiu'dios inoritiinis in hostt^ti 
irruii, ot qua h4a videt densiitsinia, tfndit.'' 

The structure is similar, and the comma for tlie same reason 
required after the same word, 10. 579: 

^*^irrwit, adversaque iagens apparujt hasta'' 

(not "adversa hasta irniit upparuitque/' but "irruit, adversaque 
hasta apparuit"']; and 6, 294: 

^•^irruaif et fmstra feiro diverberet umbras" 

[not **ferro irmat et diverberet," but "irruat, et ferro diver- 
beret "J, 




OoLts AN VTETUs. — Compare Werner, die Softne ik^ Thalc.s, th. 2, 
^akt 1, sc. 6: 

*'da£J ist liaK ht-htL', wiks zuiii ziele fiilirt^ 
und wiks g^luugen ist auch I'echtlich.'^ 

fCasti, Anim, Pari IL 4: 

"viocasj i>er virtude, ovver per frode, 
e sompre il vindtor degno di lode/' 

doctrine is east up to the Romans by 8apor. Aramian. 17.5: 

198 AENEIDBA [890-393 dolus— nrouinm 

"Illiid apud nos nunquam accseptum fiiit, quod adseritis vos 
exultantes, ntiUo discrimine virtutis <zc doliy prosperos omneB 
laudari debere bellorum eventus." Innocent Sapor! how little 
he knew about virtus or dolus! that never man lived who 
had not one virtus, as one dolus, for his friends, and another 
virtus, as another dolus, for his enemies; one virtus, as one 
dolus, under one set of circumstances, and another virtus, as 
another dolus, under another set of circumstances; and that if 
it were not so, there could be neither war nor politics^ neither 
friend nor foe, neither acquaintance nor stranger, no relation- 
ship either of country, or of society, or of family, not even of 
lover and sweetheart, of man and wife, of parent and child, in 
the whole world. Hirtius, de Bell, Afric,, ascribes to the Gauls 
the simplicity of Sapor: "Contra Gallos, homines apertos, mi- 
nimeque insidiosos, qui per virtutenij non per dolum, dimicare 
consueverunt" How different Gauls from the Gauls of to-day, 
or any people with whom the Gauls of to-day have to do! 

Arma dabunt tpsi. — If, as hitherto supposed, ipsi mean the 
persons whom Choroebus and his party are despoiling of their 
a?'ms ("die todten werden waffen geben," Schiller), the sentence 
ARMA DABUNT ii'si is a mere tautology, the same meaning being 
conti\ined in the preceding mutemus clipeos, &c.; for, let us ex- 
change arms nnth these persons and these persons shall supply 
us it'itk arms are plainly but different ways of saying the same 
thing. 1 therefore refer iPSi to the Danai, the enemy generally; 
and understand Choroebus's meaning to run thus: "Let us 
change shields, &c., with these dead fellows here, and by so 
doing compel the Danai, the invaders themselves (ipsi), to fur- 
nish us with arms." The passage being so interpreted, tiiere 
is, first, no tautology; and secondly, iPSi has its proper em- 
phatic force. 

It was not until after the above interpretation had been 

published in my "Twelve Yeai-s' Voyage" I observed that "ipso- 

rum" in the not very unlike passage, 11. 195: 

. . . ''pars munera nota, 
ipsonim clipeos et nou felicia tela," 

means the dead, the actual pei*son8 to whom the j^rms belonged* 

390— 3d$ DOLUS— IN duitur] 



The parallelism, however, is not so perfect as to induce me to 
surrender iui interpretation which fills arm a dabuxt ipsi with 
point and spirit, for one which leaves that clause a mere diill 
tautology ♦ 

The expression .irma dabunt ipsi is the stronger, arm a dare 
being the usual and n?cog:nised phriose for supplying with arms, 
arming, as Ovid, Ep. IS, 140 (Laodamia tu Protesllaus) : 

**impoiiet galeam, harbaraque arma dabit 
arma dahit: danit|Uf^ tirma dabiij simul oscula sumet" 

hrg. EcL 6, 19: 

. , . "iniiciuut ipsis ex vinoula sertis.** 

Tlie sentiment contained m ajima dabuxt ipst is familiar to us 
I in rhe English proverbial expression, ftirnieh a rod to whip 
^m himself, 

^m Clipej tN8iGNE^ the ensign or device on the shield. C-hd- 
^M pare Aesch. Sept, e. Theb. 383 (ed, Blomfield) m}H cV aontd^*, 
^^^ko Aen, 7, 657: 

^^^^H ^^dipeo^\x^ in^igne patera urn 

^^^^H c 4 MIT urn jiiitmes cmctaitique gerit serpentilruB Hydmoi." 

W. r. 789: 

"at leveni etipeum sublatis coiiiibus lo 
aoro imsujnilHti^ iam sotis ob^ita^ uim bos, 
argumenhim ingens, et custom virginis Argius, 
caelatiique amiiera fundons pater Inachtis iinia.' 

• As statcni above, I ari^nied in my 'Twelve Years' Voya^t'" that iv^i 
moald not moan tho ciead bodit?s wbirL thoy were stripping, but the Dariai 
i;enerally, and that tbe gist of the |>aRsage was not these dead feUous htre^ 
bftt the Ikitmi, our enemies, shall ^ttppty r«* with wrwj*, antl I <|Uoted ia 
lUoijtnitioD tlje faijiiliar EiiglisU proverb, ''Furnish a rod to whip himsolf." 
This interjjretation is Bufhciently plauhible^ anU huji been ac^cepted by Mr, 
(ooington. I feur, however^ it is more ]>lausible tbiai precisely and niathio- 
iMtically corroot At the time 1 wrote that eoinment I had neither remarked 
4f bow v<iry fmrjueot owumence ta Virgil h au ahnotit tantx>logons ropedtioD 
of thQ eame thought (schj Ueviu on I, 550), nor observed that in the xery 
pintllel paseage, IK liln^ rpioted above, ''ipsonun" in the iietual dead bodies, 
die actaal ownors of the n^nua. I am, therefore, bound to give Schiller the 
credit of having understood the paasago correctly, aod am only sorry tbe, as 
1 itill lluiiky better thought ajipearg not to have been the thought of Viii^, 

200 AENEIDEA [396 haud— nootro 

Aen, 8. 625: "clipei non enarrabilc textum.'* Prudent, contr, 
Symm, L 487: 

"Christus purpureum, gemmanti textus in auro, 
signabat labanim; clipearum insignia Christus 

Cltpei DfSiGXE decorum; as if Virgil had said insigni or- 
natum clipeum, or clipeum insignitum. 



xuMiNE I Pal,, Med. II |^. Ul Venice, 1471, 1472, 1475; Milan, 1475, 
1492; P. Manut; I). Heins.; N. Heins. (1670); Philippe; Heyne; Pott; 
Haupt; Ribb. 

NOMINE II 3^^^. 

VaU Bom., Ver., St. Gall. 

^^Aut diis coutrariis, aut quia in scutis Graecoruni Neptunus, 
in Troianorum fuerat Minerva depicta," Servius. "A verso nobis, 
non propitio,'' Hoyne, Forbiger, Wagner. ^' Unbegleitet von 
gottheit,'' Yoss — all equally eiToneous and wide of the mark. 
Numen is used here in its primary sense, viz., that of will and 
pleasure, not in its secondary sense of deity or divinity (will 
and pleasure jmr excellence; see Rem. on ''quo numine laeso," 
1. 12; and "numen lunonis," 1. 52); and numlve nostro is not 
''our own or tutelary deity," but ''our own proper will and 
pleasure:" "we go mixed with the Danai, and therefore haud 
numine nostro, not according to our own will and pleasiu'e, but 
according to the will and pleasure of the Danai ; in other words, 
follow the lead and guidance of the Danai, not the lead and 
guidance of our own will;'' exactly as (a), verse 336; 

a(M% iiAio — vc^stno] 

BOOK 11 



in fiamnui8 Pt in aniin fenn, f^iio tii'?ti?j Eritiiij^ 
«juci (remituB vocat et suUatus* ad AOtht^'a elnnn^i 

(when* "^'mimino diviim" U not tlie tloity or divinity i»f flu* 
jirods iwhirh had betm niL^rt^ tiuitolof^^y, and o(]iiivalunt tu gods, 
gods, or deity, deity), but thi' will and pleasiin* of tlu^ pids; 
and where Aeneas follows thf *i;uid€^n('e nut <»f his own frcto 
choice, his own free will and pleasure, but of the g<Kl?;, exaetly 
a8 in oiu' text he follows the guidanee not of his ovrn free 
choice, his o\m ft-ee will and pleasure, but the j^uidance of the 
Danai). {h\ 6. 266: 

» , . '^sit nttfnine v^^stro 
pandcre res alta t*»rni ^H caligiiie iryenias 

(where ^^nnmine vestro''^/Ao/ with your pjdhetui, hui with 
your wUI and pleasure — corresponds precisely in every respect, 
even in its very position in the vei-se, with the xvmine nostko 
f>f our text), (c), Eclog. 4, 47 

•^coocordos stabili fatoniJn Ktortfm Im^nv 

[not with the steadfast p:*d-hend or deity of the fatrs, iuf/ with 
the steadfast irresponsible will und plea^^iire of the fates]. {d\ 
l. 137: ''meo sine uumhie" [not without my ^od-head, hrtt 
without my will and pleasure], (e), 2, 777: 

rion liiVMj stTie nHmhtf diviuii 


[not witliout the god-head of the ;^^uds, bni without the will Miid 
pleasure of the gods], (/i, 10. 31: 

**9i Kine pACHi tiia iit^jm* invito nttmine Trti^n 
Italium {it'herr 

not thy deity being unw illingr. but thy free will and pleasure 
being unwillingr; that fjuality of thy mind whri'h assents or 
dissents bein^^ unwiltiu^^: in other words, apiinst thy will], 
(ff), 4, 269: 

<'iu»huii t*t terras (|ui mnninr Ti>r«|ikft' 

\nM turns with his god-heacl, but turns with his will and plea- 
mv^ — his free, irresponsible, ab.voluto will and pleasiii*e]. {h)^ 

202 ABNEIDBA [396 haud— nootro 

2. 708: "vestroque in numine Troia est" (where "vestro numine" 
corresponds exactly to numine nostro of our text, and the sense 
is: Troy is in your pleasure, i. e., is at your disposal, is in 
your hands to do with it as it seems to you proper), (i), 
Manil. 4. 56: 

"qiiis tantum mutare potest sine numine fati*?" 

[not without the deity or divinity of fate, but without the wiU 
and pleasure of fate]. {J\ and especiaUy Ovid, Met, 10. 689 
(Venus relating the story of Hippomenes and Atalanta): 

"illic concubitus intempestiva cupido 
occupat Hippomenen, a numitie concita nostro" 

(where we have the identical expression of our text, and where 
the meaning can only be ou7' will and pleasure), {k\ 7. 583: 

. . ^'cuncti contra oniina belluni, 
contra fata deum, per\'ei-so numine poscunt" 

(where the commentators, making the same mistake as in our 

text, understand "numine" to mean the deity, the godhead, but 

where it is all the while the will and pleasure of the "cuncti," 

and where the sense is not with Wagner (1861): ''quasi perver- 

tentes, susque deque habentes, imperium deorum," but perverso 

arbitriOy with a perverse will and pleasure of their own). (?), 

9. 661: 

. . . "aviduni pugnae dictis et numine Phoebi 
Ascanium prohibent" 

[not with the deity of Phoebus, bnt with the will and pleasure 
of Phoebus— represent to Ascanius, that it is Phoebus's will 
and pleasure that he should not fight]. {fn\ 9. 247: 

^'dii patrii jjuoruni semi>er sub numine Troia est" 

[under whose will and pleasure Troy always is, i. e., to whose 
will and pleasure Troy always submits, by whose will and 
pleasure Troy is always guided], (n), 2. 123: "quae sint ea 
mimina divum flagitat'' [not what divinities of gods are those? 
but what will and pleasure of the gods is that? what is the 
meaning of that declaration of the gods' will and pleasure?]. 
(o), 3. 362: 

3*ifi HM.n— %osTHn1 BOOK IL ^^^^ 203 

, , ''rmmqiin omnom mi'sitm rnilh jm>}spt»m dixit 
fBligio, et ciintti ijuaiioruat numiiic divi 
Italiftni potero" 

f»W the gods persuaded with their divinity, hni the gods per- 
suadeil with their will and pleaisure, /. e,, by the expression of 
their will and pleasure— the latter dause being a variation of 
the firsts and the meaning of the two clauses together being: 
the gods declared by their omens and oracles it was their will 
and pleasure I should undertake this journey, and promised it 
should be prosperous], (/i)^ 3. 359: 

qui trijwxittf^, Clarif iaurus, qui sidt^m scntis ' 

fwlio understands, not the divinity of Phoebus, htft tlie will and 
pleasure of Phoebus j. (Qf), 8. 78: 

^^udKis toiiflem, et pmpius ton nmnina firmest" 

[confirni, not thy godhead, (ttit thy will and pleasure, /. e,, this 
expression of thy wilt and pleasure), (r), II. 901: ^'saeva lovis 
sic nmmmi posennt** [not the stern divinity of Jove, but the 
stem wull and pleasure of Jove). {s\ Lucr. 5, 307: 

**iipni*iue, non lapides f|UO*iu«* vinci serais ab aevny 
nun ftltas turros mere, «*t |>utr«»(*f«ri» tMuraV 
uoii dfluiiru douin simiilftcra<|ur fr*s^a fatisci? 
iu*c sfinthun nufitvn fati ]>rt>tulleri^ Hiiois 
jjossM^, ne<jue ad versus naturao foitlpra niti" 

rhore the material ''delubra" and "siinidaora'* of the gods 
^(**deum") are distingnished fruni the iinniaterial ''nunien'* of 
tht? gods; and wfiere the mianing is not that the deity of the 
gods could not shove forward the limits fixed by fate, but that 
the willing faculty of the guds could not^ however much it 
might desire). {t\ Lucr. 2. 611: 

"liwic [Ternini] variat' ^^entes, mitiqixo iiimo sar'mnini, 
Jdacani vocitaiit Mafri?ni; Pliry^ijusi|Uo eatunaH 
dant comites, iiiiia primum px jllis fiiiibiuH (Mlunt 
[wr tnrrarum orU^is frugfr*s coHpistn* fTHftri, 
(JJallw attnbiiuiit; quia tmrnen qupi viidunut 
njiitHb L*t ingnitoi gt'tiitoribus invent*-] smt 
signiiiciire volimt indignos esno pntAndos, 
viviini progenium qufi \\\ oju** liuninis edant*' 

204 ABNEIDBA [396 hatjd— nootro 

\nof tlie divinity of their mother, but the will and pleasure of 
their mother, that will and pleasure entitled to so much respect]. 
(w), Cic. de Xat, Deor, 1, 2: "Haec enim omnia pure atque 
caste tribuenda deorum numini ita sunt, si animadvertuntur 
[taken notice of, noticed] ab his, et si est aliquid a diis immor- 
talibus hominum generi tributum" [not to the deity of the gods, 
tnit to the self-originating will and pleasure of the gods], (v), 
Cic. Orat. de Hariisp. Respon^i^, 9: "quis est tarn vecors, qui 
. . . quum decs esse intellexerit, non intelligat, eorum numine 
hoc tantum imperium esse natum, et auctum, et retentum?" 
[not by their deity, but by their self-originating absolute will 
and pleasure], (w), Manil. 1. 483: 

"ac niihi tarn praesens ratio non ulla vidotur, 
(jiia patent niundum divino numine verti 
at<iu«^ ipsiim esse deum, nee forte coisse magistra" 

[not the world moves with a divine deity, and is god, but moves 
with a divine will and pleasure, and is god], (ac), ManiL 1. 531: 
^^uou casus opus est, magni sed numinis ordo" 

[sftreiy not, is not the work of chance, but the arrangement of a 
^^reat divinity (for the doctrine of the creation of the world by a 
divinity was not the doctrine of Manilius who was an Epicurean), 
bat is not a work of chance, but an order or system instinct 
with a groat will and pleasure: precisely the Epicurean doctrine, 
and the doctrine of Manilius — see preceding quotation]. And 
(I/), Hygin. Fab. 187: "Quem [Hippothouni] iterum equa nu- 
triebat pasloros iterum invontum infantem sustulerunt, sentientes 
cum doorum nfnm'ne educari, atquo nutrierunt" [by the high 
will, sanction, pleasure, ordinance, placitum, of the gods]. 

It is no mean recommendation of this interpretation of our 
text that it is not liable to the objection which has been very 
rt^isonably ur^^ed to every othei- interpretation of the passage 
yet oftei-ed, viz., that it forestalls and thereby weakens 


which comes better on the reader suddenly and by surprise. Be- 
sides all whi<?h, the going of the Trojans not under the direction 
of their Own will, or to a determinate point, but at random as it 

te-4l9 MULtOS— FUXDO] fiOOK U. 


were, and wherever the Greeks happened to go. harmonizes as 
well with CJLECAM co.NQREsyi pKR NucTEM III the next line {meet- 
ing hij chance in the darkne^sa of the night) as it conti'asts 
well witli verse 437: 

"protiuue ad sedcs Priaini dJUnor© vocAti." 
See Rem. on L 12 {al 


SflTMOS — rUNnO 

MrLTos DAKAiJM DEMFiTiMus oiicQ.—Doien being an essential in- 
separable part of the notion expressed by demittere, the like* 
ness between our author^s deiuttimls ohco and Homer's ^tdi 
uQOi'aiPev with which it ha^^ been compared by Hey no (followed 
by Wftgner on H, 566) is sufdcitnitly distmit. On this occasion, 
at least, our author has chosen better than to imitate, the notion 
oidimm expressed by his de being mnch more graphit- tbaii that 
of forward or before express<*d by Honker's nqo. Had Virgil 
aimed to imitate he could very oasily iiave said praemittinuis, 
tliough he could not have said pro mittimus, being prevented 
by the special Latin signification of that word. 

CoxorNTtjR, — Condere is (strictly) not morely to hi(k\ l)nt, 
the force of dare being preserved in its fompoim<l (see Fiem. on 
Aen, 1. 56), to put or pluitge into a plate so as to hide. 
Hence it is sometimes even joined with a preposition governing 
the accusative, as Oeorg. 1. 438: 

^•aol quoque et exoriens, et cum se r.ondrt in utitJas, 

Senec. Ep. 7; ^^Ista, mi Lucili, condendu in aiiimum sunt, ut 
eontemna^ voluptatem ex pUirium aesensione venientem/' 

H£U, — Wagner commences a new paragraph with this word, 
Heyoe with ecce in the next line, both I think erroneously, 
this liof UAnti intimately eonn re I rd btjtii with the prcfoding 

^06 A£KEIDi!A r^d8-4l9 mxtltos— ^mOK) 

and succeeding. The train is: ^^but all this success was soon 
to end, the gods being against us; for see where Cassandra/' &c. 
Invitls Divis = the Homeric d-eiov acxijrt. 


*'Ovidiano lusui propior est; Ovidius tamen castior nunc ipso 
Virgilio, Met, 13. 410: 

. . . Hractata comis antistita Phoebi 
non profecturas tendebat ad aethera pahnas.'" 

How different the judgments of men! To me, Virgil is here 
not only quite as chaste as Ovid, but twice as graphic: Ovid 
omitting that all-important part in a picture, the countenance; 
Virgil painting both the supplicating eyes, strained towards 
heaven, and the hands prevented by bonds from joining in the 
supplication. There is or should be more or less "lusus" in all 
poetry. If it be true that Ovid's has too much of it, it is no less 
true that Virgil's has hardly enough. Virgil is, perhaps, as 
much too severe as Ovid is too playful. Who shall hit the just 
mean? Of all charges levity is the last that should be brought 
against Virgil. In the present instance, if he be light, he has 
the levity of Euripides to countenance him, Androm. 573: 

akk aifxi^aiiu) o , (o ytQOv, twv atov naQOi 
nnvovau yovatutv, /(i^(ii ^ ovx t^fari fiot 
Tq^ Ofjg k(c^fa&((t (ftkT«Tf}g ytvtiaSog, 

as well as that of St. Jerome in his marvellous "Mulier septies 
percussa" {Epist. 1, ad Innocent. § 3): ''Oculis, quos tantum 
tortor alligare non poterat, suspexit ad caelum " — an expression 
of the thought, by-the-by, as incorrect as Virgil's is correct, 
for nothing was easier for the executioner than to bind the cul- 
prit's eyes, viz., with a bandage. Nor if Ovid abstained from 
the "lusus" in the case of Cassandra, did he always abstain 
from it. He would not have been Ovid if he had the happy, 
gay, playful, captivating Ovid of the Metamorphoses and the 
Aviotes. It was quite too tempting, and he yielded to the 
temptation— let Heyne frown and shake his head as he will, I 
only clap ray hands the harder, and cry "bravo!" the louder — 
yielded to the temptation once, twice, three times, for aught I 

Wt^ vn Tn-;-^ri \I»oJ 



knuw to tbe contrary ; once, at all events, in the cas6 of lo 
I V^/ i. 731}: 

^^quos potnit solos toHans ad sidera vultus;' 

and a second time in thiit of Andromeda \lbfd, 4. 681): 

. . , "maDibosque mo^iestos 
celasset VTiltus, si non religata fuisset. 
lumina, qvLod potuit, lacriinis impleWt oboitis" 

— examples which have not failed tu draw their imitators after 
them. See Victor Hugo, Notre -Dame de Park, 8, 6 (of Es- 
mei-alda): '^^PhoebnsM s*^ria-t-elle, ^mon Phoebus!' Et elle 
voulnt tendre vers lui ses bras treniblants d amour et de ravisse- 
naent, msis /fo Maitnt aifacMs:* 

Arcebant viNctTLA. — The translators understand these woi*ds 
tfj be equi%'alent to ^^vincula li^abant," and tu mean no more 
than that chains bouitd her hand^: 

"her eyen, for fast her tender wrists were bound." Surrey. 

^rude fetters bound her tender hands/' Bereaford. 

*^clie indegni lacci alia regal donzella 
ambe avvincon le mani/* Aliieri, 

On the contrary, the idea of binding does not extend beyond 
the word vtncula, and arcebant has its own proper force of 
hindering y keeping away: bonds (vinctjla) hindered, kept off 
(arcebaxt) her hands, viz,, so that she could not extend them 
towards heaven. 

Dkksis iKctniusriTs armis. — ' KataaA€vt}: raerito superati sunt 
pluribus,'' Servius, *' Vet ipsi deasis ordinibns, denso agmiue, 
TW irruimus in hostiuni densum agmen/' Heyne, ''Densis quia 
ipsi densi conferti, vs. 347, incurrunt," Wagner {Praest.}, '^Sje 
drangen sich in die den Coroebus beretts dicht umgebenden 
waffen,'' Kappes, How are we to decide the case, Servius and 
Kappes on one side, Voss and Wagner on the other, Heyne 
divided between, and grammar for both ? By the context, and 
vory easily. The words are in the ablative, the dense amis 
those of Aeneas and his party, fii-st, because the party has been 
already twice described as dense — verse 346: 

''quos ubi confertos audere in praelia vidi;'* 

208 AElNfilDEA t^8-419 multos— funw) 

verse 383: 

"irruimus, densi^ et circumfundimur armis" — 

the latter beiug manifestly our text in a very slightly changed 
form, and permitting, no doubt, of its "densis armis" beinjg the 
ablative case and the arms of Aeneas and his party. Secondly, 
on account of the not very dissimilar '4rruimu8 ferro" of 3. 322, 
whore there can be no doubt of "ferro" being in the ablative. 
And, finally, on account of the consequimur cuncti of the 
beginning of the verse, words which set before us a numerous 
united body (see Eem. on "contorsit," 2. 52), and prepare us 
for DENJSis AKMis, tlic arms of Aeneas's party who could not be 
CUNCTI and fo?2-sequentes unless they were dense. 


interpretation, ''uiA propter ereptam virginem," is proved to be 

correct, not only by the appropriate sense which it affords, 

and our author's use elsewhere of a similar structure, ex. gr,, 

"mortis fraternae ira,'' Aen. 9. 736; "ira irritata deorum," 

Aen, 4. 178; (jraiarum errore iubarum, verse 412, above; 

"voterum errore locorum," 3. 181; "ereptae amore coniugis," 

3.330; also ''lacrymao rerum," 1. 466; and ''lacrymas Creusae," 

2. 784; but by Livy's (5. 33) exactly parallel: "At-untem 

Clusinum ira corruptae uxoris ab Lucumone," and (1. 5) "ob 

iram praedae aniissae," and (8. 24) '^ ultra humanarum irarum 

fidem/' Compare, also, Ovid, Met. 9. 101 (of the passion of 

Nessus for Dojanira): '^eiusdem virginis ardor." Silius, 5. 344: 

"advolat intorea fraterni ndrwris ira 
turbatus Libyae ductor." 

Also the title by which Langland*s poem is generally known, 
viz., Piers Plowman's Vision, or Vision of Piers Plmmnan, 
equivalent not to "Vision seen by Piers Plowman," but "Vision 
concerning Piers Plowman, Vision in which Piers Plowman 

Gemitu.— "Dolore," Heyne. No, but a loud roar, or groan. 
Compare Aen. 2. 53; 3. 555; and especially 7. 15, where 
gemitus and ira are again united ("gemitus iraeque": that 
angry i-oaring, that loud erronning or roaring which is the con- 
s(.M|u«'nce of aMg(M). 

119 ilirLTOS— FUKDO] 

ftOOK 11. 


Advkrsi . . . FCNDo (vv, 116-419). Compare Aesch, Prom. 
Vinet, 1080, ed. Blonitielti (Prunujlbtnis speaking): 

nyiiuMtf nvtfitiii'" /iV^o»'« rf' tx nvitut^vu/t' 
infirui {H^tu*; Ttrfvutt it{H<6atvotj 
jitfutt it Tioi'Tov t^(t/ii ooiHtti 

Dante, Inferno, 5, 29: 

"che niugghia, mme fa mar per tempesta, 
so da contrari venti e combattnto;' 

J$o Sir Walter Scott, in his iioe 

Ivrie the "Pibrui'h of Donah! 

'^t'onie as the winds come 
when forests are rendod^ 
com© 08 the waves come 
when na\ies are strftoded/' 

Laetits vxm Ernes kquis,— Wagner (1861) says: ''equos 
ibuimt ventis etiam Hon Od. 4, 4. 44 

Vd, Flac 


[*ceu flamnm per taedas, vel Eur as 
per Siculas equttartf undas*], 

1. mn 

(^dlxerat [Boreas]; at cuncti froinere intus et ae»|Uora xoutl 
pOAcere turn vahdo contortam turbine purtain 
impulit Hiptiotfides: fundunt se earcere laeti 
Th races eqtit\ Zephyrusque, et nocti eoncolor alas 
ninfiboniDi cum prole Notus, crinemi^ue proceUis 
hispid us, et multa flavus caput Eiirus arena: 
induxere hiemem; raucoque ad littora tractu 
Ufmmmi freta ctirva feruBt nee sola tridentis 
regna movent; vasto pariter ruit igueua aether 
cum touitni, i>iceoque p remit nox omoia caolo'].' 

This is to take our author, as usual, too literally, and not merely 
ciur author^ but Horace, and Valeriiis Flaccus, Neither our fmtlior 
norH»»race means that Eiirus artually riiles nvor tlie sen, gullups 
per Uie sou un horseback: both Xn'^iTs i-xu-s i.AbTus k^^dis, 

UKprmr, AEKWWMJL, VOL. II. 14 

210 AiJNfelDEA [89a-4l9 MULtos—t^uWK) 

and Horace's "equitavit," and Valerius Flaccus's "fundunt se 
carcere laeti Thraces equi," are but various translations of the 
Greek ircnevBiv applied by Greek poets to the winds, and mean- 
ing not ride, but gallop like a horse, go galloping. Compare 
Eurip. Phoen. 210: 

v7it{i KXitftntaTon' ntStatv 
2»ixiXittg Zt(fV(iOv Tivottit; 
tnntvaavTo*; kv ovquvm 
xttXltOTov xfXnSrjuu, 

whei*e the scholiast: ZefpvQor mfoSQiog: rcvevaavrog. 

Saevitque tridenti spumeus atque imo nerefs ciet aequora 
FUXDO. — The structui-e is not spumecs xereus saevit tridenti, 
but nereus saevit tridenti spumeus; and the meaning is, pro- 
duces a great deal of froth in the operation of stirring up the 
sea from the bottom tvith his trident. Compare Aen. 11, 624: 

''(lualis iibi altcrno ])rocui'reii8 gurgite pontus 
nunc niit ad terras, scopulosque superiacit undani 
spumeus^ oxtroinamque sinu perfundit arenam;" 

where, as in our text, ''spumous" is placed in the emphatic 
position, and separated, by a pause, from the sequel. See Rem. 
on 2. 247. 

SAEvrr TRIDENTI. — The trident was used for stirring up the 
sea, and was laid aside when the waves were to be calmed, 
Ovid, Met. 1. 330: 

. . . "jw}«^oque tricuspide telo 
mulret aquas rector pelagi." 

i2i- 425 Tuj— smNANt] 





VLMMi cx- I Pul* (the A Yeiy iodistiiict and hardly traceable, still however 
traceable, oot as marked by Ribbeok w!io!ly uotraoeahle, aud only to 
be guessed). The actual roadiog of the MS. is RIAMI, the P atid all the 
preceding part of the liiie having he^n tora or eaten away. Ill Ribb. 

[jnmct.] ATpAHENT &c.^ without punct. Ill Ven, 1475. 

\jmmt.] APPARKNT pRiMJ , CL. I '^ In codd. aliquot antiquis, eodem membro 
legas ADPARKNT PRiMT disiuBctim; iiide, ^ufkos mkntitaqlt tkla aonos- 
cuKT,** Pierius. Ill Veo. 1471. 

^\puneL] APPARETTT , PRIMI cL, I A/r//, III Doiiat. , P. Mftnut, ; D. Heios, ; 
N. Heins. ; Philippe; Haupt; Wagner {Praest.}. 

Ijmniti.] apparbnt; priami <n.. Ill Ribb. 

Donatos is right. Fium belongs to aunosclnt not to APPAii£NT (1), because 
APPARENT must not lose its emphasis (see Hem. oc 2. 247); and (2), 
because (as Hhown by ktiam^ verse 42())^ uot the tlu Qt70R, &c.« but 
the iiANAi (verse 413), were the fuT^t to abow thejnselves. 

liBEMT^ shoti? themselves^ let themselves be seen^ fw Io}tger 
hide. Compare Amraiaii. 29» 5: '^exciibiasqiie a^ns ciira per- 
vigili, barbarorum ali€|Uos ausos, com mlparere non possent, 
post occasiim lunae castra sua tentare, fLidit, vel irruentes 
audeotiua cepit." A p par ere is exactly the Greek ffaiv^a^m, 
to appear, show one s self, present one's self, as Horn. IL 10, 
235 lAgameninon exliorting Tydides to choose t!ie best com- 
raile, not the noblest) : 

if atro^ tPtttf Tov (i{}tQTor, (liii tttumtat yi Ttolloi 

jthe best man of those who present themselves], 


2l2 AfiNStDEA [432-42b ilu— mi^Aicf 

Clipeos mentitaque tela aqnoscunt. — Not recognise our shields 
and tveapo7hs to be false, but recognise our (false) shields and 
iveapons to he the shields and weapons of their friends. 
Agnoscere is always to recognise, to acknowledge as an old 
acquaintance. The discovery that the shields and weapons are 
false, /. e., carried by Trojans, is made only on observing that 
the voices of those who bear the weapons are not Greek. 

Clipeos mentitaque tela = mentitos clipeos et men- 
tit a tela. Mentfta = false, /. c which professed to be carried 
by Greeks, but were in reality carried by Trojans, as Epit. 
Ifiados, 880 (of Patroclus clad in the armour of Achilles): 

. . . "donoc Troianns Apollo 
mefititos vnltus sinjiilati pandit Achillis, 
denndatqne virura." 

Ora sono discordia. — Our vwuths in soundy i. e., the sound 
of our mouths y our voices or accent , disagreeing with ottr 
assumed weapons. Heyne's gloss, ^^ discrepantiam sermonis,'" 
is erroneous, and Wunderlich's whole disquisition, "Troianonim 
linguam a lingua Graecorum diversam." &c., to no purpose. 
The Greeks do not hear the language spoken by the disguised 
Trojans, only their son us oris, the somid of their mouth, 
and that sound of their mouth (son us oris, voice) does not 
agree with their appearance— ''klingt fremd." Os is the mouth 
(/. e., the speech, sermo, lingua, as, 12. 837, ^^omnes uno 
ore Latinos"); sonus, the sound of that mouth, the voice, as 
Ovid, FaJit. 4. 57: 

'^carmina mortali non referenda sono."' 

Compare, also, 8en. Oed. 1012 (Oedipus hearing his mother's 
voice) : 

"quis frni et teuebris vetat? 
quis reddit ocnlos? matris, hen, matris amtua."^ 

Sen. Here. Oet. 1130: „est, est Herculeus sonus'' [it is the 
voice of Hercules]. Ovid, Mel, 12. 203 (of Caenis undei^oing 
metamorphosis) : 

. . . '*gravioi"e novissima dixit 
verba sono; poteratque viri vox ilia videri; 
sicut erat." 

431-437 iLuri— vocATi] 
Orid, Tn'st 5. 7, 51. 

BOOK 11. 


*'iu (laucis remanent Graiae vestigia lingnae; 
hsLec qaoque iam Getico barbara facta sono 

[the Greek language rendered burbaroui; by the tietic at^ent, 

i^oice, or sound of the speakers]. And especially Ennius (ed. 

Hessel), p. 40: 

'*ollei resjKintlet suavis aouuK Egeriai" 

[the sweet sound of Egeriu, /. *\, the sweet sound of Egeria's 
voice, Egeria's sweet voice]. 

Exactly as in our text oua is tlie mouth and kuno tlie sound 
of the month, '*os sonaturum/' Hor. Sat, L 4, 43, is the moutii 
about to sound: 

'^iogeniiun cui ait, cui mens diviiuor atque of 
iDigxia somUuntmf des nomiDi^ huius hortorem. ' 



lpunci,\ VK-Ks^ OA^ALM 1 Med. Ill l\ Umant; IX Hmuji.; K llmiui. (1670); 
Philippe; HeTne; Bnmek; Wakef; Wagoer (f»d. Hoyn.^ ijetti* Virg,, 

\punrt.] f^icio; i>jlnaiiii 111 tKetiieli {Th^Utg, y. 22); Ucytia (io rwrtt); 
Pe^rlkamp; Lidewig; Haii|»I; VStitmk^ 

214 ABNEIDBA [431-437 ilucx— vocati 


[fninct.'l DIVKLUMUR INDI 


in P. Manui 





Ill Heumann; Bormann', Voss. 





m Ribbeck. 



in D. Heins.; N. Heins. (omitting however the comma after iphitus). 

[ptmct."] DIVELLIMUR INDE*. 


Ill Heyne; Wagner (ed. Heyn., and ed. 1861). 

'4liaci ciKERES Bx loquendl usu ad Ilium in cineres versum 
ducimt: turn: 'et vos, o mei, quibus incendium urbis pro rogo 
fiiit' ... est tamen usui magis consentaneum flammam extre- 
mam meorum de rogo et funere, seu morte, accipere . . . Testa- 
tiir igitur funus patriae et funera suorum," Heyne. But which 
of our author's readers will readily agree that of cineres and 
FLAMMA occurring in one and the same verse, not only in im- 
mediate propinquity to each other, but actually connected 
together by the copulative et (cineres et flamma), the cinerrs 
has nothing at all to do with the flamma, the flamma nothing 




at all to do with the cineres? Who is there does not see — 
_shoiiId not, at a single glant-e, see— that tinbrks and flamma 
Blong to the same tire? Si» Lii Cerdu saw, mni interpreted 
'extinctam patriani testatui', t.'uiiversannjue in trineres; tiini 
etiani oxitialeai ilkm tlamniara, ((ua Tnnn arsit/' taking no 
notice of ah-x^rim, of which Lftde\vi^% Weidner. Kappes, and 
Conington, taking insufficient notice, undersUind clveres to be 
the ashes of Ilium, flamma the Hame which nut only produced 
those ashes, but served at the same time as the pyre-tlajue 
(FLAiuiA extki:ma) of Aeneas^s friends and companions in arms 
(lasoHUH) f^Da iiptis isuptrmfj.s iind /o>7 sfiptr/ni vuni scheiter- 
hanfen, .vi//j/>7«f/ offkia.supt'nN/ iitnii^suprenii honon\s von dcr 
besTAttung gebraocht wurde. kxthj-^ma flaaima an unsertT stelle 
^wiss fur Muprenm flamtnH steht; s<i hat Tjadewig wnhl recht, 
wenn er erklart; *Ks denten dieso wurte auf (h>n f^rund Troia's 
[), insofern or den leit^hini die Ntelle des seh(*iterhaufcns ver- 
Bten musste/'* Weidner. *^lfi Am engen verbindiing mit 
iUaci cinkhI':s wird die kxtrema flamma auf lien branrl der 
studt zn bezieheu sein, weh::liej" gleichsam 'ptu rng(»' war," 
Kappes. *' kxtukma meohlm is parallel tu ujaci cineres, 
us tlie tlames of Troy weie tfie funeral flames of Aeneas *s 
countrymen and friends,'' CouingtonJ — an analysis whteh* 
although so mucli juore contbrniahle than either Heyne'a or 
La Cerda's to the usual structure of our author's verses, al- 
though presenting Troy to us under the so familiar aspect of 
grave of its own ehildi^en (compare Catul). 68. 9B: 

"Troia (nefas!), commune ttrptttrbnim Aaiae Europaeijue; 
Troia. viram et viitutiim omniiiin acerba cinis.^' 

Senec, Troad, 55. 

'^^can.'t scpuUhru ]^iamus c^t liamma iadiget 
grdente Troia. 

Senec. Agunf, 741 (Cassaudru apostrophizing the ghosts nf her 
_alanghtered relatives): 

*^qtiid me vooatis sospiteni solam e rneis, 
uaihme moonim? te soijiior, tota pater 

216 ABNBIDEA [431-437 iliaci— vocati 

Sen. Troad, 28 (Hecuba speaking): 

"testor deorum numen avei-sum niihi, 
patriaeque cineres teque rectorem Phrygum 
quein Troia toto conditum regno t^Uy 
tuosque manes/* 

Manil. 4. 64: 

"inque i*ogo Croesum, Priamamque in littore truncnm, 
cui nee Troia rogu9'% 

Is still not the true analysis, lays quite too little stress on 
MEORUM, the index to the whole passage, the key of the lock. 
It is not the flamma extrema only which belongs to Aeneas's 
"mei"; the cineres also are theirs, not indeed in the grammar 
but in the sense, the meorum of the second clause bein^ the 
ILIACI of the first, the iliaci of the first the meorum of the 
second, and iliaci cineres et flamma extrema- meorum being the 
exact equivalent of meanim cineres et flamnia extrema Ilia- 
conifn or cineres et flamma extrema meorum lUacortim; all 
mere expansions — the original one, for the sake of filling up the 
verse (see below) — of the rudimental thought: dead companions 
in arms. It is as if Aeneas had said: ^'0 ye Ilian companions 
in arms who are now but dust and ashes, I swear by you and 
by the flame of your funeral pyres, that when ye fell (in occasu 
vestro) I shunned not," &c. There is thus but one flame spoken 
of, the flame of the funeral pyre; but one ashes spoken of, the 
ashes of Aeneas's fallen companions in arms ; and instead of the 
connexion by the copula et of the two incongruous conceptions 
ashes of Ilium, pyre-flame of friendsy we have the blending 
by means of that copula of the two cognate conceptions, ashes 
of Ilian citixenSy pyre- flame of friends , into the single con- 
ception, pyre of Ilian friends. 

This analysis and interpretation is borne out (1), by our 
author's habit of dividing a compound thesis into two or more 
simple theses (see Rem. on "quem si fata virum servant," 
1. 550, and on ^progeniem sed enim,'' 1. 28-26). (2), by the 
immediately preceding context. Aeneas ha.s just been narrating 
the deaths of his comrades one after the other. Choroebus, 
Ripheus, Hypanis, Dymas, Pantheus, have all fallen; with what 

131-437 1L1A<1— VMATll 

BUOK 11. 


adjuration eoulrl hv so well satisfy liis hearers that liis own 
i!lin:ival was not dm* hi a i'nwtirrily flight as by that of the 
only witnesses of his fMim fuiiipanions in arms? Was not 
8iich ailjuratioii both niuelj nearer and much more solemn than 
any adjuration of rbe burnt city? Was it not prec*isely to their 
fallen companions in anus botli the Maeon of Statins and Silius's 
son gf Regulus — each a sole survivor when aU his companions 
in arms had fallen - appealed for testimony that they had courted 
death no less than those who fell, and that if they survived they 
snr^'ived only becatise tlie fates ha<l dr<Tepd their survival? 
[Stat. Theb, 3, 02: 

procubuere. ornnps: mx'tis vagji humnu teytur, 
et tfftcimn Mane^, et te mala fimtinuH ales 
f^ua rt^leo, non hanc lacr>rmis moruissc. nee astu 
cradeleiri veniam, atque inhonome munera lucis, 
sed tnihi iussa deura. placito«iUG ignara movcn 
Atropos. at<jue ohm non ha43€ data ianua leli, 
eripucre Decern/' 

Sil B. 113: 

. . , **testor irtLja rmniitia, Mmitit, 
dignani nie poeoae tuiii uabilitatu pateraae 
stiage ho.stis 4HiaeKiHse tieoetii, di tristia letuia, 
at <|uoudam patri, nobis 'juo^ue fata negasssefit, ' 

with which compare Quinct. Ihrl, VJ^ J: '4gnoscite tamen» 
violati mams mewnm^'y And what reason can be assigned 
why VirgiK intending Aeneas to apostrophize in the fii-st clause 
of the passage not bis deceased ihenrls and tntrnpanions in arms 
but the burnt city, should use the— to say tiie least of it in su 
close connexion with fijlmma extjieaia meohum — very ambiguous 
ti^rm ciNERES, and not tlie equally obvious, even more pamllel 
Uj klamma, wholly unambiguous, hpms'f The above view is 
also supported (3), by the so frequent application of the terms 
cinis and cineres {(inst and ashe^s] not merely to dead per- 
s?ons whoso bodies have been actually reduced whether by tiit? 
or slow decay to <kist and asfies, but to pei>^ons recently dead 
iind who ai'e only figuratively *iy«t and ashes, as H. 212: 

'^oec minus interea Minenuni ia littore Teiicri 
flohant, r*t ehfrri mgrato sapretna fercbant/* 

218 AENEIDEA [4S1-437 iluci—vocati 

SU. 13. 469 (ed. Rup.): 

. . . ^S'aiiatque iacentum 
oxequias tumuli et.cinerum sententia discors'* 

[of the tumulus and the dead]. (4), by the no less frequent 
use of Iliac us to express belonging or in any way appertain- 
ing to ilium, than to express forming an integrant part of or 
resulting irom Ilium, as Sil. 15« 281: 

. . . ^^tibi barbara soli 
sanctius Iliaca servata est Phoebade virgo" 

\Ilia7i priestess of Apollo], Stat. Silv. 4, 2. 10: 

. . . ^^mediis videor discumbere in astris 
cum love, et Iliaca porrectnm sumere dexti'a 
immortale merum" 

[Iliaji right hand], (5j, by the so much easier, simpler, and 
more natural reference in vestro to the single category of wit- 
nesses, Aeneas's fallen companions in arras, than to the dissimi- 
lar categories, the burnt city, and Aeneas's fallen companions 
in arms. And (6), by the application of occasus to person 
no less than to thing, as Cicero, Acad. post. II. 8 (ed. Orellij: 
''post L. Aelii nostri occasum.'' 

To this analysis and interpretation, if anyone object with 
Voss: ''Wer denn gab den gefallenen ein ordentliches leichen- 
begangniss?" 1 beg to refer to 6. 505, where Aeneas informs 
the shade of Deiphobus that after that fatal night he had searched 
in vain for the body of Deiphobus in order to bestow on it the 
usual funeral honours, and being imable to find it had erected 
a cenotaph to the memorA' of the deceased, and where the shade 
of Deiphobus replies: 

. . . "nil tibi, amice, relictum; 
omnia Deiphobo solvisti, et funoris umbris." 

And, indeed, Aeneas and the other surviving Trojans having, 
after' the burning of the city, remained long enough in the 
neighbourhood to build and man and equip a fleet (3. 5: 

. . . ''classemque sub ipsa 
Antandro, et Phrygiae molimur montibus Idae; 

contrabimusque viros') 

431 4517 TiiACi— vfKiAnJ 



what difficulty way there iii the way of their performin^^ That 
duty wfaifh in the ancient systems of morals iind religion held 
a place secand only to that of returning thanks to the gods for 
personal safety and preservation, viz., the duty of decently dis- 
posing of the remains of less fortunate friends and relatives? 
(see IL 1: 

^'AeneaSi quAQquani et socus dare tern pus humandu 
praei3J|>itAnt ciirae, turbataque funere mens est, 
vota deum pnnio victor solvebat Eoo' }. 

What can be more certain than tliat after i^espects paid to the 
» — respects which, on an occasion on which the gods had done 
m ver>^ little for and so very much against them (2 610-618), 
need not, one would diink, have been either very cumbrous or 
very formal — their next and most pressing care w^as to perform 
that duty? what more probable than that that duty was, aa far 
as the eircumstauees of the ease allowed, piously and scrupu- 
lously performeil? wiiat more natural than that the very person 
on whom that duty had principally devolved, the very person 
who was so celebrated for his pious performance of such duties, 
"pious" Aeneas, should in a resinue — yeai-s after and in a 
foreign country, and before an audience of strangers — of all that 
bad occurred, let it plainly appear, that neither had that so 
indispensable, so imperative, duty been neglected? And finally, 
how was it possible to make less parade of the due discharge of 
the incumbent obligation than is made of it in the aposti'ophe 
to the friends w^ho had perished^ and wliose bodiet* he had burned 
on the faneral pyre, to testify for him that if he was still alive 
it waa not that he had not exposed hijuself to danger as they 
had, but solely because it Wim the will of fate to preserve him? 
for the illustration of the text see also at vei-se 587 of this 
book the immediate connexion of ''cineres*' and ''nieorum'* in 
the iilentical sense (viz,, that of dead frirnih) afforded by the 
same two words so widely >;eparati'd and withitut any immediate 
connexion in our text. 

Vestro ^vei*8e 432 j, ffour; referring back, past flamma kx- 
TiiJ&MA MKOEUM^ to u^iAci crsEREs: *^0 ye fallen companions in 
ann>. \vIm> um' m^w ijut Uian dust and ashes, 1 ail I you to 



[431—437 iLiACi— vocATi 

witness that wben ye fell F would have fallen too, had the fates 
}>eniiitted/' &c,, flamma kxtrema meokum being but a dilatation 
of. a dwelling oo, the thought iliaci ciNEaEs: **Ye friends of 
mine (meorcm) who have been reduced to ashes (iliacicineriss) 
on your funei*al pyres (h.amma extkema)/' exactly as in Anna's 
address to Aeneas, 8il. 8. 81: 

'*nat0 dea, solm regni ludsque fuisti 
germanae tn causa meae; mors testis^ et ill©— 
hcu, cur non idem mihi tune! -rogus/' 

"ille rogus'' is but a dilatation of, a dwelling on, the thought 
"moi-g*' (equivalent tn mot tua Dido, and corresponding pre- 
cisely to the lUJiVi ctNEH^; or dmd compinhfhs if* arm*s of our 
text), and along with that theme-thought is invoked to testify 
(''testis," the testok of cmr text) that Aeneas was the sole cause 
of Dido's death. 

Awkward and perverse as is this eonstroetitm, more awkward 
and more perverse is the constroction adopted by Heyue: '"ashes 
of Ilium pasche der Ilierstadt,' Voks|, pyre-flame of my Mends" 
(whether regardeii as together forming the notion, ftvAcv of limm 
and niff friemis, or regarded as two separate and independent 
notions, ^/,v/?f.v of Ilinm, fiame of the funeral pyre of my friemb), 
for what fall (vestro occasu) had ever, or could by possibility 
ever have had, either the ashes of Ilium or the flame of Aeneas^s 
friends* funeral pyre? More awkward and more perverse also 
is La C/Crda^s *extinctani patriam testatnn conversamque in 
cineres, turn etiam exitialem illam flammani qua Troia nrsit,'* 
fur what fall had ever, or could by possibility ever have had, 
the eontlagration which reduce<] Troy to jishes? f>nly in meorum 
(see above) and the double sense of cineres, a word equally 
capable of signifying burnt ashes and the dead, is a clue to 
be found to hut author's meaning in tliis most awkward, 
perplexed, and obscure passage — O tp' II tan (ifml aud red need 
to ashes on the pyre! 

Lliaci. — Acconling to the abuve analysis the sense had 
been not only fully but clearly and unequivocally expressed in 
the words cineris et flamma extrema meobcm (pyre-tlame and 
ashes of my friends - friends reduced to asbes on the pyrej. 

Jl— 43t aiAfl — Vf>C!AtlJ 

book: \l 


Wliat occasion, then, for ir.iACi? Were not tlit) giNERt:H of 

Aeoeas^s friends necessarily iuaci ciniibes? Certainly: and just 

because they were, and because cij^eres was meagre and bald 

lifitbout a descriptive adjective to balance extuema^ the descrip- 

\tiye ac^jective of flamma; and because the measure of the verse 

ras incomplete without, and complete with, the addition; and 

(because the sentiment expressed in aNERKS bt flamma extrema 

MEOBUH, however pathetic, was pathetic only, not at all patriotic; 

and because iliaci m tirst word of the verse was both graphic 

and fine-sounding, ujaci was prefixed to cfneres with tlie un- 

[perceived, or, if perceived, disregarded efttx^t of separating that 

' word from its explanatory meorum, and so leaving the reader 

I with the information, indeed, that the cinkhes spoken of wem 

jllian cineres, but without any information what kind of Ilian 

[cineres they were^ whether ashes of Ilium (''asche der Ilier- 

iBtadt,'' Vosg), or ashes of liian men. Compare (3. 366) the 

[luinilar ornamental (t/i capium vulgi use made of the same 

iwoi-d, happily, however, without a similar ill effect: 

'^Pergamaquc //iV/fawqiie ingis banc addidit arcem,*' 

I where "'Iliacamque'' is as supemrogatory following **Pergama- 
que,** as iliaci in our text is supererogatory^ preceding crNEHES 
PT PLAHiMA KXTRKitA MEORUM ; and Contrast Statius, Tbeb, 5, 454 

<H>^isipyle speatcingi: 

. . . ^'tnnerem furtaf*«|iie raeorum 
testor, ut externals hod sponte aut crimine tnedas 

where ^^cinerem," not having been, like the cinkres of our text, 
separated from its explanatory *'meorum'* io order to be joined 
to an adjective and so form a clause of its own, is in no danger 
either of being misundeiTStood itself or of leading to a misunder- 
rtftpding of '^ftuiaB/' 

To make my meaning clearer I shall repeat in other words 
the view I have just taken of the etiology of this vei-se. Had 
Jkeneas, like Uaeon and the son of Regulus, used the usual 
apostrophe and addressed his deceased friends' Manes, there had 
been no difficulty. But this is not what Virgil has chosen his 
.hero should do. He iias diosen rather that Aeneas should m- 


[431-437 lUAct— votATi 

Toke his deceased friends' cinkres and plamma extrkma. Now, 
it was not Aeneas*s deceased friends alone who had cineres 
and a flam ma ex t re ma; Ilium had them also, and it there- 
fore became incumbent on Virgil well to distinguish which 
cineres and which flam ma oxtrema he me^nt. This care 
was not taken; for, although mkorum places it beyond doubt 
that the klamma extrkma is the flam ma not of the city but 
of the funeral pyres, yet meorum only comes to the rescue after 
the harm has been done, and the incautious reader has already 
understood njACi ctneurs to be the ashes of Ilium, a meaning 
which until he comes to the word meorum be has as indisput- 
able a right (and La Cerda and Heyne exercise th*- right even 
in defiance of mkprttmj to assign k» the words, as that other 
meaning in which Virgil without, however, sufficiently indi- 
cating his intention, intended them to be taken. To be more 
explicit still: cineres et flamma extrema mkorum had been sub- 
ject to no ambiguity, had been clear as daylight, hut had been, 
at the same time, too simple and inartificial a form of ex- 
pression for our author, ambitious as he was to write Lntin in 
a style in which J^tin vas never before written by anyone. 
The verse^ besides, was incomplete, and required to be filled up 
and rounded. A clause, therefore, is, according to the autlior's 
usual fashion, made out of cineres by the addition of hjaci^ 
and so the verse not memly completed, but rendered thoroughly 
Yirgilian and rhetorical, each separate half balancing its pen- 
dant or opposite part, and even the words of which each separate 
half consists balancing those of the pendant or opposite part — 
hjaci cikeri-s balancing both in sense and rhythm flamma 
EXTREMA meorum; and flamma extrema meorum, in like manner, 
n.iACi cinkres; while even the separate word iliaci balances 
meorum, and the separate word cineres balances flakma 
I extrema. The addition of the word iijaci conciliating for the 
il>uild of the verse these certainly not despicable advantage, 
'and the word being in itself by no means trite or vulgar, 
but rather of the i'Htp, and sounding sweetly besides, and 
80 helping to take something from the itl effect of the three 
^literae latntntes" which foflow iijaci.- we need not be sur- 

1431 437 lUAi I - V-x-ATi] 



jirtsCHl to find an author, m little solicitous about perspicuity 
[id so very solicitous about harmony and effect as our author 
m all occasions shows himself to he, jissignintj; not merely a 
plaoe in his verse, but the nui^^t honourable place of all, to a 
word whieh not only adds invthinfj: to the j^ense— for who does 
j^uut know without being told that the cinerrs of Aeneas*s mkorum 
Ilian? — but introduces so much ambiguity into the verse 
to lead even La Cerda and Heyne astmy. nay, so far astray 
' thai each of thuse i'nmmentatni>; assigns tu the verse a meaning 
^as widely different from the meaning; assigned to it by the other 
it is from the ri/;bt t>ne. See Rera, on '^sequar," 4, 384; 
and on 'Mllins noctis," 361, sN/mr. 

Nkc tela svr VLh\s vfTwrssK vici-^ oanaim: ''I did imt shun 
flo do^ was not shy of iht'iiv^, anythin*i: I could against the Danai 
thrijiigh fear of anything llie Danai might do to me in return/' 
^In otiier words: ''I used ray weapons, nil ray art, skill, and 
fch^ngth against the Danai, without regard to the consequences 
to myself; 1 did my worst against the Danai, not tearing their 
woroi*' That this is the precise and at the same time the full 
and complete meaning of the passage is shtrwn by Silius's only 
tm undisguised, too palpable imitation (6. 113): 

. . . 'HeHtor, m&a numina. Manes, 
dignain me poeaae turn nobilitate paternae 
ittrnf/e hosti^ quwsi.ssc nrrem, rii tristia lottim, 
ut qaoadain patri, nobis <|uoi^ue fata negassent,'' 

where "teeter Manes me strage hostis quaesisse necem" is pre- 
cisely the ^^entiraent expressed in ouj- text, vix., "testor vos 
WiACi cmER^ me non vitamsse sed mani; merulsse mortem/' 
The parallelism of the two passages is perfect in every particu- 
Iw^ Aeneas invokes the friends who had fallen beside him, to 
witnefiB that he bad not consulted his own safety, but on the 
<^oi\trar}' had dared and provoked tlie enemy to the utmost, and 
^«8 only saved by its being the will of fate that he sfiould not 
Aen die. 8i!ius's hero invokes the Manes to witness that he 
M by slaughter of the enemy provoked an honourable deaths 
^i would certainly have perished had the fates not denied him 
that favour. It is impossible for parallel to be more perfect, or 


[431—431 lUACl—VOCATt 

meanmg more certain in both places. Testok corresponds to 


numina, Manes;" xox vitavissk, to '*quaesisse;" tela and 
VLLAH VICES DANAUM, to ^'necem;'' mkuuisse ma>t, to "sti'age 
Uostis;'' SI FATA FuissENT, to ''iii fata negassent;'' and caberkm, 
to ^^letum." 

The sentiment to which Aeneas gives utterance is exactly 
that which was to be expected from him under the circum- 
stances. How was he to account for liis own escape^ for his 
being there alive, well and unhui't to tell the whole story to 
Dido at a great entertainment, over tlie bottle, as we say in 
Englisli? The stratagem (}f putting on the armour of the Oreeks 
slain by him and hi^ little party had failed, and they were 
overwhelmed by infuriated luinibei's. Choroebuy, Kipheus, Hypaiiis, 
Dymas, and Fantlieus had just fallen at his side; how did he 
escape himself? Dido's eyes asked, and the eyes of the assem- 
bled company, did ho run for it? Ho could not but explain, 
and what otlier explanation, unless he had brought bis mother 
to his help, and she had to be reseiTed for a still mure urgent, 
more extreme peril to come by-and-by? What other explanation 
was pussible than that the fates would not permit it? On the 
one hand, there must be no hiding, no shrinking from danger 
on his part; there must, on the conti-ary, be daring, daring even 
to the death, to despenition: <.m the other hand, there must he 
no boasting, no ^'twenty men in buckram killed with his own 
hand,'' How was it pussible to bit ttje Juste milieu untre pre- 
cisely than with this solemn invuc^tion of his deceased friends 
to bear witness that if he wa.s still alive it was by no fault of 
his; that if he survived that fatal hour, it w^as not because be 
had shrunk from doing his duty, but because the fates had 
willed that he should not then die, had preserved him from the 
consequences of his reckless desperation, from the reprisals (vicfs) 
of an enemy whom he had pruvoked to tlie last and utmost? 
Compare the case of Caesar —so far as meriting death {albeit in 
a different manner) the same as Aeneas's, but directly opposite 
to Aeneas's in so tar as Caesar was awanlerl Ijy the fates tiie 
death he merited — Lucan, 7, 594: 

SI— i37 rLiACi— tocah] 

BOOK n. 


, . ^'IiumaDutn ciilmen, ijuo onnctA proirumtor, 
egreflsus^ meruit fatis bim oobile letuin/' 

VicKS, — VicJR, vicem, vice (to sp«^ak tirst of the word in 
tij© atQ^ilar) in part (in the sense of rOie\ move^ iurn (in the 
sense of the Frcucli tour). Compare (a), Oviil, Art, Amat. 
1. 370: 

*'ut puto, Don poteris ipsa referre viemn^* 

["yoii will not be able of yoiii^elf to return him his move, to 
play the same part towards him wliirh he has played to you'* — 
the notion of reciprocity, retribution, ur ta/io bein^ wholly absent 
from '*vicjera" and contained solely in "reterro''j. (h), Ovid, 
er Ponto, 2, 10. 49: 

"hio ea^ et ignoras; ©t ades celeberrimus absens; 
icque Getas media visiis ab Urbe vcnis. 
redde mtmn\ et quoniam regio felicior ista est, 
illic me memori peotore semper habe" 

p return nie my move, play the part towards me wliieh I have 
played tnvvardt; you" the notion of reeiprocity being contained 
not at all in -'vicem'' but wholly and solely in "redde''|. (r), 
Auson, Gratiunim attia, in initio: ''Ago tibi gratias, Imperator 
Auguste; si possem, etiam referrem. Sed net' tun furtuua de- 
aiderat remunerandi rieem, nee nostra suuf^erit restituejidi faeul- 
Jjltenr' (wiiere apiin ''vieem" is simply tnvfi, mow, r6te, or 
ft, the notion of reciprocity ur repayment being confined to 
'^refen'em/' '* remunerandi," antl ''restituendi"), (d\ Catull 
£pi7/f, PeL ct Thelkl 68 (of Ariadne): 

"sed ne<|ue turn mitrao, noqiif? turn fluitantis amictus 
ilia ricem cnrans, toto ex te pectore, Theseu^ 
toio aiumo, tota pendebat perdita mente'' 

not caring what *'turn*' might befall her cap and loose-flowing 
J^be, f . e., not carinj^ what mi-rbt happen to, w^iat might become 
'>f» her cap and looso-tlowing robe], (e), Ovid, Art. Amat, 
3. 6G5: 

*^Dec rjimiuDi vobis formosa aneilla ministret: 
saepe vtrem domiuae praestirit ilbi oiilii'* 

rp<*rfonncd to me the part or ro/r i>f the niistreSH]. if I Cic. 


226 AENlilDEA [431-43? iLiAoi—rocAil 

ad Fam, 4. 5: ''At illiiis [Tulliae] vicew, credo, doles" [the 
turn which awaits her, the tiini she has to undergo]. {g\ Ibid, 
11. IS: *'Valdo et meam et vestram vicenf timeani necesse est" 
[the turn both you and 1 have to undergo | — the last three 
being examples in which, notwithstanding the presence of "vi* 
cem" as in the preceding examples, there is yet, on account of 
the total absence from them of the "referre" and ^'reddere'^ 
of those examples, no notion not oven the least of reciprocity, 
retribution, or falio. 

As witli tlie singular so with the plural term. As long as 
redd ere, refer re, or equivalent, is absent from the sentence, 
the notion of reciprocity, retribution, or faiio, is no less absent, 
no matter how nuich vices may be present. Compare {h\ 
Ovid, Met, 1. 625: 

"centum luininibiis cinctuni caput Argus habebat: 
iude suis vicihufi capiebant bina (luieteui, 
cetera servabant. atque in stationo nianebant" 

[''rested in their turns, each pair in its turn'' — no notion of 
reciprocity, retribution, or falio. there being no redd ere, 
referre, or equivalent|. (i), Ovid, Met. 15. 237: 

"haec quoque non pci*stant quae nos eloraenta vocamus: 
quasque rices peragant (animos adhibetxj) docebo" 

["what paits they peiform"— no notion of reciprocity, retribu- 
tion, or equivalontj. (j), Oulej\ 208: 

. . . "quis moritis, ad quae delatus acerbas 
cogor ad ire ricrs'' 

I ''to accost bitter i)arts, to address myself to bitter performances, 
actions, roles, moves" — still no reciprocity, no retribution, no 
talio\. (ifc). Quint. Curt. 5. 24: "nee immerito mitiores vices 
eius [FortunaeJ expe(;to" [milder turns of Fortune than her 
previous]. (I), Stat. Si! v. 5. 2. 152: 

"felix, qui viridi fidens coeptaciue iuventa 
durabis (juascunque r/Vr,v ' 

[will endure any turns whatever], while the notion of re- 
ciprocity, the reciprocal or retributive ''turn" makes its 'appear- 



ance the moment ref»^rr(\ rodrlere, or nqnivalent, enters into 
compositinn of the sentence, as (mK Ovid, Mrt, 14. 35: 

. . . "sporoentem spornt?; seciuenti 

Brve your pursuer with similar tiiru, /. e., pursue lior win* 
pursues you J. (n), Prop, 4, 4. fil ted Hert^sb): 

^*8i niiouSf at raptae ne slut impnuo Sabinae: 
me rape, et alterua lege repende rises'* 

l^^y turns aci^^ording to tlio (t^x talio/rLs\ 
l^'fjs, L p. ins ahe fates addressing Dis): 

(ot, riaiid. RapL 

. . ''»iui fmem ounctis el sewniuft praeboST 
naficendifiuo viees alterna morte rr^i^cmitM' 

p*repftyet!Jt or balanoest the turn of liirth by tlie turn (d death, 
balaneest birth by death'' — the ii«»tion of returning or payiu^i; 
Uein^ eontainud not in the *' vices,'' but in the '^'^lterna'' ami 
**ritpen(lis"|, ip), Petmn. e^p. S9 (of the sons of Laocoon): 

. . '^Deuter anxiiio sibi, 
uterquo fmtri, tranMitltt jiietAs riceat. 
utorijuo fratri fran^tu/if pias virr^.'* 

f\ SU. 9. p, 137: 

*4ainque inter varias Fortmia utrinquo vironim 
altenjata ptrw, in<2©rto elTisernt iras 
eveutu ** 

nating amon^^ the vjirinus torus'* — the alternation being 
expressed by -'alternata'' and '^variasr and the turjis rmly by 

The iimi eonelusion deducible from this lon;^ array of 
examples is, as has been already pointed out, that vices, 
wbethi>r in the singular ur plural, involves no notion of reci- 
procity, retJibution, or tnfio~\n^t tfiat the word, whetlier in 
the singular or plural, has not always necessarily a reference 
lo a prerioufi or future vix or vices, exactly as our corre- 
sponding worii turn has always, and of uecossit>% a refenmce 
to A previous or future state, bout, or turn (or some state or 
hotit ^r turn must hn^'r preroded, ns Rome stnte or bout or turn 


228 AENElbiiA [431 48? iuact— vooAtt 

must also follow), but that this reference is general and inherent 
in the word itself, and by no means points to any special and 
particular vix or state or bout or turn which has preceded 
or is to follow, as, for instance, (1), H. 535: 

^*hac lice sermonuin roseis Aurora quadrigis 
iam medium aetherio cursu traiecerat axem'" 

[not witli this interchange of talk, or alternate speaking, or 
dialogue of Aeneas and Deiphobus, hut with this bout of talk, 
this turn of talk, viz., botli of Ac^neas and Deiphobus— the 
''vice" not moaning any reciprocity, or alternation, from 
Aeneas to Deipliobus, and from Deiphobus in return to Aeneas, 
but meaning that the talk of the two persons was a turn or 
bout as contrasted with the preceding turn or bout of silence]. 
(2), Oeorg. 3. 188: 

. . . "iuque picem det iiiollibus ora capistns" 

give his mouth to the muzzle for a turn]. And (8), Aen, 

12. 501: 

. . . "quos aequore toto 
in<|Up rlrnn uiuwj Turims agit, nurn) Troius heros" 

[not whom Turnus and Aonoas alternately drive, t)at whom 
Turnus diives for a turn and Aeneas drives for'a tiim — the 
alternation being contained not in the ''in vicem," but in^the 
''nunc," as appears at once on striking out "nunc Troius 
heros,'' when it will b(» found that ''in vicom nunc Turnus 
jigit" can by no possibility signify: "now Turnus alter- 
nately drives,'' can only signify: ''now Turnus^drives for a 
turn'-]|. The necond, that vices, wliether singular^or'plural, 
is a niedimn rorabnlnm of grammarians, and takes its'colour of 
good, bad, or indifferent from the surrounding text — is good, 
Ovid, ex Ponto, 2. 10. 4fJ: Auson. Orat. Art. in initio; Curt 
5. 24; bad, Cic. ad Fam. 4. 5, and U. IS; Cvtrx, 208: Stat 
Silv. 5. 2: indifferent, Ovid, Met. 1. ()2r): 15. 237. Compare 
also the expression viee- versa, and the modern viee-roy, rice- 
(ferenty rice-chancettor, vlce-pre.sirtent, riee-ad?nirnt,&c. And the 
third, that vices is according to the^ context either active or 
passive, expresses either the to?fr, tuin, part or move which one 

4.^1- 4:^7 fUACi— VOCAti] 



pei^ua ur thing performs towards jinotlier las Ovid, Art, Amnt, 
370; Id., ex Ponio, 2. KL 49; Auson. Gmt. Act. in init.: 

)vid. Art, Amnt 3, 605, Met. I 625, 15, 23, rind 14, 35; 

^ru|>. 4. 4. 57), or the tottr, ttinj, part ui- rtiove wliirh pei-son 
hir t)iiug suffers, of which jirrstm or thiii^^ is the uhjwt (as 
ICatiill. Kpith. B^l, ft Tht'thf, aO; Cu: itd Fanr 4, 5. and 

I 18; Pukj, 208; Stat Stir. 5, 2l 

Applying Ut niir text thosr* confliisions as ostablishetJ prini't- 

[rles, we piMceivp at mice that yUEs is nelflier witfi Servius. 

leyne, and Mitscherhrh, "|>ugnas, (piia per virissituditicm pug- 

liabatiir" (S^rv. ed. LinnK "tortunae. casus, et tiutdem /#. /, 

pagnae^ quae nt vidimus mudo secunda. niudn adversa fuemt" 
IfHeyne), "pugnanr' (Mitscherlich, ad- Hor. (\irtti. i. 14, 13, 

rhere he says: ' cojiiiun ij)sis feci (*aiMlciii a uie tnctfini uleis- 
i; pufpfutft hand dotiigiendu, obtuli me ipseiruni ultioni ") 
[|for how can that he vicc»s which lias, not merely and iR'cord- 

mg to Senius himself *' vieissitudmes/* hut accurding h\ Claud. 
J Com, Honor, 282: 

. . , ^' hotr aspeiA fati 
sors tuleiit, Martisque rieri*'^ 

[^ turns of Mars. A /-. uf hattlej: Si), :i V2 ied. Riip.): 

"-hiuc omen coeptis, et oasus scire futiu^is 
ante diem, brllique virr^ oovisse petebat," 

even virus? How call that he viecs which ha.^ rices? a 

tthing^ one of its own i'haractcrs?J nor with Hunnann, ad 

Prop, 1. i:i 10, ''poenas," sn to explain m^ks bein^ neither 

Iniunf* nor leg,^ than to assi^^n to it n notinn iviz.. that of retri- 

[lutionl which we have just seen is foreign to the word: nor 

witli Thiel and t'onington. ''cominus puguare/* as opposed to 

TEi*A (**eminus piigiiare'') J'' Virlloicht bezi-itluiet thii.a das 

emmn^, vices dns ittmhiU^^ itftfftmrr/' ThieL ''1 t*an scarcely 

<louht that Thiel is riglu in (hstingnishing runs from tkla, as 

hand-fo-hand encounters, romiitHs, from missiles," Conington] 

for CO mi nils pugnare is only a species of pugna, and we 

hare just seen that vit^es is not, cannot be, pugna. 

What Hjen is vici->t licit? in aur text, if it is neither ''pngnae/' 

230 AENEIDEA [431-437 iliaci— vocati 

nor "poenae," nor "comiuus pugnare?'' Why, what it Ls every- 
where, iurns; and there being two kinds of vices (active and 
passive, as there are two kinds of turns, active and passive), 
the VICES which Aenea^i assures his hearers he did not shun 
are active vices: and — the sole subject treated of, the sole picture 
befoie us being that of Aeneas on the one side and the enemy 
on the other — the active vices, the active turns, which Aeneas 
did not shun are those of the enemy, the manoeuvres, no 
matter of what kind (ullas), directed against him by the enemy, 
the Danai; the turns the enemy, the Danai, might serve him, 
VICES DANATJM, ULLAS VICES DAN'AUM ; cxactly as, versc 572, 
''poenas Danauni . . . praemetuens," where not only is the 
structure the same as in our text (''praemetuens poenas Danaum" 
the same as vitavisse vices DAXAUJki, *' Danaum'' being in both 
the same causal genitive as it is called), but "praemetuens" 
is as near as may be identical in sense with vitavisse, "Da- 
naum" absolutely identical with danaum, and '^ poenas," except 
that it implies retribution, the exact representative of vices, 
nay, so exact a representative of vices as to be the very term 
by which that word is commonly interpreted; aud where, still 
further and as if to complete the parallelism, the object of the 
verb, the object of the fearing, is double, divided into ''poenas 
Danaum'' and its explanation, ''coniugis iras,'' as in our text 
the object of the verb, the obje(!t of the shunning, is double, 
divided into tela and its explanatory vices danaum. 

But wliat need of this or other more or less imperfect parallel 
to illustrate a text when we have a little further on Aeneas's 
own exposition? Let us hear Aeneas himself, verse 726: 

"et me, «iuein dudum non iilla iiiiecta movebant 
teln, ncMjue adverse glomorati ex agiuine Graii, 
nunc omnos torrent aurae, soniis excitat oninis. 
susponsum et panrer romitique onerifiue timouteiii," 

"and me whom a short while ago no weapons of any kind flung 
iigainst me, no bands, no detachments of the opposite host, 
moved at all, now every breath of air terrifies, every sound 
excites:" as if he had said: "me who so lately shunned neither 
weapons nor any turns the Danai might serve' mo, me who but 

1-4S7 iLua— vocATi] 



for thf.' fates harl died the death my daring merited, every breath 
of ail* now terrifies, every sound excite*;" — the second ptissage 
being as plairdy as possible a recast td' tli^* fimt, a ree«st in 
which the subjects ^mihu idlii iiiitvtn tela'' and 'Mie^jue adverse 
gU>merati ex alanine (iraii*" r^'present the <d/)eets nec ti^i.a yvr 
CLLAR VICES DAXALM of the tiFat, aiul ill which the objeet ''me'' 
is the identieal subject me sttbdpullftuti of the fii*st, aiid tht/ 
vei'b **movebant" tfie reinprueal i>r rorrelative t)f tlie vrrAVissK 
the first. 

Right. I aiij told, all ri^^dit; with tlie ,^iijgle exception tliat 
"*adver*Hi giumerati e.\ agmine tJraii" n?presents ncEs under- 
stood in its particular sense of cxciihiae. uiin are relieved 
per vices or keep j^uaid vieibns, nuieh mi>re exactly than 
it represents vni-js in it.s general sense of tttrns, rhaftt/f.s, *m 
parts, an objectioTi to which my n^ply is (1), that mces in tfie 
sense of the men tliemselves is rjuite ton tecfmical and special, 
fitter for prose than poetry, (3), That vicks in the sense «)f the 
men themselves limits too nuich the daring uf Aeneas, contines 
it to men who are rather on the detV'i\sivr thun <m tin- offensive, 
falls fiir short of the '^advei^o giomerati ex agmine Omii/' thi^ 
imntbt of (imii, of the cnm*lativr passage, (8)^ That the ex- 
pf*?«4aion where used by onr anthi»r elscwliere is always used 
in its general, never in its tochnical and spi*ciai sei^se, not even 
\Tbere tlie subject-matter in hand is excnbiae, as 9. 174: 

a 221: 

a IH4: 

excubat, exercptque virf^n f^iio4 t;iiir|up tiieii<luin est; " 

. . . ^Sugileji tiiraul exuitiit; dli 
auocedant sorvantHUc trices;^' 

**di3Cttnuat, varjmtt<|Uo rtrrj*, fusi^uo por herbtuu 
iaduigetit vinn, et vertiint cniteraB alieiios;" 

in not one of which examples is there any ambiguity, nor can 
**Tioo»'' bo tuiderstood to mean tlie guards themselves. |4l That 
jLlcimutt AvitUH in a jiassage vctv ajjparentiy imitated from our 
text, a passage in which we have ll*^t only vices but vices con- 
tm-distingnished as in oar text from tela, uses the word not in 
its te«-'hnical and special, but nner|uivf>cfilly in its gcimcd sen so, 

232 AENEIDEA [431-437 iUAci— vocati 

Trans, Mar. Ruhr, (Poem, 5. 542): 

''plebs trepidat conclusa loco, fineinque sequent! 
expectat pavefacta die, non tela nee ullas 
bellonim molita vices^ sed voce levata 
vatibus insistens." 

And lastly (5), that however usual at the gates are excubiae 
or bands of men keeping guard vicibus, or per vices, and 
therefore sometimes curtly denominated vices, such vices are 
not to be thought of here in the middle of the city— see verse 
359: "mediaeque tenemus urbis iter." 

Vices danaitm, as "poenas Danauni," 2. 572 (see above); 
''reliquias Dauaum," 1. 84. A writer less ambitious of strength 
and novelty of expression would no doubt have used, with Alci- 
mus Avitus just quoted, the ordinary expression, vices belli. 

The construction is vices daxaum, not danaum manu, because 
this latter construction leaves vices altogether without speci- 
fication, without so much as the slightest intimation what kind 
of vices is meant, an omission which not even the advocates 
themselves of that most pervei-se construction have attempted 
by any explanation to supply: Peerlkamp — although discussing 
at some length the respective merits of caderem maxtj and 
MERuissE manu, and treating at full of vices daxavm — saying no 
word at all of liis widowed and lonely vices; Ladewig, Weidner, 
and Kibbeck treating her with no less disrespect ('^Es ist zu 
construiren: et, si fata fuissext, ut danaum manu caderem, 
MEHU1S8E iH(\ ut oorum manu caderem," Weidner. '*Manu ist 
mit caderem zu verbinden; die construction ist: et MEiiuissE, 
UT MANU danaum CADEREM, SI FATA FuissENT (uamlich, fff Caderem^ 
Ladowig, 1867. ''Danaum ad manu pertinere vidit Peerlkampus," 
Ribbcek}. Danaum belonging as we hav(» just seen to vices 
not to MANU, i:t caderem of course belongs to si fata fuissent, 
not to MERuissE, and the punctuation is: vitavisse vices danaum 



Vitavisse vices, avoided turns, in the sense of tours, etnl 
tarns, as Aen. -J, 367: ''pericula vito" \aroid damjers]. 

437 li.r**!— Vi» atiI 

hiHiK U. 


MkUI JSSK M\M IS i'XpictUiT i}i SKV TKI-A N K! 11.. VIT, VtC. 

t>AX%. not only did not a void, httt even braved death, 

MoiUKSSK {subaad. id tpsn/ft)^ vi/.,, ut CADEUKii, in other 
words, sjERUissE nee em, caodem: compare Liu\ 2. 108 (of 
diildren butchered ) : 

••crimiue ^ao jiaivi cnedcm pgtuere menri?'* 

Mibxr, mih nuj hand, i. o. mtk my sword: MKitrissE wksv. 
earned mtj death with nuj .sword, i. i\ by fighting; exactly as. 
2. i>45: **mami murteiu iiiveniam," find death with my hand, 
i. e, with my sword by figbting; 6. 434: '*letum peperere 
ttiami.** proenrrd denth for thenh'^elrcs with their own hand^ 
h e, with their swords: Sil. 2. 705: '^uptJibit [ Hannibal] ceci- 
disse many,'' to have fnllen l/y the sword, to have died fighting. 
1q like manner, Sil. 7. 323 (ed. Riip ): 

'inter eqnos, iolerijae viros, iotenjue iftcebat 
eapta ninntt spoliu et I'orautia caede Maraxes/* 

spoih taken l/y ftyhtiny, by the sworJ, Sil 1. I<i0 (ed. Rup.): 

"^prinm* iiiire mntot, postreinuB jKinei^ Marteni/' 

the fhift to enter the tmttle with his sword, i. e. fighting, 
Tjlkdus, lame, limping. Compare Propert. 2. L 59: 
''tarifa Philnntetae siinftvit rrtuii Machaon. ' 

_CatuU. 36, 3: 

**nam sanctae Veueri Cupidinii^ue 
vovit . . . , . ... 
etet^tidsima pessimi {loetao 
scripta tardipedi deo dtttxiram 
infelicibus iistiilanda lignis/' 

VoCATi bokmgs to divelumuk, the direct thread of tlie mii*- 
ralive being interrupted at isi>^ iu order to expluiii (in tlie 
two interciihiry lineii ipuitls . . . uuxi: see R^'ni. on 5- 704; 
6. 743, skO) who the people are to whom the w(>rd divkllimur 

234 AENELDEA [442-468 iostesq.— culm. 



TKcTA (vs. 445) 111 Servius; P. Manut.; D. Ileins.; N. Heins. (1670); 

Heyne; Brunck; Wakef.; Wage. (ed. Heyn. aod Praeat.)', Lad. 
TOT A 111 Voss; Ribbeck. 


nioratae sint, *gradus" vix alii esse possuut quani scalanim/' 
Heyne, Coniugtou, Kappes, erroneously, as I think. First, 
because particular mention of the steps or rounds of the ladders 
was unnecessary, the ladders themselves being flights of steps; 
particular mention of the steps leading up to the door was 
necessary in order to prevent the entrance from being conceived 
to be on the level of the ground. Secondly j because it is not 
at the door the scaling ladders would be applied, but on the 
t'ontrary an attempt would be made by some to break in 
the door (as we iind was actually done, verses 469 et seqq.). 
while others were scaling the walls. And thirdhi, because a 
double contest is plainly described, one at the door, in the words 


SERVANT AGMiNE DENSo; the othei\ that of the party scaling the 
walls, in the words iiaerent parietibx's scalae; tupeosque ad 


the alteniate mention of the tight at the door and of the 
attiu'k of the scaling party, and then again of the fight at the 
door and the attack of the? scaling party, the attention of 
Aeneas's audience and Virgil's readers is kept divided between 
the two combats which are going on at the same time and in 
the same field of view, not fixed on one to the exclusion of 
the other. The effect is most happy, except so far as marred 
by the inaptitude of the reader. But where is the fine writer, 
where evei* was the fin<^ writer, who has nnt suffered from the 

442—4^8 iHiatB!!^— ctilil] 



fault tif his remlrr? Where ever wm the j^iiperior mind which 
eauki eitluT i^evate the ininds of bystander,s tn its own level, 
or debase itself to theiiij? 

XiTcyruK oRADlDUs: lit^unlly, ascend, go upward hij ihv 
ith'ps; lens tiTemlly, mount tht ntepH. Xrn ntiij does not express 
any Miu^gle with tliose defen<ling tlie palaee, or any other 
exertion than that uf nioimting the' Kteps. Compare Tiieit Hint, 
*'A 71: '^Hie Hnibigitnr, i^netii tectis opprignatores inieeerint, 
an obs^essi, quae rrebrior tama est, quu niicuieH ae proji;rossus 
tlejH'Uereut.'' where ^^nitentes'' is those nho were amTiHthfij, 
tjuing ftptrardji, mountini}. 

(jRAWHUs, the flight of steps learling up to rliu dour, uj^ 
K 452: *'aerea eni grfidilms surgebant limimi." 

Ti-RBEs AC TErTA ooMuKUM, k<.\ '^Tkctta: citlmixa. TKrTA 
|mrtieipiufji rst; aut eandtni rem his dixit/* Servius. " Docte 
pro ipso tecto iisijue rebus ipiibus superiur domus pars tegitur. 
A. f. tepulis,'* Heyne. I louk upon tuhkks ac tecta as the 
proper »d)jeVt of co.wellunt, and oomqhL'M cuuiina m the ex- 
planation ef iTimES x\i TKCTA, as if he had said, "die tuhkks 
and tkcta whii*b are the tops uf the pataeo, tlie xrHHi-^s and 
TDJTA whieh tu^^ether constitute ttie cii.mina of the palace/' 
See vc»rHe 466, where ime of these turres is again fuund in 
company with tecta: 

*'tKf'rtfa ju praeeipiti stAutoni sumaiisqutj sub astra 

ArmTASQirK tuabes, &c., DE\'OLvrxT. Compare Tacit. Hist, 
H, 71: '* aiiibiistiijsciue Capitulii fores peneti-assent, ni Sabiuus 
revulsas undi(|ue sfntnos, dtrora nmtontfn, in i[)sn lulitu, vice 
innri, ubiecissjet," 

Has servant aomlnk OENSO.^Not tpmrd (which were cus- 
rodiunti, but rttuoih hesuh, keep post tte^Hie, keep station 
Itrskir: exactly as 2, 711: 'Monge servet vestigia coniiix '* [not 
at all gnnrd in the sense tif protert, but keep in]: 2. TjUT: 

. , . ''qutirn liniina Vestae 
ffer»antpnh H tacitara soerptn in nMe latoateiii 

[n»»t lit ^M tfuftnfing, hut (crept ny dost: in, not stirring /ront\. 

236 ABNBIDEA [442-458 po8tb8<j.— culm. 

The Greek rpvlaamo is used in the same manner, as Horn. 
Od, 10, 434: 

01 xtv 01 jUt;'« (fw/<« ff iJneooottitv xiti (tvayxtj 

[not, with Clarke and Damm, ctistodiamnsj but (Anglic^) keep 
(the hmise), i. e. remain in (the house)]-, Od, 5, 208: 

H'f^uSi tti'xi^t uivtav avv tuoi To6f Soduk tf vlaoaotg 

I not, with Clarke and Damm, custodires, but keep {the hotise), 
remain inside {the house)], 

LuiFiN ERAT ... A TERiiO. — The structure is: a tergo erat 


PRiAMi, posTESQUE RELicTi ; and the meaning: at the rere [of 
the building] was an entrance through an abandoned secret 
door of communication between the besieged building and the 
other buildings of which Priam's palace consisted. Compare 
Sil. 11. 316: 

**po8t<iuam posse datum nieditata aperire, Dovosque 

pandere conatus, et liber parte relicta 

tectorum a tergo patuit locus" 

['* after a place opened to him in a deserted part of the building 
behind (/. e. in a daserted part of the rere of the building), 
where he might freely explain his purpose"). The true struc- 
ture seems never even so much as once to have crossed the mind 
either of Heyne, or Wunderlich, or Thiel, or Peerlkamp, or 
Conington, all of whom join a tergo with relicti, and the 
second of whom is so little satisfied with the best he can make 
out of the words as to wish them at — "vellem abessent." 

A TEKcio, at the rere. Compare Plin. Ep, 2. 17, 5: ""A 
tergo cavaedium, porticum, aream.'' llrid, 15: "cingitur diaetis 
duabus a tergo/' Ibid. 21: ''A pedibus mare, a tergo villae, 
a capite silvae." 

PosTES REJjcTi, an abandoned door, /. p., out of use. Com- 
pare Claud. Rapt. Pros. 3, 146: 

. . . "domus oxcubiis incustodita remotis, 
et resufanati nryUHo cardine posies.'' 

Tacit. Annal, 13. VJ : "statim relictum Agrippinae limen; 
nemo solari, nemo adire.'' Aen, 3. 123 : '^sedes relictas." Georg, 
4. 127: ''cui pauca rt'licti iugera ruris erant" (where Ser- 

44*i— 458 P08TESQ, CULM.] 

BOOK !1 

vius: "^deserti atque contempti'i. And — exactly parallel to 
our text, both in sense, syllables, and positioo in the verse— 
5. 612: ''classeraquo relietam:*' 4. 82: "stratisque felietis;'' 
2. 28: 'Mittiisqiie reiictum/' 

Pervits U8US, a passage not merely into, but through, the 
building, as Liv, 10. 1: 'in earn spekmcam penetratum cum 
sign is est; et ex eo loco obsenro niulta vulnera accepta, raaxi- 
raeque lapidum ietu; donee, altero specus eius ore (nam pervfujt 
erat) invento, iitmequo fauces congestis h'gnis accensae/* 

Eva DO Ml srMMi kastigia culmin'is. — Evado (e-^ado), go 
the whole way Ihroitghy jhiss over the enlfrr spare (whether up- 
ward, d&wnward, or on the kvfi)^ so as to pass mit ofi the far 
ffi4ie: and tijat whether physically, as in the passage before 
us. and 12. 907: 

"Deo spatium etasit totum, n(n\ne perttiht ictum;" 

4. 685: **8ie fata gradus eraserat altos'' [had mounted tlie top- 
most step]; and 2. 531: 

*Hit tandem ante oculoa eraaii et ora imrerrtti[j» " 

1 where **evasit'* i^ raiNi- the whoh iraji — viz., the whnle way just 
described '*per tela, per hostes, portieibus longis fugit, vacua 
atria lastrat*' — into the very presence of his parents— see Rem. 
ad 1oenm\ or metaphorically, as in Teront« Adetph. 3. 4. 63: 

, , . '*verum nimia illsiec li^jontia 
profecto eradtf m nlirjiiri{l mni^imm fnalnm-/' 

and Andr. L L 100: *'quam tinicn qniH*sum evadas,'' in both 
which passages the reference is tu tlie ultimate event, the 
upshot The corrcHptmiling Greek word is iy.<iatyio, as Eurip. 
Med, 5.i: 

tnn(f* $ft f(*oi u i'lttiX'lt' yti Tf xot*imfiti 

Bunnann, in his commentary tui this passage, and Forcellini, 
ID lu« dictionary, interpreting ovado by asrettdo, transfer to 
this verb a meaning wholly foreign to it, and cijntained only 
(incidentally I in the context 

23g AENEIDEA |;460-466 TURR.--iMPtL. 



In PRAECIPITI STANTEM. — Previously to an oral commutiication 
I made to Forbiger in Leipzig, in 1851, and the publication in 
1858 of my "Twelve Years' Voyage," these words were under- 
stood by commentators to mean in a high situattmi ("In ^Ito, 
unde quis potest praeceps dari," Serv. (ed. Lion). "In editiore 
loco positam," Heyne. "In alto," Wagner "In alto positam," 
Forbiger). I objected first, that in praecipiti — according to 
the use made of the word praeceps by Latin writei*s (viz., to 
signify not high, but steep, perpendicular, from w^hence a head- 
long fall might easily occur) - was not in a high position, but 
on the edge of a precipice; and secondly, that it was as unlikely 
that Virgil would inform his readers that a tower summis sub 
ASTRA EDucTAM TECTIS was ou a high situatiou, as'it was likely het 
would inform them tliat it was (whore it must have been or it 
could not have fallen on the lieads of the besiegers) on'the edge 
of the roof, perpendicularly over the front wall. [Since the period 
refen'ed to, I have had no occasion to cliange my opinion, on 
the contrary, am confirmed in it, first, by the conversion to it 
of the two surviving of the above-mentioned critics, viz., For- 
biger, who with his usual honourable candour observes in his 
edition of 1852: "in praecipiti stantem prius interpretatus sum 
in alto positam^ coll. luv. 1. 149, 'omne in praecipiti vitiuni 
stetit,' i. e.^ summum gradum assecutum est; nunc^cum Henrico 
cxplico in extremo margine tecti stantem^ ut facilej" impelli 
posset in hostium capita," &c.; and Wagner, who ~ reticent, 
as usual, not only of the cause of his cliange of opinion, but of 

iiiii 4Ar> TURU.— tMPtu.] 

BOOK 11. 


liu- .sourfc whence his new light is derived— euntents himself 
with the laeonic ^loss: "in rre]>ifline tecti, unde praeeipitim 
p4*ierat in subeimtes:" and fi^econilly, hy the eorifirmatinn 
which luv npinion rereives no fess from tfjo very passage of 
Jiivennl rightly iinilei^^rixKl, on whieh, wron^Hy understood, 
Forbiirer hiul fuunded his previous wroiiic opinion— tlie ''onine 
to praecipiti vitiurn stetit^' of Juvenal raeaning not ''summum 
g7-adiim assecutum est*' \/tad arrived at the fop step atid could 
go no hi(j}i4>r\ but '*ad erepidineni ventuni ^^V\\had atrlmd at 
ttte rd(fr of ii preeipif'c, ami could go no far thcr\ — than from 
the pliiin meaning of the same exprea^iion where it is ti^nim- 
tively used by Celsus 2. ti {"/// prfoy-fpHf mm esse [negTuni] 
luntiat |alvu8| (pine litpiidu Giidenn|ue vrl nigra vel pallida 
pingiiis est,'' in which passage *'in praecipiti" is, and can 
only be, on a predpiccy. and of '*ex praecipiti'* where it is 
figuratively used by H«»race, Sat, 2, S. 2 ^^2: 
. . . ''oaaas rafuliirusvo Invarif 

in which passage ^'ex praeeipiti'" is iind eaii only be front the 

Coningtons translation ^with slieer descent, a turret liigh" 
h not English, conveys no notion at all to the P^nf^lish, scarcely 
any even to the Ijatiii, scholar. 

Qua auMHA labantiss roNCTUHAS t^biilata oabant: where the 
turret tras connected with, and ea^s-ifif separatifc from, ftie terrace 
on the lop of thr imlacc. Heyne and Wagner understand sumaia 
TAStTLATA to ujean the highest storey of the turret: but, admit- 
ting tliat the turnjt tiad a number of storeys, the Trojans could 
not have attai'ked round about with iron the highest storey of a 
turret KoreTAM sun astka, without ascending tiie turret: and 
having asiM-ruled, it seems impossible to comprehend how they 
could precipitate it on tlie Greeks, without precipitating tliem- 
solves along witli it; or indeeti, how, being in or on it, they 
could prcHi'ipitate it at all. The words coxveulimus and im- 
iTLiiiir^i are, of themselves, suthtient to show that the Trojans 
stood on the roof of the palace, w^iile they tore up the turret 
Ai.Tis HKumus {from tfs high seat, viz., on the roof of the pnlnf^e), 

240 AENEIDEA [460-466 TURR.^iMPtJt. 

and pushed it forward, so as to cause it to fall on the besiegers. 
SuMMA TABUI.ATA, therefore, is the flat or terrace (solarium — 
see "Palais de Scaurus," 15) forming the roof of the palace, on 
which the turret stood. This flat or terrace being a floor [tafel- 
werk, Germ.) is called tabui.ata, and being on the top of the 
house is called suuma. 

luNCTURAS, the connection or jointings of the tower to the 
flat terrace on which it stood. 

The relative positions and relationship of the turris and 
the tabulata are clearly set forth by Servius, ad Aen, 8. 693, 
where speaking of ship-towers he says: ''Agrippa primus hoc 
genus turrium invenit, ut de tabulatis subito erigerentur." Add 
to this that the "turns'* on the roof of Priam's palace stood 
perpendicularly (in praecipiti) over the front wall of the palace, 
and the whole picture is placed before the mind as distinctly as 
it is possible for words to place it. A tower on the roof, serving 
as a look-out, watch-tower, or specula was a characteristic of 
the ancient schloss, or palace; and villas, especially when they 
were on tlie sea-shore, were furnished with them for the sake of 
the prospect — see Ovid, Met. 1. 288 (of Deucalion's deluge): 

''si qua dornus mansit, potuitquo resistere tanto 
indeiecta maio, culmen tamen altior huius 
unda tegit, pressaefjuo labant sub gurgite turres.'' 

Plin. Ep. 2, 17 (of his villa near Ostia): "Hine turris erigitui, 
sub qua diaetac duae; totidem in ipsa; praeterea coenatio, 
quae latissirauni mare, longissimum littus, amoenissimas villas 
prospicit." Such towers are to be seen even at present on the 
top of royal palaces,, of the schloss in Dresden and of the 
Palaxxo Vecchio in Florence, the tower in the latter instance 
being very striking and remarkable, inasmuch as it is not only 
exceedingly high -commanding a prospect over the whole city 
and neighbouring country, and forming a conspicuous object in 
the view of Florence taken from whatever quarter — but is built 
like the tower of Priam's palace perpendicularly over the front 
wall of the edifice. More remarkable for such towers than per- 
haps any other European city is the city of Cadiz: see AUge- 
mcine Familien-Zeitung, Stuttgart, 1869, p. 296: "Die schnur- 

4tiO- 4f»r» TUiin. -imi'ilJ 



^raden stnisseii [viz,, of Cadiz] siiid mit tiianiior ^epflastert^ und 
nm die verschiedenen praehtigen platet\ welchc zu prumeiiadeu 
angeleg^t sind, erheben gich viHe palastalinliehe gebaude als 
zeu^en dcs wohlstajid^\s und reieliHitinis der bewohner. Diese 
Imaser liaben alle flaciie diicher und jedes dei^elben ein eigr^n- 
thUnilichrs thih'mcheH xur ufnschau, niirador genaunt; von wo 
aiis man eine entztickende aussicht auf land und see hat/' 
Ford, Handbook for Spain (of Cadiic): ^* Ascend tlje Torre delia 
Vufia; below lies the smi>keh>i^s whitened city, with its miradons 
and axolf-m, its Kiok-uut towers and tlat roofs, from whence the 
merehants formerly signalized the arrival of tlieir galleons.'' It 
ia most probably in such a tower on the roof of Agamemnon's 
palace the watchman is placed » who so strikingly opens Aeschy- 
Iub's drama, the Agamemnon: 

%*t'toirg fAtv fiitm tuivS^ unulXtiyrit* nopiopf 

untoiMW miTmSa vvHTtnwp ofi tfyvotv. 

Compare also Horn, (kl, L 524: 

Tov d' tty fsno axonifii tiJf n^tonoi, op mt xa^fiffip 
Atyt.a%h>^ iolopTfTi<i nytuv. 

Imitlimus, not merely pushed^ but pushed so thai it fdi 
mwr, forward. See Rem, on 8. 233. 



242 AiJNBlDEA [469-476 vrstib.— tr^. 









[punct] TEGEBAT, NUNC lU P. Manut. ; D. Heins.; N. Hoins. (1670); Brunck; 

Wagn. (ed. Heyn. and Praest.)\ Lad.; Ribb. 
[punct.] TEGEBAT ; NUNC HI HejTie; Wakef. 

[punct] TEHGA ARDUUS III P. Manut.; D. Heins.; N. Heins. (1670); Heyne; 

Brunck; Wagn. (ed. 1861); Lad. 
[pufict.] TEROA, ARPUus III Wakof. ; Wagn. (ed. Hoyn.); Voss; Ribbeck 


Vestibulum. — The vestibule was under the roof, but outside 
the door of the house, as appears from the history which Statius 
gives of Tydeus and Polynices both taking shelter from the 
storm in the vestibule of the palace of Adrastus and yet outside 
the door and not discovered there until the doors of the palace 
were opened [Theb. J. 386, 435, ed. Miiller): 

. . . "actutum regia cernit [Polynices] 
vestibula; hie artus imbri ventoque rigentes 
proiicit ignotaeque acclinis postibus aulae 
invitat tenues ad dura cubilia soninos." 

*4sque [Adrastus] ubi progrediens numerosa luce per alta 
atria diinotis adverse limine claustris 
terribilem dictu faciem, lacera ora putresquo 
sanguineo vidct imbre gcnas," &c. 

400—475 VRSTIB.— TOI9.J 



QuAus UBi m LUCEM coLiTBER, &c.— I doiibt if the almost 
idasc^liDg beauty of this simile considered as a separate and in- 
apendont picture h more to be admired than its perfect suitable- 
fliCi and correspondence in every particular tn the objeet which 
It iHustJ^ates, The serpent has lain UDdergroimd inert and coma- 
tose, all winter; i\vrrhus, liithurto in abeyance, has not until 
this moment appeared before Troy. The serpent, newly bom 
in the springy, fresh and vigorous and agile, lifts his head and 
breast erect towards the sun, coils his folds, and playg at fnora 
ii, e, f meat urn) with his thi^e-forked tongue: Pyrrlius, no less in 
his spring, fresh an<l vigorous and agile^ exults and sparkles and 
flashes in the brazen light of his brandished weapons. 

That the comparison is of I^vrrhus hitherto concealed and 
Duw at hmg and last appearing is evident not only from the 
emphatic position of tJie word nunc (see Rem. on verse 246)^ 
but from Sil. Ital 12. 6, where the precisely same comparison 
is applied to Hannibal, all the winter shut up in Capua and 
taking tht* tinhl auain in summer: 

. . . '*cou ('Oodita bruma, 
dum Rtupaea rigoiit Aqutlonis tlanuna; taodem 
evotvit sorpeiiB arcimo monibra cubili, 
et spleDdeute die novus einiuat, atque coruscum 
fert caput et saaiem sublatis faudbus efflat/' 

The structui-t^ of the whole passage is of the very simplest. 
lie sentence begun at qumjs being broken otf abruptly at 
KOEiiAT, and a new sentenc^e begun with nunc; and in uvcvm 
iepending neither on the preceding kxit-tat, nor the subsequent 
coxvoLvrt, but on the verb which was to have followed, if tlie 
author had carried on to the end the sentence which he has 
left untinished at TKoKBAT'~a dash should be placed after tegebat 
in order to indicate that such is the structure. See Rem. on 
Am. L 220. 

The punctuation adopted by Brunck and Wagner converts 
the passage from one of the siinideiJit into one of the most 
awkward and perplexed imaginable (-^Post tekoa distingui 
debuit commate. lungenda enini sunt in litem convolvit 
TKitaA," Brunck. ** Post ti:oebat commate tartum interpunxi; 


244 AENEIDEA [469-476 vkstib.— tris. 

distinxi, Brunckiuni et cod. Medic, seciitus, etiam post teroa: 
IX LUCEM autem, eodem Briinckio aiictore, iungo cum verbo 
coNvoLviT,'' Wagner {V. L. ad edit. Heyn.)). Heyne, though 
punctuating bettor, makes by liis interpretation a similar hodge- 
podge of tlie passage ("In lucem trahendum aut ad exultat aut 
ad coxvolvit; utrumque parum commode"). 

TuMmuM. — "TuMiDUM appellat serpentem, non quia grami- 
nibus tumet, nam hyeme non edunt, et V. illud momentum 
describit quo ox terra, positis exuviis, quasi ad novam vitam 
redit . . . vides talem serpentem non posse dici cibo tumiduni. 
Fame potius laborant, ac propterea magis timendi sunt. Tumi- 
DUM ergo appollat, quia ipsa terra sub qua serpens latet est 
tumida, ex quo tumore simul serpentis magnitudo intelligitur. 
Ad terram retulit Herat. Epod. 16: *nec intumescit alta viperis 
humus,'" Peerlkamp. This is all, as I think, erroneous. Tunji- 
dus is the cpitheton constmis of serpents. See Ovid, Met, 1. 460 
(Apollo speaking): 

"stravimus InDUineris tumidum Pythona sagittis." 

Ibid. 10. 313: ''tumidisque afflavit ochidnis," with which com- 
pare Georij. 3. 421: 

'^tollentemque ininas et caerula colla tumentevi 

Aen. 2. 381: 

''attollentem iras et caerula colla tuttimtem.^' 

It is, therefore, not nocossaiy in ordoi* to account for the tumi- 
DUM of our text, to have recourse to mala (hjamina pastus; nor 
indeed is the serpent tumid us (or tumens) with grass at all, 
but with poison, as Ovid says. Met. 3. 33 (of the Cadmean 
serpent): '-corpus tumet omno veneno." That TunmuM is the 
ordinary epithet of serpents . and (equivalent to t u m i d u m 
veneno affords so simple and natural a solution of the passage 
that 1 think I shall hardly bo roquii'od to discHiss, much less to 
confute, the very strange dictutn of Peerlkamp, "Tumidum 
ergo appellat, quia ipsa terra sub qua serpens latet est tumida, 
ex quo tumoro simul serpentis magnitudo intelligitur," still less 

479-496 irsi— complent] 

BOOK n. 


to show by argument tliat Horace when he used the word '^In- 
tninescit" in his sixteenth Kpode neither had uiir author in his 
mini nor meant to indicate either the magnitude or the ttnnes- 
cence of his %ipers, but stdely tu express the intumescence of the 
fraund with the brood it was about to produce, an intumescence 
irailar to the intumeBc^ence of tlie womb in pregnancy, 

-LlKCR'm JiiiCAT ORK TRisitLc ts, - 1 havc Jiot examined any MSS, 
respecting this passage. Even shouki the authority of them 
all be against it, 1 do nut know whether we i^hould not accept 
the cuDJecture of Voss, viz., oka. 



All commentators and translators^ divide this narrative into tAvo 
distinct pails, niakin^^ a new jiamgrapli begin at at domus in- 
terior, and cousidering tlie words 


as descriptive, not of the actual and successful bursting in of 
the doors, but merely of an attempt to bui*st tiiem in, which 
attempt does not succeed until, verse 492, 


Heynen words are: '*A cakdink veijjt: movet. labefactat, e 
cardine ut amoveat annititur. Nunc enim adhuc de conatu 

Xnw, this is not according to thf^ usuid methofl of Virgil, 
who never begins with a hint ur sh^idow of what is about ti* 
happen, and then brings graduidly forward the event, but on 
[he contrary always places the event fidl before the eyes hi'st, 

246 AENEIDEA [479-495 ipse— complent 

then e^fi^eQya^€ic(t, and explains by what means it has been 
bruuglit about, and then, as it were in a peroration, reeapitulates 
with a re-statement of the event, fuller and grander than at first. 
And such is the method he has adopted on the present occasion. 
Having given the brilliant picture of Pyrrhus and his comrades, 
which is contained in the verses vestibllum . . . iactant, he 
informs us that Pyrrhus himself (ipse) at the head of his com- 
rades seizes an axe, bursts through (per-rumpit) the doors, and 
forces the valves from the pivots. The event, /. e., the complete 
and successful forcing of the door, is thus in as few words as 
possible laid before the eyes of the reader. But this could not 
be done in a moment — required successive steps, which the 
poet now sets about to describe particularly. First, witli the 
axe Pyrrhus cuts ^ panel out of the door: 


This is the fii-st step, and is attended by consequences which 
are described before any mention is made of the second step; 
the consequences are: 





lEMiNEis ululant; ferit aurea sidera clamor. 


The first step and its consequences described, the next step 


viz., the CLAUSTKA in which he had already made the opening 
or window with the axe — 


(/. r., the battering ram is brought, and the dooi-s levelled with 
the ground); and thus the reader is put in full possession of all 

47^-405 IP8K— coitrtfc>T] 



the particulars necessary tu be gone thnmgli (and which wore 
fmctually gone through) in the performance of the act described 
at verse 480, as already performed. This done (and the perora- 
tion or winding up made, in the words kmoii rHocuMin^Ni 
CARDiNE posTKs, which it will be observed are only a stronger 
enunciation of the previously enounced fact, vei'se 480), our 
author proceeds witlt the descriptiuii «d' tlie consequences of 
this fact: 


[the whole body of Danai bitrst in^ bitteher all thetj meet, ami 
fill the house irith sokliers]. 

Nuthing can be more complete and vivid than this picture, 
nothing more in nmformity with VirgiFs usual method of paint* 
ing; on the conlmry, nothing more confused and ill-imagined, 
nothing less like Virgil's usual st^^le of painting, than the pic- 
ture divided into two by the break placed by cumnientators 
and tranalatois at primo, and the commencement of a new 
paragraph at at domus iNTKinon. 

The editors have introduced inextricable rorifusinn into this 
wonderfully clear and distinct painting by <lividiijg it, as Just 
rt^marked, in the very middle, viz., at at domus interior, into 
two independent paiis, led into this fatal error, it would seera, 
by the w^ord at, understood by them to indicate the com- 
mencement of a new action, while, in fact, it does no more 
than contost domus interior , , . nurxT, with the imme- 
diately preceding apparet , . . umi^ve primo, both desciiptions 
being interposed m one intercalation between lato demt ore 

Ffenestram and instat vi patria. See Remm. on 5, 704, 659; 
6. 743, 880, 

Pyrriu's, Compare the exactly corresponding ^*At dumus 

jiiiterior;* 1. 641, where at again serves, not to indicate the com- 
aencement of a new^ action, but to contrast or connect the 
description ** domus interiur . , . gentis" with ''nee minus 
interea . . . dei'' — twn conntci|mrt in' matching pictures, inserted 
side by side between Aeneas's introthiction into the palace, 
verses 635 and 636, and the embassy of Achates^ verse 647. 

248 AENEIDEA [479-495 ipse— complent 

Until the sign of a new paragraph is removed from at, the 
whole passage from ipse intfhi primos to complent will remain, 
what it has always been up to the present day, a mass of con- 

Iamque, following the two verbs in the present, and belong- 
ing to the two verbs in the perfect tense, is equivalent to, a7id 
see how much he has do7ie already. 

Armatos (vei-se 485), ^^hose already mentioned, vei-ses 449, 
450," Conington. No, no. Those were outside the door where 
the combat was then going on: these are a reserve inside, 

PosTES . . . CARDiNE. The postcs of the Romans were (as 
clearly appears from Lucr. 8. 370: 

'•practerea si pro foribus siint himina nostra, 
iam magis exemptis ocuhs dobere videtur 
cernere res animus, sublatis postibus ipsis." 

Ovid, Met. 8. 638: 

"subniissoque buniiles iutrarunt vertice i)Ostes."' 
Stat. Silr. I. 4. 44: 

"sic lanus, claiisoquo liboiis so posto rocopir" 

[the door being closed, /. c, having closed the door, retired]) 
the door itself, which, being always double, /. e.. having two valves 
meeting in the middle, was expressed by a noun plural. These 
valves wei-e not fastened either to a door-case or to the wall of 
the house ur building, but stood in the opening quite detached, 
and moved on pivots (cardinos), one of which was inserted into 
the threshold, the other into the lintel. The v/ord postes has 
passed into the Italian in the form of imposte: ''imposta, 
legname che serve a chiudero T uscio," Voc. DeUa Crusca. 

LiMiNA PERRUMiMT. — AVlillc the siugular linuMi is the sill 
properly so called, the plural limina in the general use made 
of the word is the entrance, whether considered, as in 1.452, the 
mere opening, or as that opening filled up with the stop or im- 
pediment, the fores. It is necessarily in this latter sense the 
word is used in our text, it not being possible perrumpere 
any but a closed or stopped up passage. The same word is used 
in the same s<nse, vei-se 50S, ^'convulsa limina," not the thres- 

4711 4!#5 »FSK coMTLicjfr] 


htM, f)*it the open eritrancf\ hut tlio close*! pntnmiv, th(^ |insti s, 
the fores. Compare I'oripp. (Ir Laud. lusiin. I, 6S: 

•'el iAm ciebra oiaDu.s veloci eoocita pulsu 
limmu quaa^abat liuctis iiiuuita caients/* 

Akkatos, — Let the i-eader bewiuv ln)\v Uv ii[ipliris ti^ aera- 
tng eitber here ur ^nevally elnewhere the obgervation of Kone 
{Spmche der Jfamischen Kpikei\ p. Hl2): *'an8 erx ^\\m\ die 
'aeratae catenae' iPrupert. 2. Uk II), aus niseii die *t'ernitu*» 
postes* (Hor. Sat, L 4. f!I; Vir^^. Aeft, 7. 022), aber weder 
aeDeae nocli ferroos passte m den veiu'* That the duui*H 
of Pnam*s palace are deseribed by our autliur not as cotisiHting 
of broo-ze (aereae) but as plated or otherwise strengthened witli 
bronze (aeratae, in the proper sense of the word), is sufficiently 
plain from the terms trabs and roboha (temm peeidiarly ap- 
plicable to wood) applied ti» the same dooi-s. in the very next 
clause, a^ well as fiom the faeility with which Pyrrhun hews tlie 
id doors to pieces with an axe; also from the "auratas trabeB'' 
"of the same palace only thirty lines previously, which can only 
be, mfters of wood, (filt or ornnmertifd tnth (fold. Compare \K 
463: "aeratasque ades in praelia cogit'* \noi troopsi consisting of 
aes, but troops accoutred in aes|; 10. H86: 

, . ter aoeum Troiua heroi* 

immnnem an'atn ciruurofert tegmiae sih'am ' 

|fti9/ on his bronze shield, hut on his shield plated or otherwise 
strenf^iened with bronise], 

ExciiiA TttAUt;.— '' Arliorc, ut 9, 87. propinqua >scilieot rc*f^iae, 
ea(|ue pro ariete utitiir; ct vs. 492/' Wagner {Pramt^l ^^* 
at»: TRABK 144 not a neij^hbourin^ tree cut down by Pyrrhuj* in 
order tu be ustxl aj^ a butiering rum, but it Is the woiid (Cierm. 
/*ti/z) of the door ilseJf, wiiich wood !*♦ hewed into a liole. 
Compare 6. 42: 

^exirisiun EaboicaB latus ingeofi ru|ii» m mitrurii. ' 

the ride uf the Euboean rock* not taken out in order to be ii*ed. 
but ♦ I hollowed out; and ho in our text, the wcwjd of 

file d . iiriii fjr^HMwed out into j* b'*!*- by cutting, the ab* 

250 AENEIDEA [479-495 ipse— oomplknt 

lative explaining the manner of the cavavit, not tlie instrument 
with which the cavavit was effected. 

At domus interior. — At contrasts the domus interior (ob- 
serve the comparative degree: fartJier in\ and what is there 
happening, not with what is going on at or outside the door, 
i, e.y not with the bursting in of Pyrrhus and his comrades, but 
with the just-mentioned domus ixtus (observe the positive degree: 
just inside\ atria longa, penetralia regum, and armatos stantes 
IN LIMINE primo. If a coutrast between what was going on 
outside and the bursting open of the door had been intended, 
the word interea would have been added to at domus interior. 

Atria longa . . . domus interior . . . cavae aedes.— The two 
main parts or divisions of which a Roman house consisted (for 
the plan is taken from a Roman, not a Grecian or Asiatic, 
house) are here indicated with great distinctness; the front part 
consisting mainly of the atrium, in the words atria ix)noa; 
the inner or back part, the cavaedium, in the words cavae 
aedes. See Becker's Galbis, vol. 2. The double expression, 
INTERIOR domus, cavae aedes, Toduced to plain prose, becomes 
the inner or back rooms, that is to say, those surrounding the 
cavaedium or inner court 

Aedes ululant.— Compare Soph. Trachin. 205: 

Coripp. Johann. 6. 196: 

. . . '^ uliilaUbtis augent 
ardua tecta sonos." 

Isaiah, 14. 31: "Howl, gate; cry, cit}\" 

Ferit aurea sidera clamor. — SroERA, not literally. Die stars, 
but figuratively,- the sky—ihe self-same phrase, "ferit aurea 
clamor sidera,'' being used, 11. 832, on occasion of the death 
of Camilla, which occurred in the day time. Prom sidera 
used in this sense comes sidereus, so often used to signify 
of sHch beauty as belongs only to the sky, heareny or celeMial 

AuRKA, no more to be taken literally than ferit or sidijra, 

479 495 n*8iB— txijiputNT] 

BOOK 11. 


Ijs neitjier of fhr colour of gohh iiur uf (*unrsf of the mnteria/ 

'Sfil/staffce of gold, but heuittiftdhf bright mid shiiihtij lil:e gold; 

as Imndsomc as gold. Tht> Hpplicatit»n of the tonn in this stvnse 

tu thf stars, sky, and evfii to tb»» nKinn, is of tlie comiuonest. 

Cuuipuro Hor. Epod, 17, 40: 

. . . ''til proba 
pofttmhiiUbis aatra sidus aureum' 

Am. :L 51H: 

"•arnmtumqu© ftnrf> ci re uids| licit Onoua/ 
Ovid, Mit^ IS, 587: 

** omnibus mferinr, quas sustinet mirena aether. 

diva tarn CD venio/' 

f^eorg. I. 431: '^vento semper nibot narpa Plioebe.*' Wi rmr, 
die Sohfif dm Thates, tlh 1, aot 4, sc. 2: 

. . . *'wenti morgeo sich diu steitie 
f>rrtjaiden^ Philip ji, bin ich fern von dir/' 

H. Heyne, Neue (iedtvhic: 

^'steiiie niit den (jt)hiifrn fossrljt^u 

wandein droben Viang uod sacbt 
dass sdo oiebt die cidti wocken, 

die da schliitt im schools der nacbt** 

Rtickert, die Weishelf des Brahwanett, 17, 44: 

•'v%'Dzu sind all die storn' am hiinniel tmr i^^emacht? 
mit yuldnrm flitter wol zu jschmiicken unsre nacht/' 

AiUETK (verse 492K-''Nolim accipero proprie, qiiippe quod 
inventum Trnianis temporibus serius est," Heyne. To be sure, 
ad the picture presented by the interprctatiou of Wagner, wlio 
will have tho ^*arles" to be a neighbouring tree eiit down for 
^ihc i»urpose (trabk excisa, verse 481) is mere caricature, Arfetk 
CK^mNo, freciueiitly repeated push. Hke that of a battering ram. 
ConipMre Nil U. 8s**: 

, , . ^Mmniissia pars caeca et concita Irenis 
arifttd in pnrtiis et duros obiico |>ostes'' 

[l)aiter> a\ I he gates]. The tirst qualitieation for a commenta» 

252 AENBIDEA [496-517 ifON— sedebant 

tor of Virgil is not a knowledge of Buttman's Lexihgus, but a 
knowledge of the difference between prose and poetry, between 
literal and figurative, between body and soul. It is easier for 
flesh and blood to inherit the kingdom of God, than for a matter- 
of-fact expositor to enter into the meaning of Virgil. 

Fit via vi. — Spoken not of PyiThus, but of the whole body 
of Danai, who now rumpuxt aditus, &c. 



NoN SIC . . . ARMENIA TRAHiT. — Compare 1 Chron. 14. 11: "Then 
David said, God hath broken in upon mine enemies by mine 
hand, like the breaking forth of waters/' Schiller, Brant von 
Mesmia : 

'^jene gewaltigen wetterbache, 
aus des hagels unendlichen schlossen, 
aiis den wolkenbriichen zusammengeflossen, 
kommen finster gerauscht und goschossen, 
reisscn die briicken und reissen die damme 
donnenid mit fort im wogengeschwemme, 
nichts ist, das die gewaltigen hemme." 

ViDi HECUBAM CENTUMQUK NVRus. — "Quinquagiuta erantfiliorum 
uxores s. nuras, ad quas accedunt totidem filiae," Vfagner 
(Praesf.). No pupil in the Kreuzschule could have calculated 
more exactly, or been more sure that if our author had had 
the good fortune to have one hundred and one tongues and 
one hundred and one voices, he would have been able to efiTect 
what he could not ofTect [Geori). 2. 42) wuth no more than 
one hundred tongues and one iumdred voices. Servius, less 
arithmetical but more poetical than our modern commentators, 
amongst several guesses, iiits by chance on the true meaning; 



' tinitu* est nuiuerus pro iiifinito/* The hundred-banded Rria- 
reus, the hundred-gated city of Thebes, and the huudred-dtied 
island of Crete are, as well as the still more famous heeatonib, 
examples of the same use of E^La^ov and centunL Almost any 
number from three upwards, especially ten, twenty, lifty, five 
hur»dred, a thousand, ten thousand, a million, may be, and is 
frequently, used in the same manner, 

Procubuere (verse 505). — Observe the efTeet of the em- 
phatic position of this wurd at the beginning of the vei-se, and 
separated from the sequel by a complete mid sudden pause. 
Compare ^Mncidit,'' verse 467; and see Rem. on 2. 246. 

CoNvui^SAQUB vmiT LiMiNA TECTORUM. -- CoNvui^A broken vio- 
lently open, burst opeN, for ft down, torn off the hinges. Com- 
pare Plaut. Amph, 4, suppos. t^Gronov.): 

''quis tarn vasto impete has foree toto eonruUit uardine?" 

Plin. Epi^t, T. 19: ''m mihi domus ipsa nutare, convHhai\im 
sedibus suis ruitura supra videtar," 

Akma did, &c., . . , ciNQiTUR (verses 509-511), Compare 
Meta«t. Begoh, sc. ult (Regolo, of himself): 

, , . "Roma rammente 
olie il 8U0 padre e mortal; che al fio vaoilla 
antjh' ei sotto 1' acciar," 

Axe (verse 512), See Rem, on 6, 791. 

LAURus.—It is not accidentally or indifferently that our 
autiior places the laurel ('Maurus nobilis") not only here in the 
court of Priara's pala<"e, but (7. 59) in the court of Latinus's 
palace also, for we read (Plin. //. .V* 15, 3(K Silligs ed.): 
*'I^urus triumpliis proprie dicatur; vel gratissima <lomibus 
ianitrijc Caesarum pontifieumque; sola et domes exornat et anie 
timina excubat.'' Compai^e Dion Cass. 53. 16; xm yaq to re 
\t)M^:it ^vyoviTiOi^l liiQ dtttfrag tzqo tiov jiaaiXetioy avrov 
TtQOti^taiym, Claud, Rapt. Pros. :^. 74: 

*'stabat praeterea luco diloctioi* omm 
(auntSt virgiiieos quondam <|uae frnnde ]judicii 
ambrabat thaJamos/* 

PliNATKS. — "Aram IVnatiunj/' llryiie, ftdlnwing Servius. 

254 AENBIDEA [A9e-b\1 non-sedebant 

No, but the house, the dwelling; because in a passage which may 
be assumed to be an adumbration of that before us, Martial 
(9. 61, ed. Schneid.) describes Caesar's platan us at Corduba 
as embracing not merely the "Penates," but "totos Penates," 
which can mean nothing else than the ichole house: 

'4n Tartessiacis domus est notissima terris, 

qua dives placidum Corduba Baetin amat, 
vellera native pallent ubi flava metallo, 

et linit Hesperium bractea viva pecus; 
aedibus in mediis ioios amplexa Penates 

stat platanus densis Caesaiiana comis, 
hospitis invicti posuit quam dextera felix, 

ceepit et ex ilia crescere virga manu," 

Compare Stat. Sih. L 1. 2, where the equestrian statue of 
Domition is described as *^Latium complexa forum;" also, Stat. 
Silv, 1. 3. 59, and 2. 3. 1; and especially Claud. Rapt. Pros. 

3, 74: 

"stabat praeterea luce dilectior omni 
laurus, virgineos quondam quae fronde pudica 
umbrabat thalamos.'* 

The passage being thus undei-stood (1), a tenderness of senti- 
ment is obtained not unlike that of Statius's Silv. 3. 5. 58: 

. . . "non sic Philomela Penates 
circuit amplectens^'' 

a tenderness wholly foreign to the picture of the laurel em- 
bracing the images with its shadow; (2), Virgil's account is 
made to tally better with the generally received tradition, that 
Priam was slain at the altar of Jupiter Herceus (Ovid, Ibis, 


. . . '^ut illi, 
cui nihil Hercei profuit ara /am"); 

and (3), the poet is no longer liable to the reproach that only 
three lines later he describes the daughters of Priam as em- 
bracing with their arms (amplexae) the self-same object which 
he here describes the laurel as embracing with its shadow 
(umbra complexa). 

Hic HECUBA . . . SEDEBANT (w. 515-517). Coiuparo Mai^ 
lowe, Tamhurhiiifr (part 1, ait 5, s(\ 1, Tamburlaine to the 

Sl^5^3 QUAK— OMXRS] 


irirgins who come forward with laurel Roughs and prayers for 


"what, are the turtles frayed out of their nests? 
alas! poor fools, must you be first shall feel 
tlie swoi'u destruction of llimiascasV' 

Aesi'h. SttppL 223 (Daiiaus desiring his danghtei*s to take refuge 
at the altar): 

8, 61: "Liberum patrem, hello vietorem, supplieibiis Amazonuin, 
quae aram himderant, ignovisse''; Thiie. 3, 28; D^ (brona^ 
HI; Soph, (M. Ttjr. 2, 



DtFENsoRiBUS iSTis. — " DuFch den plur., obwohl von einer 
person zu verstehen, wird der begriff fein verallgemeinert, uiii 
iner harte, die man sagt, hiedun^h das verletzende zn nebmen. 
Iffns als pronora. der 2. pei^on, talibus gitalis hi es,^' Thiel, 
Oossrau, Forbiger (2nd ed., 1837), and (in a personal disputa- 
tion I had with him on the subject in the year 1847: see Preface 
to '^'Twelve Years' Voyage*') Wagner, Nothing can be farther 
from the meaning. The ^'defensores*' of which Hecuba speaks, 
and which she says are not the def en sores required by the 
necessity of the occju^ion, are not Priam — Priara being but one 
person vonid hardly be '*defensore*i**^but tlic weapons wielderl 

2o6 . AENEIDEA [519-523 quae— omnjk 

by Priam, the weapons which it alarms Hecuba to see Priam 
wield; and the picture with which we are presented in the 
person of Priam is not that of nn old man too weak to defend 
with arms a cause which might have been successfully so de- 
fended by a younger and stronger man, but that of a weak old 
man who takes up arms in a cause in which arms, even although 
wielded by the youngest and strongest hands, are wholly in- 
capable of affording help or defence — 



and there is no resource left but the altar: 


The identical sentiment is repeated in the very next book, 

verse 260: 

. . . ^^nec iam amplius armis, 
sed votis precibusque iubent exposcere paooni." 

Compare Aesch. SuppL 203 (ed. Schtitz): 

Huttvov ton TiavTog fivfx\ w xoom, 
;i((yov TiooaiCiii' Twpd^ (lyonftMv i7^wi'. 
XQftooov (ff TiVQyov fia)uoi' an{)i]xiov aaxo^;. 

Heliodor. 8: Evxaig, arx airiaig, eSileovvai to yiQeivTOv, Stat. 
Theb. 4. 200 (ed. Muller): 

*^*non haec apta mihi nitidis ornatibus,' inquit, 
^tempora, nee miserae placeant insignia formae 
te sine; sat dubium coetu solante timorem 
fall ere, et incultos axis adverrere crines.' " 

Virgil, Aen. 6. 37: 

'^non hoc ista sibi tempus spectacula poscit. 
nunc grege de intacto septem mactare iuvencos 
praestiterit, totidem lectas de more bidentes." 

Ibid, 12, 156: 

"'non lacrymis hoc tempus,' ait Saturnia luno; 
'accelera, et fratrem, si quis modus, eripe morti.'" 

Shakespeare, Coriol. 1. 2: 

, , . '' for the dearth, 
the gods not the patricians make it; and 
your knees to them, not arms, must help." 

5 1 9- 523 gr AE — osns'Ks] 



Milton, 0}mm, 611: 

''but here Uiy sword cao do thee little stead; 
for other armii and other weapons must 
h<> thoso that qtioll the might of hellish charms," 

And for the precisely opposite picture, compare Ovid, Met, 

8, 610 (of Procne): 

r * . *-fletiiinque sororis 
corripiens, 'non est lacrymis hie/ inquit^ 'ageodum, 
sed feiTo; sed si quid habes, quod vincere ferruin 
poasit/ ' 

Also, not very dissimilar, Claud, iff 2 Cons, StUivh. 268: 

. . . "non spioula poscit 
iste labor, ruaneant claasis nunc sicca (iharetris/' 

jVsit f/unin, 7 S7 (Pumpey^ of himself): 

. . . fii mihte Magno, 
Dfin duce, tern pus eget, nil ultra fata mombor/' 

Henidian, 1. H: or jfariy/vQt.leii* cot y.aiQOi;^ Kfi^, Kottuoth n r, 

at At I'Hcttg Attt to^jfu^ ayo'haCttv tiiiAinat ya\} aoi lot^ aixttii 

to for Ih^ifrioi' ^uf'Og, 

BrsKsmmBi's. The fallowing are examples of the appHca- 

lion of defensor t(» ohject>; d«*void of persolmlih^ In two of 

tiem, tlie objects to which the term is applied are actually, as 
in oar text, arms. Caes. Bell. Gall. 4. 17: ^'Sublicae ad in- 
feriorem partem tluminis ohliquao adii^ebantur; quae, pro pa- 

ielp ftubiectae, ct cum Hinni opere coniunctae, vim tluniijiis 

bxi*ipenmt: et alia [fin. aliaeVJ item supra pontem niediocri 

spatio: ut, m arborum truuei, sive naves, deiiciendi operis causa, 

eB»ent » barbaris raissae, his defmsoriinni eanim rerum vis 

nitnueretur/' Ulaudian, in Rufin. 1. 79: 

. * . *'Jiaec [vi2. Megaera] terruit Herculk ora, 
et dtfen^iorcB teiTarum p<j|iuit arcua/' 

scnnuB, (k hello Troiano, 6, 156: 

. . . **8ed tot taedas* tot tela, secundus 
suBtinet Aeacides, e^ tkfrn^orf* laborat 
iam fesaus elyj>eo/' 

.r. j.iw Saraonicus lap. Burm. Pod. Lat. Minor. \ iU2: 

'Bumina boni est alacres homini uontingere visusi 
([U0« quasi custodes liefcnsmc^quv porioli 
prospicieiis surumu aatura kicavit iu arce." 
ihkbt, axkkibka, yol. m 17 

258 AEiNEIDEA [619-623 quae— omnk 

By the same figure by which (1) Hecuba calls the arms wielded 
by Priam; (2), Caesar, the sublicae of a bridge; (3), Claudian, 
the bow of Hercules; (4), Iscanus, a shield; and (5), Serenas, 
the eyes, defensores, defenderf^; Ajax calls the sword which 
he has set upright in the ground, in order to throw himself 
upon it, (jcpayevg, execuiioiier (Soph. Aj. 815): 

ytvoii «v, 

and we call the piece of furniture which defends the floors of 
our rooms against the fires of our grates fonder, i. e. defender, 

IsTis.--"Ta]ibus qualis tu es,'' Thiol. The reference is as I 
have just shown not to Priam but to I^iam's arms, and isris is 
not contemptuous but simply demonstrative: those arms, exactly 
as Cic. de Rep, 1, 37: "'sed si vis, Laeli, dabo tibi testes nee 
minis antiques nee ullo modo barbaros.' L. 'Istos,' inquit, 
' volo ' " [those are precisely what I want\ 

Quae mens, &c. . . . aut quo ruis? By a division of the 
compound question quo ruis his telis into its two com- 
ponents, quo ruis and quorsum haec tola, our author has 
secured on the one hand that free sailin^^ room for his verse, 
that unconfined space for dactyl and spondee, for which we 
have already observed him to be always so solicitous; and on the 
other hand, sufficient place for ornament, without either][loading, 
embarrassing, or complicating the structure. Had he been 
more studious of brevity and less of ease and grace and orna- 
ment, of the fine flow of his vci-so and the richness of the 
thought which it expressed, he had contented himself with 
the single compound question: quo ruis diris his cinctus 
telis? or quo ruis his cinctus telis? or even with the 
bare bald quo ruis his telis? and Virgil had been an heroic 
Persius. I^ss studious of brevity and more of ornamental 
richness and easy flowing voi-se, he iiad perhaps divided the 
compound question in three — whither art thou rushing? why 
these amis? what dreadful thought has taken possession of thy 
mind? — had oniamented not merely one of the three divisions, 
but the whole three, nnd Virgil had been an epic Ovid. Divid- 




iog, and not too much dividing, the question— into 'two, not 
ihit*e— our auUior has obtained sufficient, not too much, spaco 
hoth for ease of tiuuibors aiitl unuunent of thought, niid is 
neitlier Pernius ni>r Ovid, hut Virgil - 

. . . ^^anima, qualein neque oandidiomm 
taiTa tulit; noquo cm me sit devinctior alter." 

The very next folluwiug vcrs^ is constructed in a similar manner: 
son TAU A0XIUO [tetnpus eyet] being one, and nec oEFENsoRr- 
BPS isTis TEMPrs E(iET tho othori of two limbs into which, for 
the sake no less of (►nuinient and variet>' than of ease of com- 
position, the pregnant thoufrht, no use in arms naw, is divifled, 
Airxujo. Compare Ovid, Met. 12, 88 (Cycnus tn A<'lulles, 
explairiing that he was invulnerable, not by means of his arms, 
but by rneans of his skin): 

. . , *'non hftec^ quani cernia^ eqninis 

iulvn iubis cassis^ neque ouas cava pamia sinistra^ 

atuiim tiiihi sunt; decor est quaesitus ab istia. 

Mfirs t|^uoquG ob hoc capert* arma solet. Reinyvebitur oniiiu 

tegmiuia officium; tanien iiideFtrictas abibo/' 

h which— If yon alter "'cemis'' into cerno, aud ^Mnihi 
sunt" into tihi erunt, in order to suit the poi'son of the 
speaker — become nhnost the very words of Virgil. Compare 
also Lucan, 4, fil5: 

*411ti lAntU'iis], paruMi fiilens |»edibus coutingore matrem, 
iiiixilium uieinbris calitjas infundit arenas"* 

[Uie help of tiie hot sandj. JbicL 268: 

■'milea, non utile claasis 
auxilium, mactant equos;** 

id Quint Curt 3. 11 (ed. Bipontj: '' Arnni iaeientes quae 
lullo ante ad tutelnm corporum sumpBerant; adeo pavor eriam 
anxi/tn furmidabat" Aen. 12. 378: "^auxiliiun ducto mu- 
rrone" [the lielp of his dra\m i^word]. Also Acfi. 8, 376: 

''uoQ alium mtxilittm miaeris^ non arma rogavi 
artts optsque taae," 

wher e *^ auxilium" is the help afforded by the "arma*' of tho 
line, exactly as in uur text AUXfUO is Uie help afforded 
he **d«?rensores*' (- arma) of the same line. 


260 AENEIDEA [519 -teS QtJAi5— 0JINE8 

I crave the pardon of our parliamentary orators for an 
explanation which shows in what utter ignorance of its true 
meaning this passage is quoted vituperatively ; also the pardon 
of my readers in general for having here repeated at full length 
the proofs of an interpretation which — first put forward by me 
five-and-twenty yeai-s ago in my translation of the first two 
books of the Aeneid, and twice since then, viz., in ray "Twelve 
Years' Voyage'' and in my '^Adversaria Virgiliana"— has been 
received by Forbiger in his third edition, by Wagner in his 
edition of 1861, and generally by Virgilian editors both at 
home and abroad as the undoubted meaning. If in the be- 
ginning of this comment I have quoted the opinions of Vii^- 
lian editors antecedent to my publications on the subject, it is 
only in order that my reader may be enabled to fill up for 
himself tlie lacuna left by some editors, and notably by Wagner' 
in his edition of 1861, respecting the source from which their 
new information has been derived — a precaution which, I am 
bound to say, it would have been wholly unnecessary for me 
to take either in this or any other instance if the publishers 
of editions of Virgil subsequent to my entrance into the lists 
had generally behaved towards me as honestly and honourably 
as Forbiger in Germany and Conington in England. 
Haec aua, viz., lovis Hercei; see Ovid, Ibi^, 285: 

"nee tibi subsidio sit j)iae8eus numen; ut illi, 
cui nihil Hercei profait <ira loria." 

Id. Met. 13. 409: 

"exiguumque senis Priami loris ara cruorom 

Ennius, Andramache (ed. Hessel.): 

'^haec omnia vidi inflammari, 
Priamo vei vitani e\itari, 
lovis nrmn sanguine turpari." 

526-532 EmK—rvim] 






Ipmiri,] TKKEi . ET pRKMiT lusTA III P. Maiiut. ; Iji Cerda: D. Heioii. 

X. Umns, (1670); Heyne: Bruuck; \Vakefi*?lil ; Wa^er (ixi. Ileyn.). 
\jmnd.\ TENKT ET rHEmx hast a III Wa^er (1861); Ladewig; Ribbeck. 

•Jkapsts . . . rroiT . . . lvrtrat. Tlio running is suitJibto for 
iV»lifes» he being swift nf f«M>t, Horn. //. 1*. 792: nuidurAtttflt 

Ut tandem (vs, 531) takes up the narrative firupped at 
SAircics, anil informs !!s that Pol ites— already pre*5ente(l to iis m 
woundcnl, and fleeing from Pyrrhus frvRRHi oe lakdk elai^suh. 
SAUcrcs) — continues his flight util he reaches hb parents" pre- 
sence, and, there anived, dmps down dead. Nothing can be 
plainer than the connexion: 

BOCI^; ALTKU KLAPkUh psKKHl uv '■ \y.\>y l''»UII>, 
mCtt XAT^IUM PUlAMl, I'Krt TtLA, Y'kM IirrtrTES* 

i^KncTstm ijojroij^ rcoif, & tacua And! LUftnuT 
UT TuniXM AJETK iion/js KVAaiT rr oiu rAUcrnrif 

COJffUltT, AC KULTf; vnAM ClTJl HA?(«itrtKl rUWt. 

The picture* 80 far lu^ Polites i& cono^^nied^ in ai» mmple and at 
the same time as clear and distinct, as any picture can potuiibiy 
be. Words cannot describe more plainly. But there iit anutlier 
actor on the sta^, vihimf' artion- -although Mynchnjnuujs witli 
^hn^ '>f Po)ite:s y^ baf)§ a dij^tinct ajtd diffGnuDt action— fjaniiut 

262 AENEIDEA [626-532 kcxjk— fudit 

be desmbed synchronously, but nuist in description either pre- 
cede, or follow, or be introduced in the middle. Being tliat of 
Pontes' pursuer, it can neither precede nor follow; preceding, it 
would be unintelligible, impossible; following, it would be too 
late, the interest would be over. It is therefore placed in the 
middle, and the narrator suddenly leaves the one actor in the 
midst of his action, takes up and follows to the end the action 
of the second, and then returning to the action of the first pro- 
ceeds with it also to the end, to that point where the two actions 
which had all along been synchronous terminate together. This 
is entirely according to our author's usual manner, for an ex- 
ample of which see the account of the storming of Priam's 
palace given in the same manner, the synchronous actions of 
besiegers and besieged being, by means of iutermixtiu-e, /. e., by 
means of rapid transition from one party to tlie other, carried 
on as much as possible together. There as here, readers, misled 
by the rapidity of transition, have fallen into the mistake of 
connecting together as parts or consequences of one action 
things which wore parts or consequences of another. It is by 
such mistake arising from such cause that in our text ut tan- 
dem . . . coNciDiT has been connected with prkmit iiasta, and 
Polites supposed to die not in consequence of his original 
wound, the wound of which when he fii*st came into view he 
was already saucius, but in consequence of a new wound in- 
flicted on him at the end of the chase, and imagined to be 
found described in phemit hasta — ''Prkmit hasta, dnrchbohrt 
iltn nn'f drr lanxc. Concidit, in folge der neuen, ihm jetzt 
beigebrachten, wunde/' Ladewig. 


lAMQUE MANU TENET ET PREMiT IIASTA. ^ot, as represented by 
Hey lie's punctuation as well as by Wagner's in his edition of 
Ileyne, ileum ahdens infesto vii.nere pvkriius inseql'itur, iam 


dinate sentences, but ilum ardens lnfesto vulnere pvkruus 


co-ordinate sentences, tenet and premit being connected into 
one single sentence by et, and both e(|ually operated on 

526—532 Kicjt — *Lun] 

BUUK 11, 


by ixH tAMQi-E: in utbor words, inskquitur akme signifying 
wljat Pyrrhus does, while tenct and raFisiiT sig:nify what hf* W 
just on tliG point of doing, but does not du. 

The sentence? being thus analysed, we perceive, (i), tho fiiie 
force of UT takdem, viz.. that those wurds refer not to any j im- 
possible) contiiiiiatian of the tliglit of Folitch after he had been 
**pressus ha&ta,'* but to the continuation of the flight of PuliteK 
SATitirs with his first wound — a flight continued from the i'OM- 
tii^iBCS ijysikis and vajta atria to thr* very *?pot where \m 
parents artt sitting, viz.. in the court-yard at the altar of Jupiter 
Horceus; {fi\ why there is in the a^^'ount of tlie death of 
Polites in verse 532 none, not even the sliji^htest reference to the 
mode in which he had been, as allege*!, ^^proHn?; haHtn,*' *'dureh- 
bohrt mit der lanze," but the description is limited to the mere 
stRtement that he fell, feU of a heap m we »ay, t)? altogether 
(ooscinrr)* and expired with a great loaw of bloud* the resHon for 
^uch omission being that best of aJl remom^ thirt be had not 
been *'pressus bftstal' at aU^ bttt died of flie eBbdoii of blood 
vrhicb was the caoflequeiice of bis pnm4>tis wound^ a wound not 
described beamse inSieted before he etnie oo the ftage: Mki 
ISX we perctive with wlist pmpmt}* Prum intmffim agiteit 
t^ rrbtis, not — na he riKmld ioretgli if Poliu^ had l»«eo ** pmmm 
hafita** in bis ptmemx--hw killttipr hU mm Mon hkn tym, Imt, 
f m well poiDted out to nm hj mr dsui^iitcr^ for mMni( Mm 


as if be had aaid: '-wb^i. not ^^mumt with kifUiifi^ my •on« wllb 
iafiictiji^ a nioiiil womid oo aqr mm, druf «9pI Mm M0 my fmy 
meeaoB to die"": Ptitm, im c agfa f wily wffli Ite nmm oimirIi 
[to be admiral iftfairwf of mOtf t ky , flMtfiif wMi friftfUido 

[ e<|UBiitiiiil}^ 
will of htjaToir cbv 
I hg ^piioat die 

IaI UkMqm MMOK 1 

hut, urn t%»^£. i 

<4 Im aon a dMh m ^ m^n UUi, 

ifeicfe aaM^ Mai a wHiNa* ^4 H, 
if wmttm au^fjiv— Jlol if mf^rf mt* 
ay kkm m U^ hnttd in^hmU^) ttpmr^ 

264 AENEIDEA [526-632 ecce— fudit 

is ever if moment on the point of holding him in his hand 
and spearing him. Compare 12. 753, where "iam iamque 
tenet" is explained by '^similisque tenenti increpiiit malis morsu- 
qiie elusus inani est;" and Ovid, Met. 1. 533 (of Daphne 
pursued by Apollo): 

"ut canis in vacuo leporem cum Gallicus arvo 
vidit, et hie praedam pedibus petit, ille salutem. 
alter inhaesuro similis iam iamque tenere 
sperat, et extento sfrtfigii vestigia rostro: 
alter in ambiguo est, an sit deprensus, et ipsis 
morsibus eripitur, tangentiaque ora relinquit." 

Iam iamque marks the succession of time, a thing which 
cannot be represented in a picture or statue. See Rem. on 
2. 213. To represent the successive times of a narrative, as 
many pictures would be necessary as there are times in the 
narrative, as many statues as the number of times in the 
narrative multiplied, say by the mean number of the objects 
and actors at all the different times. Supposing the actors 
and objects to be represented as of no more than some small 
fractional part — say one-hundredth, or one five-hundredth, or 
one-thousandth part — of tlieir apparent natural size, the entire 
surface of our planet cleared of everything now upon it would 
not afford sufficient space for the exliibition of those represented 
in the single pocket volume of the Aeneid or Iliad. 

EvASiT, came the irhole 2rni/, viz., the whole way just 
described (per tela, per hostes, porticibus longis fuoit, et vacua 
ATRIA lustrat), into the very presence of his parents. See 
Rem. on 2. 458. 

CoNCiDiT, falh doioi all at once and (as we say) of a heap. 
The word diftei*s from procumbit, which is to lie stretched 
at full length. Compare Ovid, Met. 8. 763: 

. . . "ante aras ingens ubi victiina taurus 
coundit, abrupta cruor e cervice profusus.'' 

Ibid., 401: 

"coficidit Ancaeus; glomerataquo sanguine multo," &c. 

Vacua. — Heyne is right; de^^ertedj where there was no on^ 

533-537 Hic— DioNAs] BOOK II. 265 

dse but himself. Coniparo Tacit. AfUf, 11. 21: "'Vacids per 

iiKMliuni (liei porticibiis." 

Saucfus, the emphatic word of the wliole Jong sentence ecce 

. . . SAUcius (see Rem. on 2. 24(3\ is not merely ivounded, but 

th\spcrateh/ ivounded and hors de combat. Compare Cic. /// Terr. 

(if't. 2, lib. 1. 26: *'Servi nonnulli vulnerantur: ipse Rubrius 

in turba sanciatnrS^ Vavassor, de 17 of V:^it, etc.: ''Saucius: 

rulnerntus; prius apud Graecos vQcauatiac, posterius lerQio/ne- 

ros' . . . Proprie efterri saftcwb- ex acie, ?ion nibierotos historici 

dicere solent, qui melius quam ceteri Latino loquuntur.'' The 

same word is placed in the same effective position by Sil. 6. 66 

(of Serranus): 

. . . "niiseraMKiuo [>arentoin, 
et dulces tristi rcpetebat sorte penates, 
sauciua, liaud illi coinitum super ullus," &c. 



Media iam morte. - To be in media tnortc is to be in imminent 
danger of death; to have death as it were on every side round 
you, but not yet actually touching you. The expression is used 
indifferently of those who are so sick or so severely hurt or 
wounded as to be likely soon to die, /. c, of those in whom a 
process which is to end in death has already begun, and of those 
with respect to whom the j)rocess which is to end in death has 
not actually begun, is only threatening and imminent. Accor- 
dingly the expression is applied, llrMily, by Statins, (a), (Theh. 

266 AENEIDEA [633-637 hic— dignas 

S. 728) to Tydeus, mortally wounded yet possessing strength 
enough to call for and gnaw the head of Melanippus: 

'•tunc tristes socii cupidum bellarc (qiiis ardor!) 
est poscentem hastas, w/fy/iViquo in nwrte negantem 
exspirare, trahunt, suiiiiiiique in margiue campi 
effultum, gemina latera inclinantia parma 
poniint, ac saevi rediturum ad praelia Martis 
pvomittunt flentes;" 

(//), (Theh. 8. 187)' to Amphiaraiis, still terrible although already 
half swallowed up by the yawning earth: 

. . . *'tunc otiam nmJia de morte timendum 
hostibiis, infestaque abeuntom vidimus hasta;" 

and (r), {Silv. 2. 5. 17) to a lion conquered and dying, but still 

able to fight: 

. . . '•mausere animi, virtusijue cadenti 
a media iani morte redit; " 

and on the other hand it is applied, secondly, by Ciceix) 
/// Vvnem, lib. 5 (ed. Lamb. p. 190, 4) to malefactors tied to the 
stake, but still sound and unhurt, and afterward*^ liberated: 
*'Hos ad supplicium iam move maiorum traditos, et ad palum 
alligatos, ex media morte eripere ac liberare ausus es,'' where the 
meaninpr, if doubtful, would be placed beyond doubt by the 
exactly similar use of modi us only a few lines later: ''ut 
homines servos, nt ipse qui iudicarat, ut statim e medio supplicio 
dimiserit." Our author's use of the term corresponds not with 
Statius's but Cicero's: Priam is described as media in morte, not 
be(*ause really and truly in the middle of death, or half dead, 
but because, although as yet unhurt, yet in such imminent and 
pressing danger as to be (is it were in the middle of death. It is, 
no doubt, in the same sense the expression is used by Valerius 
Flaccus (3. 326), where Clyte, complaining that she had not had 
the satisfaction of being present when Jason killed Cyzicus, says: 

'^ast ego non media to saltern. Cyzico, vidi 
tendentem mihi morfe inanus;"' 

meaning not the very moment in which he actually received the 
death wound, but that immediately preceding moment when thQ 

63.1 537 inr-r>i(i:fA8] 

BUOK 11. 


«Ian;^^rr \vn> m> nnniinont cirni m>!»in n> to riiMsr Irini u* >iruri'li 
out liii; bunds imploring help. Tho diffievilty \vhieh tJio vcm\- 
mentat*»r8 htboured under was their old une, that uf takins^ their 
lUlbors words literally ami pr<»6iaieal!y instead of tiguratively 

'rind poetically. They could not tV>r tho life of them see how 
Priam was in death at all, eitJior in the bo(2:innill^^ middle, or 
end of it (/'prima, media, postrcma/' Serving); all tln-y saw 
was (bat be was in manifest and immediate danger of death, 
Hi:d lienco ServinsV ''mauifesta," anrl Heyne*s and Wagners 
[I'inj. Ih\ Kn.) ''praej^enti mortis perieulo"— Virgd's meaning 
all tlie while being, not that be was in manifest and immediate 
ittnger. but thar, so manifest and immediate was his ilanger 
imt he was (pot^tieally, of eoui-^e, not bistorieally and in point 
5f fact) in the very middle of death; that death, a^^^ain, iiol being 
ibe death of his son, as Servius to relieve himself out ♦►f liis ejn- 
barrassment is fain to nnderstaiul it (for liis being in the middle 

^4>f I'olitt^s' deatli, /'. e,, surrounded by the bloody tragedy of bis 
feon's death, had rather been a reason for his not sparing, Iban 
fnr bis sparing, bis wrathful words: nkc voci ihakquk rKPKurd), 
ml bis ovrn death: as if Virgil hud said that Priam, althotigb 
near to nn<l sure of tleath as scarcely to belong any longer 
<> the living his deadly enemy approaching Idm with the bloody 
Hword in his hand with which he has just slain his s(jni, yet did 
not besit^ite to do that which would soon put his belonging to 

jhc living out of question, viz,, exasperate Ms enemy* 

In the very sense in which Virgil here uses the expression 
media mors, Livy (8, 24) uses the expression ''media fata:'* 
^^'Ut forme fugiendo in media fata ruitur:'' Statins^ the expres- 
piion medii Manes {Theh. 2, (JUT, ed. Midler— Tydeus ad- 
dressing the sole survivor of the tifty of which thf* ambuscade 
had consisted): 

*'qiii8*|uis rs vVonidnnj, titioui crastitia inuaerp tiostro 
Manihua exemj^tuJii mnh'is Aurora virlt»bit; ' 

( iitu 1 his, the expression m e tl i u s turbo 1 v 1 1 { Kpilh . I V/. vi 

"corte ego t© in mrdh versaiitein turbifw tHi 
(•ripiii /' 

268 AENBIDEA [533-537 mc— dignab 

and Ammian (81. 13), the similar but much weaker expression, 
"Inter ipsa mortis confinia." 

Extrema mors has the same relation to media mors as 
oxtrema to media, therefore expresses a greatly increased, 
much more imminent urgency either of death or of danger of 
death (as, 2. 446: 

. . ''his se quando ultima cernunt, 

extrema iam in marte parant defendere telis," 

with which compare Ammian. 16. 12: "Formidabilis manus, 

exiremae necessitatis articulo circuniventos, si iuvisset fors, erep- 

tura") — nay, somestimes even death completed, as 11.845(Opis 

apostropliizing dead Camilla): 

^'non tamon indecorein tua te regina reliquit 
ejctrrma iam in morte ; neque hoc sine nomine letum 
per gentes ent, aut famam patioris inultae. 
nam quicimque tuuni violavit vulnere corpus 
morte luet merita." 

Tenetur, is held {caught\ viz., as in a net, or other sur- 
rounding medium, out of which there is no possibility of flight 
or escape. 

In media . . . TENCTUR. Compare Cic. r/rf .4^/. 11. IS: ''Tenemnr 
nmlique, neque iam ([uo minus servianuis recusamus,'' where 
the 'Mindique" of Cicero corresponds to the media of our text; 
Aristoph. Rartae^ 460: alia vvv ejei f.aGo^ (''sed nunc medius 

At (VS. 535).— ''Hoc loco est cum indignatione imprecantis; 
Terent. Hect/r. 1. 2. 59: 'At te dii deaeque perdant cum tuo 
istoc odio,'" Wagn. (1861). Neither in our text nor in the 
Terentian paralk^l is there more indignation or imprecation 
contained in the ''at'' than there is in the tibi or the "te," 
The imprecation is in the whole sentence and context; the 
''at," iis ntj is indifferent, takes its colour from the context 
and is joined with simple praying, blessing, and cursing, all 
alike. Its use seems to be on all occasions to connect the sub- 
sequent with the preceding, whether that preceding has been 
actually expressed, as Tibull. 1. 73: 

^'at tu casta, precor, maneas; sauctique pudoris 
assideat custos sedula semper anus/' 

^t(V-663 AT— exsem] 600i It. 269 

or is merely supposed to have passed through the mind of the 
speaker, as in our text, and Eurip. Med. 759 (ed. Fix) where 
the chorus, who like Priam in our text has not previously said 
a word, begins her prayer of good wishes or blessing with aXht: 

(c}.i.(( a' o Mam-; jioujuuo; avui 
Titkitaftf douoii, Mv T inivoiav 
OTifv^fi; '/.lak/otv nofc^ttuif k:in 
ytwiuo-; itvrjo, 
^tyfv, n«o* I not &fdoxt]atu. 

Si qua fst caklo pietas. — Compare Shakesp. CifmbeAhw, 

4. 6: 

. . . * but if there be 
yet left ia heavea as small a drop of pity 
as a wren's eye, gods, a part of it I" 

Id. Poni, and Jit I. 3. 5: 

^is there no pity sitting in the clouds 
that sees into the bottom of my grief I"' 

There needs no further proof than this single passage, how 
entirely different the pietas of the Romans was from our piffyy 
how totally opposite -pius Aeneas" to "pious Aeneas." Piktas 
here is precisely our pity, and the whole exprf^ssion exists in 
Italian at the present day, as Goldoni, Yjulinda e LindorOy 3. 0: 
'"Numi, assistetemi p^*r pieta." S**^' It/mm. on 1. 14 and 607. 



FT I Med. (Yogg.* Ill Sftr.-, '-^i. I>,f, : V^rn. 1470; AhUtn (UAi) 

P. Miout 
EX m Wakefield, ex ^mj, 
Kc lU Ribbeck. 

2?0 AENBIDEA [540-553 at— enseM 

The connection of thought indicated by at is: "Thou hast 
acted so, hut Achilles acted differently; thou art worse than 

CoRPusQUE, &c., . . . REMisiT. — Compare ApoUon. Khod. 
2. 966: 

tvilu Ttort- TinofjokoL'Oav .-ititiTui^a Alt/.avtnnrji' 

rjooji JloaxXfti^' tXo/fjatcTo, xtu oi anoi^vu 

fnnoli'Tr] CcjarrjQa Tmviuokov tyyvukiitv 

((U(fc x((OiyvrjTr}i' o d^ un i] u ov tt jiiutj'tv ontoaw. 

Erubuit, bhtshedy was ashamedy was not avaidrjQ. There is, 
perhaps, allusion to the liio^toi; apaidsiag on which the prose- 
cutor stood in the Athenian court of justice, Zenob. Proverb, 
4. 36: (fr^ai (^eoifqaovog ev no tibqi Yliqeiog /mi ^vai- 
deiag naqa loig ^^rjvaioig eivai lioftorg. See Forchhammer, 
Ind. Schol. Kiel, 1843-4: ''ItO^og araideiag non est impudentiae 
lapis y sed implacabilitatis sive negatae veniae — qui vero accuset, 
is iam se nolle ostendit veniam dare, atque vol earn ob causani 
debet ex avaiduag lapide perorare."* 

In mea regna. — I think, not into my kingdom^ in the literal 
sense, but in that secondary sense in which the same words 
might have been used by a private person. In the literal sense 
they had ill become the position in which Priam was at the 
time referred to. Compare Ed. 1. 67: 

^'on, imqiiain i)atnos longo post tempore fines, 
pauperis et tuguri corigestuni caospite culmen, 
p(;st aliquot, ffica rnjua videns, iiiirabor aristasV* 

(leorg. 3, 476: 

. . . "videat dosertaque rcgmt 
I)astorum et lougo saltus latequo vacantes." 

And Lucan, 9. 458: 

''rrgtm xidat pauper Nasainon errantia vento." 

I believe, indeed, the precise words mea regna are never 
used in any other than this secondary sense. 

* The above from ''Zenob.'' to the end is (juoted from "Cambridge 
.Tournal of PhiIoloj':y,' No. 2, p. 3 and p. 21, which whole passage is to 
ho compared, as well as Pau.san. 1. 28. 5, referred to, ihltl., p. 21. 

pS40— 553 AT— knsem] 

hOOK 1 1. 


CoNrECiT^ ihretr trith nil his mighf (see Rom. on ^'contorsit,** 
2. 521 but which nevertheless, his might being so little, ilid not 
tell, had no efTect^ ditl no damage, sine icrr, 

Rauco.— The ordinary adjiinrt. C'mnpare Claud, Helt OikL 


, . . ^'an Mauri freniituQi /v/«/^'(y^qm> repulsus 
umbonum, et vestros paBSuri comitius enseg?'' 

The addition of this word is for the purpose of showing the 
utmost effect of the stroke, viz., to make the shield ring. 


Not having been thrown with suftidenr force to penetrate tlie 
bras£en plate of the shield, th(> spear stuck in the outer coat 
(vix., in the leatlier), and not having siiftieient support there to 
itand erect or porpendietilar to the plane of the shield, drooped 
E^r hung down so ni^ to fonn an acute angle with llie plane of 
the shield below, and an obtuse angh> above. That this is 
pr^isely the pictui'e which our author wishes to present is 
declared by Silius's imitation (10. 115): 

^*haesit Hmltiplici uoti alto cuspis in auro, 
ttc iJ€!Diu.m iQvalido depeadens prodidit ictu.'* 

SuMMO cLiPEi UMBONE.— V'^ery precise: not merely in the 
shield, bnt in the boss or prominent central part of the shield 
(tmBONE); and not merely in tlie boss, bnt in the very top or 
most projecting part of the boss. There were two reasons, 
tberofore^ why the spear did not penetrate; first, because it was 
tlirown witJiout force (imbeli.k), and secondly, because it stiuck 
the very strongest part of the shield. Speai's which penetrate 
the shield so as to wound are always described as striking the 
orae or thin part of the shield near the circumference. Corn- 
pure 10, 474 (Tunius wounded through his shield by Pallas): 

*^iUa volaDfi. humeri surgunt qua tef^mina summa, 
inoidit atqne viam clipei molita per orany 
tandem etiam riiagno atriuxit de corporc Tiirm," 

where we have tlie exactly opposite circumstances to those de- 
gn^ribed in our text; thr spr\nr nnf nidy thmwn with great foire, 

272 AENEIDEA [540-563 at— ENSKk 

but striking the shield towards the margin, and accordingly not 
only penetrating but wounding. Also 10. 588: 

. . . "subit ora.s hasta per imas 
fulgentis cli[)ei, turn laovurn perlbrat inguon." 


MEMENTO. — Illi, viz., Peijdae. Compare SiL 4. 286 (ed. 

Ruperti ) : 

"cui consul: ^ferre haec umbris proavoque memento, 
quam proeul occumbas Tarpeia sede, tibiquo 
baud licitum sacri Capitolia cerncre montis.'" 

The whole point is in illi — "tell that Felides who behaved so 
well to you, how ill you have been treated by his son." Yet 
commentators have not been wanting to maintain that illi is 
not the pronoun but the adverb of place, and the meaning not 
that which I have just indicated, but ''tell there (viz., there 
below in the shades whore Pelides is) how badly you have 
been treated by the son of Pelides." See Donatus ad Terent. 
Ilec. L 2. nJ: 

*'nani i//ic baud liccbat nisi praefiiiito loqui," 

where he says: '^Lcgitur et ////, ut sit circunifloxus acceiitus, 
ct signiticet illie^ ut illi mea tristia facta, et absolutum est." 
This is one of the not very rare cas(^s in which the reader were 
better without any commentator — would ho sure to go right if 
allowed to take his own way ; also one of the cases which shov 
that the Donatus who commented on Terence, that Donatus 
whose comment on illi I have just quoted, was not Servius's 
Donatus, the comment of the latter on the passage being to 
the point-blank opposite effect: '''Ibis,' inquit, 'ut patri meo 
ipse referas male gesta mea.' " 

Ensem (vs. 553) belongs to both verbs, coruscum only to 
extulit. Extulit (exskm) coruscum, because the very act of 
raising and flourishing the sword made it flash ; ABoroiT ensem 
(no longer coruscum), because the very act of plunging it (or 
stowing it away: see Rem. on Ae/t. 1. 56) into the side caused 
it to cease to flash. 

If it be not mere supererogation to refer to instances of a 

551 5riS 



ipiiuiiar beautiful accuracy of language in a writer whose lan- 
guage is always supereniiDeutly accurate, I would here refer 
the reader to the special apposition of "beliatrix'' to '^aurea 
cing:ula," and of ''virgo'' to 'Siris," Aen, L 497; to the junc- 
tion of '^Foituna" with the two verbs "fiiixit" and ^^tiu^et^" 
and of ^4mproba" with the latter only, Ach, 2. 80; and to the 
precise "intorserit hastam,'' "laeserit cuspide/' Am. 2. 230, 
231; also to Remm. on vv. 270 and 689, 




[pirnt^.} moAifi PATORUM ' mc I Med. Ill P. MaDui; D. Heins.; N* Heins.; 
Philippe; Heyne; Bruiick; Wakef,; Wagner (ed, Heyn., Led, Virg. and 
Fr€Uiat)\ Dietscb; Kappes. 

IpuncL} wiLAMi • FATORUM ixK HI Feei lltamp » HaQekemiauo; ladowig; Haupt; 

"So'Ainniianus Marcellitnis (14. 11), finely, of Constaiitius Gallus 
Caesar: ''Cervice abscissa, ereptaque vultus et capitis digiiitate, 
cadaver est relictum inforrae, paullo ante urbtbiis et provinciis 
formidatum/' Also Lucan (8. 710), much less finely, of Pompey 
the Great: 

. . . ^^ nalUque itiaaente figara^ 
linn Dota est Magno capitis iaotura reruki/' 


FAToutiM PKiAMi, {U}^ bccauHe finis elsewhere iu Virgil is 

niNBV, AJtNllDFJ^ VOL. 11. Ig 

274 AEKBIIDEA [564 558 haec— corpcs 

always the end nut of a person but of a thing. {b\ because 
in the exactly co'^responding passage of Tacitus {Hist. 1. 40)^ 
**Hunc erifftm habuit Ser. (xalba, tribus et septuaginta annis^ 
quincjue piincipes prospera fortuna emensus, et alieno imperio 
felicior quam suo,'' it is not exitus fatorum but simply 
exitus. (c), because elsewhere in tlie same author it is invari- 
ably exitus of the person, not of the person's fates, as AnnaL 
1. 10: ''Sane Cassii et Brutorum exitus paternis inimicitiis 
datos." Ibi(L, 4. o5: ''Atrociore semper fama erga dominan- 
tium exitus.'^ (rf), because iiakc fints phiami had been if not 
absolutely disrespectful, at least much less respectful, towards 
Friam, than hakc finis i'kiami fatokum. (eu because—the first 
clause ending with fatorum and t\w second commencing witli 
Hic — both clauses, the tormer especially, are more dignified, 
and the i)ause more acceptable both to mind and ear. (/), 
because the climax, the ascent from tin* fates of Priam in the 
first clause to Triam himself in the second, so impressive in 
the received structure, is wliolly absent from the proposed. 
(g), bec4iuse the repetition of tlu* demonstrative in the Jike 
positions HAKC finis, iiic kxitls, is mon» el!ectiv(» than in the 
unlike hakc finis, fatoiu m iiic kxitus. [h], on account of the 
more perfect tallying of the clauses iiafc finis imuami fatorum, 
hic kxitus illum sortk TiLiT ( wlicn^ soRTK balaiiccs fatorum) in 
the same manner as hic balances hakc, and kxitus, finis than 
of the two clauses hakc finis pkiami, fatorum iiic kxiti:8 illum 
SORTK tulit. where thi^ whole weight both of fatorum and sortk 
is in the second clause, without any counterpoise at all in the 
first. (£), because fatorum, tautological in the same clause 
with SORTK, expresses, in the same clause with flnis, that the 
end spoken of is th(^ end not of Priam, but of the fates of 
Priam, as if Virgil had said "here ends the history of Priam;'' 
and, (At), because the citation by (iellius of hakc finis priami 
fatorum, without the context and without observation, is suffi- 
cient proof of the junction of fatorum by (lellius and his con- 
temporaries not with KXITUS but with finis. For all these 
reasons I adhere with Dietsch (^Theolog. p. 2S: "Minus recte 
FATORUM ad sequentia train mihi videtur, cum ita vis, quae in 

564—556 iijjto— coBPusj 



anastropJie e«^ deleatiir, neque uakc finus prumi sine molestia 
!?*it, po8t3*eiuo vero per verba haec ftxis fatordm logenfes cum 
qiiadaii) gravitate ad vs. 50() i^vocentiu*") to the receivod 
sti'uctiire and punctuation, and reject the innovation of Peei'l- 
kanip, Haeckermann, and Ribbeck, notwithistanding tlie argu- 
ment which might, but lias not yet been advanced in favour of 
it, viz., that it has a perfect parallel in tovro floupiiiiov leXog^ 
Plutai-ch's epiphonema of the closing scene of Pompey the Great, 
a closing scene so similar to tiiat which our author has drawn 
for PriajB as to call forth the observation i>f Servius on tlie 
latter: ^'Pompeii tangit historiam/' 

SoBTE TtJUT, i". e.y soHTE faU TOUT. Compare 12. 501: '^uescla 
aens hominnm fafi mrftsque futiirae," ?. e., sort is quae e fa to 
! Yen let, sort is quam fa turn dab it, 

Exrrus sorte [pfff]^ Compare Horn. //. 3. 309: d^avazow 

IsGKSS LrrroRE truncus ayuusumquk niniotis cafct et sine 
NoiiixE corpus, - Only one of the nominatives, viz., trcncts, 
belongs to ucm; the other two nominatives, caput and corpus, 
hare each their own verb, viz., e^t, undei"stuod. Compare 
Aen, J, 452: 

**aerea cui gradibus surgebant Hraina, nexaeque 
aere trabes/' 

where the structure is not ''limina nexaeque trabes surgebant/' 
but **llmina surgebant, ti'abesque [eraiit] nexae/' There shonbl, 
therefore, be a semicolon at truncus. 

Si>E Ko.vHNE. — Not, without nante in the sense of appella- 
tion, but witliout name in the sense of honour or renown, That 
this and no other is the meaning is placed beyond doubt by the 
manifest iraitation of Hilius (a), 10, 209: 

**Mc tibi finiB erat, metas hie AufiduB aevi 
servabat tacUo, uou felix: Catio, teio. 
namque, furens tmnni dum funsleniata moratur 
agmina, et oppositu meiiibrorum sistere ct^rtat, 
io jiraeceps magna propulsus taole rueutum 
turbalia kauri Uir a^uls, fimdoiiue volutus 
HadriacA iacuit sute tiomint mortin ai'otia,'^ 


276 AEKElBfiA [654-568 hakc— cx)ftt»t8 

where "sine nomine" is explained by Silius himself to be equiva- 
lent to "sine nomine mortis/' and this again to be equivalent 
to "tacito leto." Compare also (6), Sihus, 13. 4: 

. . . ^' nulla laedens ubi gramina ripa 
Turia deducit tenuem sin^ nomine rivum, 
et tacite Tuscis itiglorius affluit undis." 

(c), Flor. 3. 16: "C. Gracchum hominem sine tribu, sine 
riaminey id)^ Aen. 9. 343: 

. . . "ac multara in medio sine nomine plebem 
Fadumque, Herbesumque subit, Rhoeturaciue Abarimque 

in which three latter places, pei-sons or things said to be "sine 
nomine" are actually named. Also {e\ 11. 846: "Sine nomine 
letum" [a death without renown, an inglorious death]. (/), 
Ovid, Fast. 4. 437: 

"ilia legit calthas; huic sunt violaria curae: 
ilia papavcreas subsecat usque comas, 
has, hyacinthe, tenes; illas, amarante, moraris; 

pai-s thyma, pai-s casiam, jiara meliloton amant. 
plurima lecta rosa est; et sunt sine nomine flores. 
ipsa crocos tenues, liliaque alba legit,'' 

where "flores sine nomine'' arc not floivers which have neve)' 
received names, but inglorious flowers, flowers of little fame 
and note, and thereforo not to bo enumerated along with the 
famous flowers already mentioned. 

The body of Priam, thereforo, lay on the shore sink nomine, 
not, with Wagner, 1861, because it could not be distinguished 
whose body it was ("quia absciso capite iam cognosci non 
poterat cuius esset corj)us"); but, with Nonius ("no men, decus, 
dignitas: Acn. 2. 558: sine nomine corpus), because, although 
Priam's body, and known to be Priam's body, it had no respect 
or honour, was treated by the Greeks as if it had been tlie body 
of a man of no consequence, the carcase of a dog. See Remm. on 
1. 618; 9. 848; 12. 514. The corresponding Greek expression 
is rcorruoi; or aviovvuog, as Horn. ()d. 13. 238 (of Ithaca): 


BOOK n. 

lit Tt ll^lV OiTOJ VO^VVftO^ EGViV. KllFIJK lltppol. I: 

The currespoiiding English is uanwkss. 





tiE— ifKRicBAR II I. Ill Aldus (1614); Junta (1637); P. Mannt; B. Heins.; 
N. Heinfi. (1670); Phil; Wakef.; Pott; Wagn, (ed. fleyu , ed, 1861), 
who withoot ever so much as having seen the MS. takes upou hriii, 
1 kuQw DOt OD what hearsay, to inform his readers that these veraes 
arc coijtained. in the Palatine; Lad.; TIaupt. 

UM— FERuuH OMlTTEIf I FaL; Med,; '*In nullo ex iis veteribus oodd. 
quos versavirnuB habeutur," Pierius. II ?;. Ill VenicG, 1470. 

iAJi-iKi«Eiu« OMfTTFM OR STiaMATmKD lU Heyn,; Brunck; Peerlk. 
(vv. 567-«23); tiruppe, Ribb, 

Concerning these vet^ses, the foUowing^ opinion has been ex- 
pressed by Charles James Fox in a letter to Gilbert Wakefield, 
then a prisoner in Dorchester gaol (Rosseirs Mr-m. of Fox, \iA. 4, 
p. 411): ^'If the lines omitted in the Medici MS. are spurious. 
they are, I think, the liappiest iniitatioii of Virgil's uianner ihat 
I ever saw. I am indeed so unwilling to believe them any other 
than genuine^ that rather than I wimhl i^onsent to sut'li an 
opinion* I should be inclined to think tfiat Virgil himself had 
written and afterwards erased them \m aeeount of their ineon- 
siistency with the aecoiant he gives of Heleu in the Sixth Book/' 
Mr, Fox should have said:— The verses are genuine, fV»r none 
but a Virgil ever vvrot<' tbeni. and tlieri^ iievfT was but one Virgil, 
By tliat one only Virgil therefore they were written, and are 

278 ABNEIDEA [667-588 iam— firibab 

absent from the more ancient MSS., because expunged along 
with the four introductory vei-ses by Tucca and Varius, whose 
mutilation of the poem was antecedent not only to any MSS. of 
it now existing, but to any even so much as perusal of it after it 
had passed out of the capsule of the author (see Rem. on 2. 632). 
Wakefield, however, in his reply thus unqualifiedly accepts Fox's 
opinion: ''Your supposition that the verses in Aen. 2 were 
Virgil's own, and omitted by him, with the reason for that 
omission, pleases me entirely." 

How has it happened that not Fox and Wakefield only, but 
all the propugners of these verses, have so entirely omitted to 
draw an argument in their fiivour from Hom. Od, 20. 5? 

i-vih^ O^vneiw uvt]mi]OGL xuxtt qnor^tav tvt ihvuio 
xht' i-yoriyooixav tm (f' (x inyaooio yvvaixfg 
riiaav, at tivriOTtjooiv fuiayfOxoPTo Tiaoog ntft, 
ieXli]krjot yfko) xtu tC<f{}oavvi]v ntKn/ovata. 

TOV (T* MOlViTO fhVUO^ tVl OTfJikf-OOt <f lloiOtP' 

no/.).(c dt utnur](tt^( xartc ijgfvn xtu xuitc fkvuov, 

»/* ufT((u«s ihnrarov T^v'ituv fxaart], 

ij fr* t-o) ui'fjGTtjootr v;if^otf i(().otoi uiyiyrai 

vOTtiTd xt'.i :iruiiT(c. xoaSirj (h ot ti'dov ikaxTfi. 

(og rff ;fiff)r ((iiukrjat nttu Gxrkaxfoat f^t^ioatt 

Hi'So ayvoDiaaa i/.an, ut^uoi'tv rt u(iyta*)-ai>, 

(og o(( TOV fi'doi' v).(ixiti ayiaoutvov xaxu t-i)ya. 

OTiixh><; 6f- .T/.//i:«s xoa^trjv t]ri7i((nt uvJtor 

Tf^r/.('.,'h ^fj, xoa^ni' xat xvit^oov ak).o noT^ ^ikt^s, 

tjitttn ui), Oft tioi uti'o>; (tn/tiog tjOO^tt Kix}.(t)i^f 

iil>'}iuoi\' i-KcooV';' av (f f^jolutcs, otfou of uf}Tis 

t^iayay h^ ai'Tooio oioiiU'ov D^ai'f^baihd. 

ojs i^<f('.T:^ tv OTfjihaai x(i'hi7iTouiro<; (fi/.ov tjoo. 

TU) &f u((A fr viftoi] X(t((Strj ufi't- Tfrkrjvta 


&76 VITAH— P<»FAAk] 

BOOK 11, 



VrrXM— P0EXA8 

♦TRCUJi MK III I). Heins. 

Ml cmoiTsr III P, Maiml.; N, Heins. (Iti70); Heyno; Brunrk; Wakef, 
Voss; Heyne; Wagner (ed. Heyn., etl. 1861; see Wagner ad lU 2U8); 
Ladewig; Rib berk. 

VAU. LECT (vs. 576). 

^LjcLKiutAs HI P. 31 an lit.-. D. Hein^s,; N. HHiis. (IfilO); Gesntu*; H«\vne; 
Bmock; Wakefield; Wagner; Kihbeck. 

KttKiufAr. in Ileyne {'\\n scklkratak? ut innlim '); Voss. 

ViT.iH Kxn\L\N'TKM.— Cnnipai-e Bihl, Smra, Lamrtti. Itrmtim, 
l^ 1^: **CuiTi exhahtreitf (utimm sitas in sinu matnmi stuirum.'* 
The *?xpiv«sioii is exa<lly eiiuivnlent to vitani oxinpininteuK 
anrl has deHCcndeil intti tlie Itnlian. as Ariost OtL Fur, T, 7H: 

'^e lo scudo immbile tolse aii€0» 
i;lie nan |»ur ^li ocohi abljarbftgliaj' »ub«i, 
mal r am'nm Ta^'ea si venir manco, 
ch© dal corfio rAtilnia asser parcn." 

Ci'M U3IIXA, &c Asincio: "LrwiNA vkktai-; teni|>liuii Vcstae 

in artt* couditiiniv^ Kurbifr**t; Ladfiwi/jr. I think not; firnt, because 
\mi verHf GH2) Auru^as Ijan riDt vH Mi the palace: aectuidly, 
bec'auHt* the tompio of Vt^ta on the* aj'\ being a n^iuple could 
Hut jiropt»rly b«^ ilenominateil '^tietTota sedc^^;'' and thirdly, 
t»e<;Hii*o tliore wa.s in every royal palace, and e8|j«*c'ially in 
PriarnX a sacrod hearth, or tiejirth with saf^i^etl tire {miia), 
, which, oti Mceonnt ut' its pi.Tidiiir sanctity, nttordcd an inviolable 
llbijrluin to the fugitive. Tin' i^iurM vI'>tak (»f hmi text I nn- 
dtT!?ftan<l U) be that part nf the palaw in which tho Hacred hearth 
1MI.S that most intermr, ?4ecn--l and n^icred pari of the palac«% fhs 

280 ABNEIDBA [562-676 vitam— pobnas 

nominated penetralia Vestae, or more briefly penetralia, 
or even Vesta, from the goddess whose peculiar seat it was, 
and in honour of whom the sacred fire, the eona or Vesta, was 
kept there, perpetually burning. See 5. 744: 

9. 258 : 

" Pergameumque Larem et canae penetralia Veslae 
farre pio et plena supplex veneratur acerra." 

. . . ^'per magnos, Nise, Penates 
Assaracique T^rem, et canae penetralia Vestae^ 

Horn. Od. 17. 155: 

CO Til} r* Odvorjo*; a[.ivfiovog, rjv (Hfixavto, 

— the last example, an appeal to the sacredness of the same 
Vesta, which is made more than once elsewhere in the course 
of the poem. Callim. Hymv. ad Delum, 325 (apostrophizing 

where Spanheim: '^ Vestae auteni simulacra ... in iisdem 
Prytaneis, ac in privatis etiam aedibus, in earum penetrali sen 
media parte vulgo erant itidem sucrata. Hinc dicta quoque 
pridem Vesta, non solum in penetralihus habitare, ut apud Maro- 
nem, 5. 744, * penetralia Vestae;' sed in Orphicis dudum ante, 
rj i-ieoov or/.ov ex^iQi . . . et apud Phornutum cap. de Cerere et Vesta, 
de hac, /Mta f,ieaoi\; idgriai uorg oiviorg. . . . Unde quemad- 
modum aedes aut ara Apollinis Delphica, earta ^leaof-ufaXog, ara 
seu sedes petietralis apud veteres tragicos, Acschylum, Agam, 
1065, et alibi, hand semel appellata; quod nempe urbs Delphi 
orbis haberetur iuxta poetam in Priapeiis umbilwiis: ita baud 
minus Delws in medio Cyeladum sita, immo Cyelas etiam, uti 
supra vidimus, et praetorea Latonao partii ac Apollinis natalibus 
et cultu veneranda, laxiri vriacov, et ereonog, Vesta insidarwn 
ac fortunata, hie dicitur." 

This apartment, this 'Mimina Vestao/' being thus always in 
the innermost, least public, part of the building, . . . was of all 
phices the most likely and most proper fur Helen to take refuge 
in, not only on account of its seere(;y and inviolability, but 

-n7fi ^.iTAM— POKNAfiJ 



beciiu.>e It was su noar at hiuvl, in the very pa!*iet\ I'rin is*:'ly 
because Helen's liMiiig place was so retired, is the explanation 
lidded how it happens that Aeneas discovered her; 


[siurely rtot everywhere and throii*j;;h everything in the arx or in 
Uie cit)% but everywhere and through everything in the palace]. 
Precisely because the liiding place is so retired is Helen's hiding 
herself in it appropriately expressed by the words ABumERAT 
and LATEKTEM, puf herself out of the iraij, and Inrkhuj, expres- 
sions which had been less applicable if Helen's hiding place 
had been a public temple. And precisely because the secret 
hiding place was the tO€ta or sacred hearth, is the interference 
of Venus called for, less to hinder the unmanly act of killing 
a woman than to tiinder the alaiost unheard-of impiety of 
killing an ixefi^tj itftantog. 

There is a peculiar propriety in Helenas tiiking refug*.» in the 
damestic Vestit, and thus rendering hej*self an i^eu^^ ufnutog. 
The domestic Vesta of the prince nr other principal person 
afforded sure safeguard and protection to the stranger or to the 
culprit who, flying from the justice or revenge of his fellow- 
country uicu, was fortunate enough to reacli such place of 
refuge, and Helen was both a stranger and a culprit: 


In cases in which flight from lioni*' was impossible or not desir- 
ible, the guilty pei-son used to take refuge in the same sanc- 
tuary, either for safety, or for the mere sake i»f luding liis shame 
from the eye of day, as Stat. Theh. i. 4fJ2 {uf Oedipus c 

'^^ ilium indulgentem tetiebris, iinnoque recessu 
sodis, iniispet't(>s fjnAo ru<ljis(|ue Permle^ 
»tftyfiHtenf^ tanitji) asHi*iujs ciroumvoUt ali^i 
Sfteva dies aniriii, *i<'eJurumquG in pectoro Dirae/' 

In the houses of tlie poor there were no ''liniina Vestae'' pro- 
perly so called^ no domestic sanctuary in which lire or at least a 

282 AENBLDEA [662-576 vitam— poenas 

lamp was kept perpetually burning. The place of the sacred 
fire was in such houses filled by the kitchen hearth, which, fol- 
lowing the primitive practice, was the eaiia, the sacred refuge 
of the fugitive and stranger, as Sil. 6. 78: 

. . . ''quum membra cubili 
evolvens non tarda Marus 

procedit, renovata foe is ct paupere V^esta 
lumina praetendens.'* 

The custom of the sacred or perpetual fire has, in common 
with so many other pagan observances, come down under a 
changed name to the present day, nay even to the present day 
varies in costliness in the direct mtio of the wealth of the indi- 
vidual votary ; for while there is in every house in Rome a sacred 
light burning day and night before the likeness of the modem 
Vesta, it is only in palaces and churches this light radiates from 
a lamp or lamps of gold or silver, and serves to light a marble 
statue. In humbler dwellings it is a mere wick floating like a 
nurse's night-light on a little cup of oil, and serves to illuminate, 
not a marble statue, but a mere wood-cut on paper of the god- 
dess, and is even sometimes obliged to perform the humbler, 
more useful, office of lighting a dark dirty stone stair or pas- 
sage, or a dingy corner of an obscure shop, sometimes a 
wretched closet's still more wretched pallet. 

Servantiom (vs. oGS). See Rem. on 2. 450. 

Pkaemktuens.- -"Fiirchtete,'' Voss. ''Temendo,'' Caro. "Dreads," 
Dryden— all omitting the tkae, the force of which is, that her 
fear anticipated th(^ anger, that she tl<Ml without waiting to see 
whether her fear were well founded or not. Compare Phaedr. 
1. 16. :^: 

'^ovem rogabat uervus niodiiim tritioi. 
iupo sponsoro. at ilia, pracntctiiois dohiin." &c. 

Metuere expresses the fear of an urgent or immediate, prae- 
metuere of an uncertain or remote danger. The former woi*d 
would express Helen's fear, if she was hiding from the Greeks, 
knowing them to be in actual pursuit of her; the latter expresses 
that sort of fear which leads Helen to hide hers(;lf without being 

0$2— 576 VHAM— POKNAS] 

BOOK n. 



sure that the Greeks will pursue her, ur that they have eTon so 
much as a hostile feeling towards her. Praemetueks inpkstos 
TKTCROS, ET poENAs danaum et liESKBTi coNiuois IRAS, IS there- 
fore equivalent to fearing tknt sueh might be the state of 
things: while inetnena infestos TKrcuas, et foenas daxaum, bt 
DKXKRTi coNnniis IRAS, woiild have been equivalent to saying 
that Helen knew that such was the state of things, knew that 
the Teucri tvcre irritated against her, that her husband and the 
Danai were an^ry with her, and certainly would avenge them- 
selves oo her. The preposition fuae is thus used with the 
greatest propriety, inasmucli as it expresses the precedence of 
the fear to the actual danger, 

Abdiuerat sese atc^uk aris iNvisA SEDEBAT- — The repetition, 
recording to our author's usual manner (see Rem, on L 151), 
in a slightly changed foiTn, of the preceding (jruM . . . aspicio, 
vss. 567-569. 

Ijsvtsa (vs. 574), *'unbemerkt/' Ladewig. No; but, ns always 
elsewhere iu Virgil^ odiosa, the hntefttl onr, and therefore 
praemetuens (vs, 573) not without reason. That this is the 
true import of the word seems to be placed bevitnd duubt by 
VH. 601: ^^Tyndaridis facies rnvisa Ijaeaenae/' 

ScELERATAS* FOEXAS, — '' Poenas de scelerata," La Cerda, 

• It will be observed that the comment od this word rests on the 
acceptation of the term a c e I u s in a wider and more general sense, to 
indicate, not absolute moral deliixjuency, but rather some circumstances 
of hoiTor or the like accompanying the object to which it ts applied. It 
lA Dot, however, without some hesitation that 1 have adoj^ted this view. 
H is 1 formerly thought, the other int€!r}>retfttion he the correct one in 
this passage, then I would rather be inclined to road hoklkhatak with Voss^ 
otid not srir.LEiuTAs— (1), because no [larallel, so far an I know, has ever 
heen adduced for the transference of the giitlt of the offender to the punish- 
ment of the offence* Poenae may be crudeles, may be sanguineae, 
m»y be croontae, but if I am not mistaken eaimot be soeleratae 
unless there is seel us in tikiug them. If it be allej^efJ that the guilt of 
the sinner is transferred to the place of his punishnn^nt in the ex[>reRsion 
"•scderatum limen," 6. 56H, I rnply that the transition from the wicked 
person to the wicked place is as easy and natural as the transition from 
the wicked i^erson to the wicked punishniont is forced and unnutuiTil— a 
\ Qot to the near neighbouring thing, but to its [»oint* blank opposite* 

284 AENEIDEA [562-576 vitam— poenas 

"Paullo insolentins pro poenas a sceleiafa femina suinptas, 
nam ut sint poenae per scelus exactae, alienum a loco est," 
Heyne. ''Scelus futuruni erat, interficere supplicem ad ai*as 
sedenteni," Wagn. (Praesf.\ Ladewig. The poenae are not 
sceleratae .because Helen is scelerata, such use of the 
word being contrary to its use in all the other places in which 
our author has used it, in every one of which the scelus ex- 
pressed by sceleratus is the scelus of the subject of which 
sceleratus is predicated, as 6. 563: "sceleratum limen;" 
12. 949: "scelerato sanguine;" 3. 60: "scelerata terra;" 
7. 461: ''scelerata insania;" 2. 231: "sceleratam hastam;" 
9. 137: "sceleratam gentom;" Georg. 2, 256: '' sceleratum 
frigus." ScELERATAS POENAS is, therefore, poenae which are 
sceleratae in their own natui-e, and so tar the explanation of 
Wagner and Ladewig is correct. But I differ toto caelo from 
those critics in the explanation of the scelus ascribed to the 
poenae. The poenae, as Heyne rightly observes, are not 
called sceleratae, as being poenae exactae per scelus, Aeneas, 
at the moment when the ira enters his breast, thinks only of 
punishing Helen, and is so far from thinking that it is any 
crime to punish her, or that he is violating the sanctuary of 
Vesta in punishing her, that his reflection is: that although 
the act was no act of bravery in him, still it would be approved 
of, as no more than she deserved — 


[I shall be praised for having punished the wretch]. But if the 
poenae were sceleratae for the reason assigned by Wagner 
and Ladewig, sceleratae in the sense alluded to and disapproved 

tho punishment being, in the dinM't ratio of the seeliis, not sceleratae 
but instate, ae(|uae, and piae. And, (5J), because nothing was easier 
tlian tho mistake of srKLKKAiAs instead of sckt.kkatak, the following word 
beginning with an s. 

As analogues to scki.ekatak i'of.nas. we may (.oinpare (>. 542, ''maloruin 
])oenas; " 6. 422, ''poenas ambonim;" also 11. 258, where there was like 
oppoitunity to use the ccmtorted expression, but where nevertheless the 
simple, easy, straightforward opposite one, viz., •'scelerum poeuas,'" is 

5i>2— fi7(i vrr *m — porn a s j 



of by Heyne, viz., pet* scelns exaetae, Aeneas, go far from being 
praised for bavin^ inflicted them, would huve been condemned, 
would have im'urrefi the tli;^plef»sure both uf men and gods- He 
&old himself have been rendered sceleratus by the act. But 
it is not in this sense the poeriae he was about to take were 
sceleratae: they were sceleratae in Hie seoHo which I have ex- 
plained at full ill my Remark on ''seehis expendisse merentem/^ 
verse 229, in that sense in which every extreme and capital 
punishment is sceleratiis, partakes in its own essential nature 
uf wickedness. Imp rob us is used in a similar manner to ex- 
press wickedness which is not moral, and the Enj^lish word 
mckedne^s itself is not unfrequently used in the same manner, 
ill such expressions, for instance, as: "ho gave him a wicked 
blow," ''he served him a wicked trick," "that is a wicked wind 
which is blowing to-day.*' In this sense the poenae Aeneas 
was about to inflict on Helen were sceleratae, poenae the 
infliction of which hf^d not made him scelestus^ would on the 
contrary have ohtained the approbation of his countrymen^ but 
which were in their ab^^traet character, no matter where inflicted, 
or on whom, sceleratae. as bein^ extreme, and from which all 
persons in their cool moments turn away with disgust and horror 
—precisely the sense in w^hich seeleratus is applied by our 
author himself, Oeorg. 2, 256^ to the coldness of the soil, 
*'sceleraTum frigus," exacdy our nicked, OGemrsedf demluhy 
Hhockinfi, damned: and so precisely we would say in English, 
of tlie vengeance m'caked on Helen, damnable: *-Ho punished 
her tlamnably.** And bo Plin. H, N. 25, S: *^Nec bestiannn 
M.»lum ad nocendum scelera sunt, sed interim aquarum <juni{i;o 
H locurum/' IMaut. P^md, 3, 2, 28: 

*'tentuj' sinai>i sceleratum : illis ♦jui term it, 
|>riu94iiaiii tiiverunt, ocah ut ^xstilltsiiti facit." 

Plant MoHteL 3. 1. 1: 

^''Bcelestiorem ego annum argento foeoori 
aauqunm uliajn vidi^ quarii hie nuhi annus oblulit.'' 

Plant. Amplh 192 (ed. Botiie): 

'*ego tibi istam hodic srelmtam comprimt^in lingiianL'' 

286 AfiNElDEA [583-606 non— cauoa* 

Cicer. ad. Att. 6. 1, (ed. Graev,): "tii scelestd suspicaris; ^o 
afsXiog scripsi." Sil. 3. 272 (ed. Rup.): 

. . . '''' sreierataqae succis 
spicula dirigere, et fernim infamare veneDO." 

Seo. Rem. on 5. 793. 



NoN ITA, ov (Jijr, Eurip. Hec, 367 (ed. Person). 

Namque etsi, &c., , . . MEORUM.— In the exact coincidence 
of the sentiments here expressed by Aeneas with those expressed 
by Aruns when meditating the death of Camilla {Aen, 11. 790, 
et seqq.\ Biirmann and Heyne might have found a strong addi- 
tional argument for the authenticity of this fine passage con- 
cerning Helen. The reader will, however, observe that the poet, 
although he has assigned similar sentiments to his hero and the 
coward Aruns while meditating similar acts, has been careful to 
draw a sufficiently broad distinction between the actual conduct 
of the one and tliat of the other. The hero is immediately 
diverted from and relinquishes his hasty purpose; the coward 
persists in, and coolly executes, his deliberately formed plan. 

ExsTiNXissE . . . MEORUM. The repetition in a slightly 
changed form of the preceding (vss. 575—6) exarsere . . . 
POENAS. See Rem. on 1. 151. 

Merentis. — "Exquisite pro a inerente,'' Heyne. "Strafe 
an der schuldigen,'' Ladewig. "Sumi merentes s. merito 
sumenda^,'' Wagn. (Praest.) Wagner is certainly wrong that 
merentis is the accusative; Heyne and Ladewig so far right 
as that merentis is the genitive, not however that it is equiva- 
lent to a merente, as if Virgil had said "poenas sumpsisse a 
merente*' "strafe an der schuldigen." Merentis is the simple 

-606 NON- 



^Shitive of puiJ4^ei^:^ioll dopf^ndiiig on poenas, poenas sterrvtis, 
uxMftly as vei-s*^ r>7<», sceleiutae poenas (according to Voss's 
readuig); '^inaloruni poenas;" 9. 422» '^poenas amhomm." 
Compare verso 229 abo% e : " scelus expendisse merentem Lao* 
uoonta feniiitf and, aptly tjuoted by Ladewi^, Val Fltit'c* 

2. 101: 

' Huoiiiica fitruit ilia neFas, Ijeruuoque mtrenti 
exitium furiale mo vet," 


L$ATU^SE MEouusj.. - This close juxtaposition of a moral flam ma 
iiDd a material cjneres lias a bad oftect, inasmuch as it suggests 
a i-elationsihip tlie farthest iu the world from the author's 
thought, viz,, that f)f cindpis U\ flame. If the author peiveived 
the unseasonable suggestion, he was called upon to take some 
)>ains to avoid it; if he did not perceive it, it is another 
instance of an inadvertency respecting small n)attei's, of which 

I his great work affords but too many examples. See 2* 360 : 

'mj- atra cava cinmmvolat umbrji, 
•pus (jiaiieiii illius tuH'lis, quis furiera ftmdci 

where 'Mllius'' suggests and iflentity between ''noctis'' and the 
preceding ''nox/* than which nothing could be farther from 
the author *8 thought, *'nox" being merely tigurative* while 
'noeti«*' is i^aL material night. Also 1. 87: 'Mjua data porta 
rtiunl . . , totuni([Ui' , . . nttint,'' where the same verb in the 
^same pei^on. number, and lenso is applied in a trat»sitive sense 
tu the identical subject fo which it has been applied, the line 
but erne heft in\ in an intransitive —whether observed by the 
' author and left uncorreirted as uf small importance, or* not 
observed at all, 1 shall nut pretend to say. 

CoN'F^SA IJE.VM,^ J ocularly imitated by Fetronius, p. 143 
(^. Hadrian,): "Mod" Brominm, interdum Lyaenm Rnhy uni- 
que eortfesj-iu^s'/* 

(^lAvrA (Vh. oli2), of a^ (f rent slxt* m, i, e., /?/ hrr fuU 
ntmputiiik. See Rem. on L 75H, 

Obx>l*cta tuentx moutales hebetat visrs, theme; nrwrnA cn*- 
Ci'ii CAUftiT, variation. See Rem. on 1. "jfjO, 

286 AMEilDBA {606-618 mo— AKkA 



VAR, LECT. (vs. 616). 

LMBO n ^ (viz., Basle A and Munich 10719, in the latter of which it 
occurs as a second reading: it is the only example of a second reading 
which occurs in the whole of the second book). Limbo is also quoted 
by Heyne as the second reading of Morei. Sec, III Servius C'ali, 
UMBO legunt"); "Twelve Years' Voyage," 1853; Ladewig, 2nd ed.; 
Haupt; Ribb. 

NiMBO (or NYMBo) I Pal.y Med. II |f . UI Princ. Rom. 1473; Strasb. 1470 
(MenteU.); Ven. 1470, 1471, 1472, 1475, 1486; Milan, 1475; Aldus 
(1514); Philippe; Heyn.; Brunck; Wakef.; Pott.; Wagn. (ed. Heyn. 
V. L. and Praest.)^ and all editors and commentators down to Ladewig, 
who adopted limbo from my "Twelve Years' Voyage." 

UMBONE II gig-. 

Vat., Rom.y Ver.. St. Gall. 

With this fine picture of the gods giving their personal help 
towards the destruction of a city, compare the historical narra- 
tive, Tacit. Ann, 13. 41: "Adiicitur niiraculum, velut numine 
oblatum; nam cuncta extra, tectis ten us, sole illustria fuere: 
quod nioenibus cingebatur, ita reponte atra nube coopertum, 
fulguribusque discretum est, ut, quasi infensantibus deis, exitio 
tradi crederetur." 

Independently of the defence, of which Virgil's account of 
the taking of Troy is otherwise capable (see Rem. on vs. 5), 
the poet, calling in the hostile gods, and even Jupiter himself, 
to aid in the taking and destruction of the city, already (verse 
351) deserted by its own gods, seems to be invulnerably armed 
against the assaults of those critics, who, witli Napoleon at their 
head (see Remm. on vv. 15 and 299) insist that his whole 
narrative unstrategical, incredible, impossible. 

^08-618 mc— iiJiKA] 



Prima (vs. 613), the principal personage, tlie leader, the 
mover of the whole matter, princeps. As Juno, although 
thus expressly stated to be the leader, the mover of the whole 
matter (f. *?., of the destruction of the city), is yet not mentioned 
first in order, but placed in the middle between Neptune and 
Pallas, so Machaou (vs. 263), also stated to be the ^^ primus/' 
the mover of the whole matter, the principal actor, or taking the 
principal part among those enclosed in the wooden horse, is not 
mentioneti firet in order, but seventh, or nearly last. Tlje same 
term prima, in the same sense and in a very similar connexion, 
is applied to the same Juno, Aen. i, 27: 

. . , "veteriaque raenior Satuma belE, 
prima quod ad Troiam pro cam gosserat Argia/* 

^^^rtu^rd at her sid^ (^^umgiirtet mit stahl," Voss), which had 
^r been much too tame, too unbeliicose a picture for the occasion, 
but — according to the secondary signification of the word ac- 
cinctns — equipped with a ,^?/^oiy/, arnird imth a stvord, or, 
as we say, sword in hund. Compare 9, 74: 

*'atque oiuqis facibus pubes uerhitjihtr atris*' 

(aot, sui-ely, with torches girded on, but armrd with torches, 
torches in hand]. Sec* also 6. 570 | where see Rem.): 

^'coattDua soatea ultnx accineta tlagelb 
Tiflipbone quattt inaultaiis '* 

[not surely with a whip i/t her girdle, but armed with a whip, 
whip in hand]. C^jmpare also the similar use of succinct us 
in conjunction with faces by Prudentius, Psycho m, 42: 

*^quam [Pudicitiain] patrias tueeincia faces Sodomita libido 
aggreditur, piceamque ardeoti sulphure pinum 
ingerit iu faciem, pudibundaque liuiiioa flaiiunia 
appQtit, et tetro teutat soifiindere fuDio" 

liiat,surely,?fwrf^r(?/rf with torciies.hutequippedwith iorches^ready 
foraotion with torrht^sl And see the fhmnwni, in lihros Regum 
faim S, Enrhcrio a^cript. lib. 4 ( Ue la Bigne, 5. 905) : ''Cuius teme- 
ritatom arrogantiae modesto scnnone conipescens rex Israel oit: 


290 AENEIDEA [608-618 mc—Afiia 

'Dicite ei, ne glorietur accttwius, aeque ut dweinctus,^ Aliud 
est auteni accinchis, aliud disdnctus, aliud non accitictus. Ac* 
dnctiis namque est qui cingulo circumdatus incedit: discinctus 
qui cingulum miper deposuit, verbi gratia, vel balneum intra- 
turns, vel lectum ascensurus, vel alteram tunicam forte indutums: 
nwi acdnctusy qui, nuper tunica indutus, necdum se addita 
zonae circumpositione munivit. Sic ergo et in expeditione 
castrensi qui positus est recte acdnctus nominatur, i. e., armis 
indutus; qui pugna confecta victor domum rediit iure disdnctus 
vocatiir, quia nimiruni depositis armis optatae pacis otium gerit; 
qui vero necdum pugnare, neque se ad certamen parare iam 
coeperat, merito non acdnctus esse dicitur. Ait ergo rex Israel 
regi Syriae glorianti quasi iam cepisset Samariam, quam obsidere 
coeperat, 'Ne glorietur acdnctits aeque ut disdnctus:^ ac si 
aperte dicat, 'Noli gloriari quasi iam victor bellici discriminis, 
qui adhuc in acie positus, quem victoria sequatur, ignoras.'" 

These arguments are, as I think, sufficiently strong and de- 
cisive. The very picture, however, found by Voss in our text 
is actually presented by Silius, 9. 296: 

''contra rinrfa latus ferro Saturnia luno," 

where, as Aen. 11. 489: "laterique accinxerat ensem," the addi- 
tion of "latus" fixes the meaning to be, not armed tvith, but 
girt with. See Rem. on "succinctam pharetra," 1. 327. 

Arces PALLAS iNSEDiT. — It is with pcculiar propriety that 
Pallas is represented as taking possession of the arx, the arx 
having been her invention, and always (not alone at Troy, but 
elsewhere) her selected abode. Compare Eel. 2, 61: 

. . . "Pallas, quas condidit arcesj 
ipsa colat." 

Claud, de Rapt. Pros. 2. 19: 

''et Pandionias quae cuspide protegit arcesj 
Catull. 64. 8: 

"diva . . . retinens in summis urbibus arces.^^ 

Respice. — Not merely look, or see, but look behind thee: 

60^—618 HIC— ARMAJ 


^iusptce (V8,604), look here before thee; respice^ look there behind 
\Vm. Compare Tibuil 2. 5, 21: 

. . . ^*cuin tnaestos ab alto 
lUoD ardentos rtspiet^rehiu^ deos.'* 

Obseire also the effective position of the word immediately 
before tJie object to which it points, pallas; and immediately 
after ilie words exciting expectation, iam sdmmas arces tritonta. 
See Rem. on verse 203. 

Limbo KFtTLOENS et goroo!^: sakva.— ^I have myself prsonally 
examined only five M8S, with respect to this passage, vi/.*, the 
oldest Gudian (No. 70), the two Leipzig, the Dresden, and 
Ko. 113 (Endlicber's Catal) in the royal Library of Vienna, but 
in the whole five I have found klmbo, which (see Foggini) is 

^also the reading of the Medicean, and has been adopted without 
hesitation or exception, so far as I know, by all the editors 
and commentators. The explanatiou which the elder cummen- 

■tators have given us of this word is hah (*^nube divina/' Servius, 
la Cerda), against wliich die objection of Forbiger, ^'hie voc. 
nimbi significatus non nisi cadentis Latinitatis," seems to me 
to be conclusive. The more modem explanation of the woixl is 
that adopted bvHeyne from PomponiusSabinus: **nubes obscura 
qua ilia cingitur;'* the eflfulgence? of such obscure -'nubes'' being 

I ascribed by Heyne to its reflexion of Pallas's ae^is ("'falgentem 

[a^dem tenet, a qua relucet nimbus "j, and by Wagner to its 
reflexion of the flames of the burning city (*^nimbus igitur ille, 
queni ut iratae deae atrum fuisse eimsentaneum est, fulgebat et 
rutilabat ab incendii flammis'' ), an interpretation which has been 
adopted and approved of by Forbiger. 

1 object. (1l that nimbus is never ^nubes,*' but always 
that combination of darkness, heavy rain (or hail), wind, thunder 
and lightning, called in Germany geieitter, and io Italy tempo- 
rale, but for which the English language poaseasee no more 
appropriate appellation than thunder-siarm. See Aen. 5. 317: 
^efiusi nimbo tumUes'" [poured out, surely not like a cloud, but 
Hke n thufiderstorm, a sudden ish<fwer of heavy nun]. Aert. 2A13: 

^toto aoaaeruut tetbertt nimbi/* 

292 AENEIDEA [608-618 hic— ahua 

[not, cloi(ds resounded over the whole sky, but thunder-storms 
re^oftnded]. Aeti, 4, 161: 

. . . ^'insequitur commixta grandine nimbus" 

[not, a cloud mixed uiih hail, or a hail cloudy foUotvSj bnt a 
lutil'Stonn, a shower of liail, follows]. Aen, 4, 120: 

"his ego nigrantem commixta grandine nimbum 
desuper infundam". 

[not, / vriU pour a cloud mixed uith hail oit them, but a hail- 
storm on thsm\ (2), that there appears no reason, and no 
reason has been assigned, why Pallas should have a nimbus 
(whether understood to mean a cloud, or a stonu) about her on 
this occasion. Such appendage had been equally useless, either 
for the purpose of inspiring terror, or for the purpose of con- 
cealment, she being (in common with the other gods introduced 
on the occasion, and who, it will be observed, had no nimbi) 
invisible to all human eyes except those of Aeneas alone, from 
which Venus had miraculously taken away omnem nubem quae 
MORTALEs HEBETAT visus, and SO rendered them able to see the 
invisible. And, (3), that Pallas could not correctly be repre- 
sented as EFFULGExs NiMBO, whether the word be understood to 
mean (according to Hoyne's erroneous definition of it) "nubes 
obscura," or (according to that which I have shown is its only 
true interpretation) (jeirUter, temporale, thund^'r-shou'er, thufider- 
storm, unless wo admit the propriety of the expression (in the 
former case) effuk/rut with darkness, and (in the latter) effulgent 
with the obscure cloak in which gods were used sometimes for 
particular purposes to wrap themselves up, and hide themselves 
from observation, as Aen. 12. 416: 

. '* Venus, nhsruro facieni circunidata nimho'^ 

Thid. 10. 634: 

''agens hiemein, niniho succincta per auras.^' 

Despairing, therefore, of obtaining any good sense from the 
reading nimbo, I look for a different reading, and being in- 
formed by Servius that ''alii limbo legunt, ut {Aen. 4. 137): 
'Sidoniam picto chlamydem circunidata limho;^'^ and finding 

(^m PAH iiT< 




mar iiiiorniMtuni eonfimierl by Heyne ("limbo, Moret, Sn\ pn* 
var. lect/'), I adopt r.iMiiO, ami thus at once obtain, not merely 
an mtelligible, but nn admimble, nense— Paiim effulgent, neither 
with a dark cloud illuminated by her aegis or by tlam^Ms of 
the burning city, nor witlj a ilark thuiKlerstorin, but with her 
limbus or inMita, and her g<^rf^uu. Pallas is said to be efiid- 
gent with the ''limbus/* this part liein;^^ the most splendid ot 
the whole female dress; see the 'Mimbus** of Dido, quoted by 
Servius above, and especially the ''limbus'' Mf the dress put by 
Thetis (iStat. ArhilL 1. 825 \ on A^diilles when she disguised him 
as a female f<»r the i^ourt t^f Lycomedes: 

•*aspicit ambiguimi getixtrix, cogit-pie voleDtem, 
injQ&otitque sinus; tuuc culla rigentia mollis 
suminittitciue graves liiirneros, et foitia laxat 
brachia, et jmpexos certo doniat ordine ci"iaes, 
ac sua dilecta cervice monilia ti'ansfert, 
et pictumto cohibet vestigia h'tftim,'' 

where it will be observed that th<* whole female dress of Aehil!*H> 
is placed befoi-e the eye of tJie reader by the **nitjniliH" (repre- 
senting the upper pai*tj and tlie embroidered "limbus" (repre- 
senting the lower), just m in our text the whole costume of 
Pallas is represented by the ( effulgent j gorgon above and the 
«*ffulgent *4imbus*' belosw 

If it was proper for 8t;itins thus to put forward the ''monilia'* 
and ''limbus'' as representatives of the whole uf Achilles' petti- 
I'oats, it was still more proper tor Virgil to use a similar repre- 
seruation in the rase of Pallas, that goddess being remarkable 
for wearing (''pace deae dictum sit!") petticoats so long as to 
acfpiire the appellation of talares, /. e., of coming down (juite 
TO fier heels. See almost all hei' numerous statues. 

Neitlier do I ref[uire to point out to the reader the necessity 
rbere was that Pallas, although invisible to all human eyes, 
should yet wcmr ch>thes, or tlie propriety with which those 
clothes, when she is rendered visible to Aeneas, are described 
ti> have been of a splendour suitable to the goddess (see below), 
and tn the attitude in which she is represented, viz., that of 
standing mistress ot the con<|ueretl citadel. 

294 AENEIDBA [608-618 mc— akma 

Similar to the effulgence of Pallas^s "limbus" in our text 
is that of her pal la in Claudian, de Rapt, Pros, 2, 25: 

. . . "tantum stridontia colla 
Gorgonos obtentu pallae fulgentis inumbrat;" 

and elsewhere 1 find a similar effulgence ascribed to other parts 
of the goddess's equipment. Thus (Claudian, de Rapt, Pros. 2. 
226) her spear is so bright as to illuminate the chariot of Dis : 

. . . "libratur in ictum 
fraxinus, et nigros Uluminat obvia currus;" 

her chariot (Auson. Perioch. 17, Odyss.) casts a red light over 

the sky: 

"iam caelum roseis rw/iVrtrTritonia bigis;" 

and (Claud. Oigant, 91) a similar light is cast by her gorgon: 

. . . "Tritonia virgo 
prosilit, ostendons riUila cum gorgone pectus." 


descriptive of the splendour of the goddess's dress, we have an 
axact parallel in Aen, 5, 132: 

. . . ''ipsique in puppibus auro 
ductores longe effulgent ostroque decori." 

It would appear from the very ancient and remarkable statue of 
Minerva Polias, now in the Augusteum of Dresden, that the 
battle of the Giants described by Euripides {Hecub, 466\ and 
by the author of Ciris (vs. 29), as embroidered on the peplum 
of Pallas, was not spread over the whole peplum, but confined 
to a clavus (limbus?), stripe, or border, represented on the 
stiitue as descending down the fiont of the person from the 
waist to the feet. For a view of this very striking statue, as 
well as for a separate view and description of the clavus, 
stripe, or border, descending down the front of its peplum, see 
Becker, August. Dresd. tabb. 9 and 10. Miiller {Minerva PoUas, 
p. 26) informs us, if I understand him rights that there is a 
similar band, or stripe, on the pep la of all the very ancient 
statues of the Minerva Polias: ^'lusignis maxime claviis quidam 
sive limes ceteris aliquanto latior de medio corpore decurrens, 
qui etiam apud populos Asiae maxime decerns habebatur." 

fiOB^eiS mc-AR«A] 



Saeva is prerlic<ited not (a(X'urding to Serviiis's second inter- 
pretation) of Pallaiv but (according to liis tii>>t interpretation) of 
thegorgon: firsts because tlie pictui-e is thus more concentrated; 
fteeontUyf because saeva (the Greek fen^) is precisely the term 
applied to the gorgon both by Hesiod, Scut, HerciiL 223: 

and Homer, //. 5, 741: 

f** i§ Tt yoQyfiti Hftftth} 6tti'i*io 7itkui\toi' 

and, thtrdlify because to apply to Pallas, iu the positive degree 
only, the very term which had just (vers, til 2) been applied to 
Juno in* the superlative degree, had been an anti-climax of the 
worst kind. 

Despaiiing to make any tolerable sense out of the received 
reading, I take the hint from Servius: ''alii limbo leguni,'' and 
read umbo. Pallas is etlYdgent, neither with a *'iiubes diviiia" 
(Servius), for there is no instance of nimbus used in that sense 
either by Virgil or any of VirgiFs cotemporariei^, nor with a 
dark tliunden>h(mer (^'repentinae pluviae/' Pomp. Sabin., Genih 
tjmiHer, Ital. fentporatr}, tlje only sense in vvhicli nimbus ever 
occurs in Virgil, hut she is effulgent with her 'Nimbus/' L e., 
with the broad bt)rder of her pepluni on which was depicted 
the battle of the Oianta See, in addition to tlie authoi*s <| noted 
three paragrapiis back, in B nona rotti (fA*<,vfrr*..^oj^ni aleuni frum^ 
metiti di vasi autieki, p> 78), a tigure of Pallas in whitdi the 
limbus of the p«>pliim occupies tiearly the lower half of it. 
Witb such *'linibns/' either taken literally or as representing 
the whole female skirt or petticoat, Palltis is refulgent Compare 
iu\ Stat AchdU, 1. 325, where tin- whole female dress is thus 
r«tpresented by its most conspicuous and striking parts^ the 
niouilia above, and the embroidered limbus below, (b), Stat 
Tkeh. 6\ 366, where Apullo Mustigetes is described as put- 
ling oflF (as soon m he Jiad done playing on the lyre) the 
i'mbnddered limbus, /. c, the i^own with embroidered border. 
\\]i']i\i br luid vvoin while playing. [C)^ especially TrebelL 

296 AENBIDEA [608-618 mc— arma 

Pollio, Trigiiita Tyrmini, 30, where Zenobia appears before the 
assembly wearing a helmet and purple lira bus: "Ad condones 
galeata processit cum Umbo purpureo, gemmis dependentibus 
per ultimara fimbriam" [a flounced purple skirt or petticoat]. 
{d\ Ibid, 14: "Eousque ut tunicae, et Kmbi, et paenolae 
matronales in familia eius hodieque sint, quae Alexandri effi- 
giera de liciis variantibus monstrent," where also "limbi" can 
be nothing else than female skirts or petticoats. {e\ ApoUos. 
Rhod. 4. 940 : 

uvTix avaoxofifvni Xfvxoig €nt yoifvttat TtfCttg. 

And (/), Nonius: ^Himhiis, muliebre vestimentum quod pur- 
puram in imo habet" 

The connection of "limbus'' in either sense with mtulgkns 
is not only appropriate, but according to Virgil's usual practice 
of representing his characters as effulgent with splendid drees, 
as 5. 132; 10. 539; 11. 489. Nor is the splendid "Umbus" 
inappropriately joined as an object of terror with the gorgon, 
for see Prudent, contra Symm, 2. 573: 

^'nullane tristificis Tritonia noctua Gharris 
advolitans praesto esse deam praonuntia Crasso 
prodidit? aut Paphiam niveae vex ere columbae, 
cuius inauratum tremeret geDS Persica limhum?^' * 

where 'Mimbum" is Venus's cestus — lira bus being, as I may 
liere incidentally observe, primarily any broad stripe (see Varro, 
fragra. : "mundus domus est . . . maxima rerum, quam quinque 
altitonae . . . fragmine zonae cingunt, . . . per quam Umbus , . . 
pictus bis sex . . . signis stellimicantibus altus, ... in oblique 
aethere, lunae . . . bigas solisque receptat''), and only secon- 
darily, and inasmuch as the border of a garment was usually 
ornamented and completed by a broad sewed-on stripe, the 
border of a garment. 

Limbo effulgent. — Pallas is always effulgent Her pal la 
is fulgens, Claud. Rapt, Pros, 2. 25; her spear illuminates 

^^Niinbum*' has here ia some editions taken the place of ^^ Umbuill,^' 

II DixKnAT— rcinjim] BOOK U. 


whole chariot of Dis, ilmL 2. 226; hei dmriot casts a red 
light o%Tr the sky, Auson, Penoch, 17, Oth/ss,; her ^orgon casts 
a red li^ht, ClaiuK Gifjanf. 91; and she comes /imt<fatvviaa^ 
Apollon. Rhod. 4, 1309, out of tlie head of Jupiter, 

ErFULfJE>s.— So ui^ually, properly, and cTen specially, is 
effulgence attributed to dress or equipment, that examples are 
not wanting of the single word effulg:ere used to signify effuf- 
gertt in dress. Compare Claud. «5- Cati^s, Honor. 543: 

*^omne, PalatiDO quod poos a colle recedit 
Midvius, et quantum licuit ooiisiirgere tesctis, 
uDa replet turbae fades: undare videres 
iina vim, aitjis effulgcrc niatribus aedes.'^ 

By a similar substitution of n for /, most of the MSS. of Statius 
read ^'nymphas'* instead of ''lyraphas," Siiv. L 3, 34 (of the 
villa of Vopiscus): 

**quid primam mediamve canam; quo fine quie»cain? 
aaratasne trabes^ an Mauros undfque poBtes, 
aa picturata luceotia marmora vena 
mirer, an emissas per cuncta cubiiia lymphasT* 



BT8 NOCTIS SE CONDIUIT rMBRIS. - PeorlkaTUp objects: ''(LARA 

TxcENUiA obstant" Those who make such objections require 
more tiian ia to be obtained from imy poet. You must wink, or 
you caDt]i>t read, much less enjoy, poetry. The spectator in the 
theatre sits h>ofcing cm, delif^lited at th*^ performance, m\A shuts 
his eyes to the incongruities. If he does not, ji?ood-bye to the 
deliglit The objection is of a piece with the rest of Peerlkamp's 
objections, which require nothing less than the recasting of every 
line of the Aeneid, witli the view of rendering the style mathe- 

298 AENEIDEA [621-631 dixkrat— buinam 

matically corrt^ct, and the necessary consequence of rodacing it 
from poetr}' to prose, of substituting the common, vulgar, every- 
day light, for the gorgeous hues of the spectrum. See Rem. on 
"ignes iugales," 7. 320. 

NuMiNA MAGNA DEUM. — "Numou " is taken here not as at 
1. 12, in its primary sense of will or pleasure, but in its second- 
ary sense, viz., of the person of whom tliat will or pleaisure is 
an attribute, exactly as in our expression: ^'the King's most 
excellent Majesty,'' meaning the most excellent and majestic 
king. NuMiNA MAGNA DEUM therefore (literally and primarily 
the gods' great tvills) is here equivalent to the great willing and 
commanding gods. See Rem. on ^'numine," 1. 12. 

TuM VERO . . . TROiA.— Compare Find. 01. 11, 34: 

Enti(s)v ^uatktvg onid-fv 

ov noXXov tdi nttroiSu nolrxTftcvov vtio artofo) jivqi 

i<otO(cv (uv noXiv. 

The manifest allusion to the original building of Troy, at the 
very moment of its overthnnv, had been happier if it had not 
been forestalled by representation of Neptune himself engaged 
in overthrowing it, veiso 610. The expression is repeated in a 
similar context and similarly constructed, almost identical, verse, 

3. 2: 

. . . '^ceciditque suporbum 
Ilium, et omnis huino fumat Xrpttnn'a Troia," 

where the allusion to the builder of Troy is happier, the pic- 
ture of the same builder en^^agcd in its overthrow being there 
less fresh in the recollection. 

MiNATUK. — Servius seems to be in the same doubt here as 
at 1. 166. and 2. 240, whether ''minari" is to be taken in its 
primary or secondary sense: "minatur, aut em i net aut move- 
tur," where by ''movetur'' can only be meant threatens to fall 
("Cader' minaccia," Alfieri). That the former is meant, I have 
as little doubt here as on the two former 0(\"asions, and, as on 
those occasions, interpret tiie word: towers, holds its head high; 
an interpretation which has at least these two great adyantagos 

621631 mxKKAT^HCWAM] BOt>K U. ^^^T 299 

uvt-i Its rivnl; first, that it is as entirdy \n conformity with the 
use of the term on \mA\\^ especially on the first of those two 
former occasions as the rival interpretation is in direct con- 
tradiction; and, secondly, that it is not to a tree immediately 
toppling over when the axe is laid to its root that pltis Aeneas 
should compare the beleaguered city, but to a tree which con- 
tiiiiies to hold its head liigh and fearless (usque mikatur) even 
wlule the axe is being laid to its root. See Rem. on L 166; 
2. 240; 4. 88; 8. 608. 

Tremkfacta com am cokgbsso vertice nutat, nofh with her 
Ititfy Imid, viz., as a warrior with his crested and plumeil helmet 
Compare 9. 677: 

'*ipsi intus dextra ac laeva pro turribiw adstant 
artnati ferro, et vristh capita alta corusci: 
quales aeriae liqueotia flumina oir cum, 
aivG Fadi npis, Athesim sen propter araoenuiti, 
cODSurgmit genii iiac quercus, intoDsaijiit^ caelo 
attoHwnt capita, et snhlimi vertire nutanty 

CoxGEMurr. -Not merely groaned, but yronfted loudly; as it 
were with all its force eolkcted into one Imt effort. See Rem. 
on vs, 52 ; 6. 634. 

A^TTLSA,— *'Evulsa," Ruaeiis. 

. , , " Ufld schmetteiiid, dea hohn entrottot, hinabkrathi'" 

. . , ''g dal sua giogo al fine 
o con |>arte del giogo »i direglif, 
si BooficcDde." Caro. 

mi A\xi^\, TRAXJT Ri'iXAM tuois, t, €., '*ihi, in iusri>i/* iorn 
away with ropes from the stump where the axe hud nearly {but 
not entirely) rut it through, fell there on the monntaiu. Avulsa, 
ijcijc., funibus. Compare Ovid, JM. S, 774: 

. , . ^^labcifactiiiue tandt?m 
ictibus iriDiumerift^ addnctaque funihm arbor 
coiTuit^ et muH^m prostravit pondere silvana/' 

Thus the cadence — tTacked, broken und limping, if the struc- 
ture be 


300 ABNEIDBA [632-(>33 descend.— Exr. 

becomes fluent and sonorous: 


the ictus falling full upon vul. 




DKA I Ver. DUCENTEDEA (DEO a m. sec. sHperscr). II cod. Canon. (Butler). 
Ill **Legitur et deo . . . Qui legunt deo fatum volunt dictum . . . 
Qui vero legunt dea matri adti'ibuunt Aeneae liberatiouem/* SchoL 
Veron. (Keil's ed., p. 88, 1. 29). 

deo III Servius; "ducente deo, non dea," Macrob. Sat. 3, 8; P. Manut; 

D. Heins. ; N. Heins.; Brunck; TVakefield; Heyne; Voss; Wagn. (Prae^t); 

Vai., Rom., St. Gall. 

Descexdo. — Whence? If from the roof, he has been able from 
the roof not only to see Helen where she was hid in the 
interior of the temple of Vesta (limixa yestae servantem; 


to rush on her with his sword — ''talia iactabam et FtRiATA 


If from the arx why has there been no mention of his previous 
descent from the roof? In either case the difficulty is so great 
that 1 am fain to think that the original sequence has been 


a sequence affording this most natural connection of thought: — 
*'I look about; I find myself alone. My companions have all 

632-6,^ nicsi'EMi.— rxr. 



perished, and su at last I lose hope, i^ive up evetything for lost, 
and, d€*scendin^^ from the roof from whence I have seeu the city 
burning and the kiiij:,^ killed, rerurii home in onler if possible to 
ctrry my fatlier &afo out of the city/' Nothing can be better 
than this connexion of thought and this position of Aeneas 'a 
(Jesv'ent from the roof. On the other hand, nothing can be 
worse than the connexion of thought:— -''I am left alone, Troy 
has been burnt, my companions have perished in the flames; I 
spy Helen in the temple of Vesta, and am prcn^ented from kill- 
ing her only by the interventi^jn of my mother, who reproves 
me, and shows me the divinities personally occupied in over- 
throwing the city. Then and only then do I give up hope and 
descend;" as, in like manner, nothing can be worse than this 
position of DEscENDo, whether we consider the descent to be from 
the roof, in wliich case Aeneas has seen Helen from the roof, 
and had the interview with his n)other [>n the roof, or whether 
we consider the descent to be from the arx, in which case we 
have no account either of Aeneas's descent from the roof, or of 
bk feelings on finding himself alone on the roof after all his 
companions have perished — hear absolutely nothing of him, 
either of his thoughts or of his doings, from the time be finds 
himself iilone on the roof till the time be is ruslnng un Helen 
hid in the temple of Testa. Still further, in this connexion of 
thought and this position of dfscendo, we have (Ij. Aeneas re- 
minded by Venus (verse 596: 


Of dial which had occurred to himself before Venus juatle her 
appearance f verse 5* JO : 


fSfcj, we have tlie comparison ac veluti . . . huinam — uuexcep- 
tionabte if coming in immediate sequence after 


302 AilNfirbEA [632-633 descend.— kkp. 

liable to have this strong exception taken to it, viz., that it forces 
on us an inevitable mental juxtaposition of the agents engaged 
in the destruction of Troy, the numina magna deum, and the 
agents engaged in felling the tree, the agricoijle, nay of the 
instruments used, the "bipennes" of the one party and the 
"tridens" of the other, even of the grammatical pendants kmota 
and AOCiSAM, eruit and eruere instant. And (S), we have 
DEO the general term for divinity, and the very term which 
had rightly had a place in the sequence of thought in which 
no particular duty is introduced; we have, I say, this general 
term used in a sequence in which a particular duty has been 
introduced in so pointed a manner that the reader remains 
doubtful in which way to extricate himself from the ambi- 
guity, whether by assuming that the particular divinity is re- 
ferred to by the general term, or by finding Virgil guilty of 
ascribing to divinity in general what the whole context, with the 
exception of this single word, compels the reader to ascribe to 
the particular divinity so prominently placed before him at the 
very moment. For all these reasons I am strongly inclined to 
think that the original sequence of thought has been from 




that the in itself beautiful and truly Virgilian picture of Venus, 
Helen, and the deities inimical to Troy, has been an after- 
thought, not well dove-tailed in, and that this after-thought, if 
actually and in point of fact expunged by Tucca and Varius, 
was so expunged not at all on account of the unraanliness of 
Aeneas's intended onslaught on Helen, but altogether as an after- 
thought, which, however beautiful in itself, was so awkwardly 
filled in as rather to be an eyesore than an oniament. 

fi44 SIC— ^JOBPt's] 

Book n. 



Mr n S.H' posiTCSl AFFATI }H>irF:|i|tK f itUPtiK 

taam ae effingit, coniponitque, no si etferendus esset ad 
tuojuluju,'* La Cerda, '^Dieses zurechtlegeo der glieder uiid 
liaeude in gestreckte lage gehoort zu deo lieiligen letxteii pflicli- 
ten der verwandten . . , Dass Anchises es liier selbst thut, zeigt 
das fmwillige and teste soiTies fnitselilusses/' ThieL "Der 2um 
sterben entschlusseiif Anehii^os Imt sicii selbst schon" die lage 
eines verstorbenen gegeben/* I^adewig. ^^Sie posituji (ut 4. 681) 
quemadmodum mortiii solent, rectus extentusque, Eurip. Hipp. 
786: o^^hoaaz' rATEirai'iEg (tl)hov vt/Lvv,'' Wagner (1861). 
So Anchises stretelies himself nut stark and stifl' and straight 
if he were a laid-out corpse! A very pretty picture, indeed, 
especially as it is of a nmn wlio, wlnle he thus stretches himself 
out stark and stiff and straight as if \\q were a Jaid-out corpse, 
tells us, at the same time, he will fight until he forces the enemy 
to kill him — ipse manu mortem intexiam. No, no; tJiere is none 
of this child's play, this game of dead-and-alive, in the Aeneid. 
AnchiHes does not stretch himself out stark and stiff and straight 
as if he were a laid-out corpse; but, throwing himself on the 
ground, or on a couch or sofa, or continuing to lie there, if 
he had been lying there pre\ioush% refuses to stir, and bids his 
friends take leave of him lying there, as they would take leave 
of liim if he were lying dead: ^'Awuy/' lie says, '*and save 
yourselves; leave nn* here to die; take leave of me as you 
would if 1 were laid here already dead, for you will never 
again see rae alive/' Conipare Eurip. Eleetr. 1325 (Orestes 
tilling Electra to take leave of him as if he were dead): 

^itk t , n lumn i tifrv n at a ft ' Ua v<*vi o ^ <f 
ftic t^Jii Tt' ft tit It xttTtt&QriPrjOtn^, 

and Val» Flacc, 1, 334 (Alciraede taking leave of Jason);* "et 
dulci iam nimc preme lumina dextra/' Also Propert. 2. 34 59 

304 A£N£ir>fiA [6U sic-oobpus 

(ed. Hertzb.): 

^^me iuvet hesterois positum languere corollis, 
quern tetigit iactu certus ad ossa deus;" 

in not one of which cases does the individual act death, stretch 
himself out stiflF and stark as if he were dead: all he does is to 
compare his lying, languishing, despairing, inert position, with 
the lying, inert position of a corpse. And, exactly so in our 
text: Anchises does not stretch himself out and act the laid-out 
corpse, but requests his friends to regard him as lying there 
already dead, and take leave of him accordingly: "Let this, 
oh! let this, be my death bed; take leave of me here for ever. 
The enemy will find me here and kill me in mercy and for 
the sake of my spoils. They shall not spare my life, for I will 
fight till I force them to kill me." 

I by no means deny that posit us has sometimes and even 
frequently the meaning assigned to it in this place by the com- 
mentators, is sometimes (ex, gr., by Ovid, Met. 9. 502: 

. . . '^toroquo 
mortna componar, post^o^que det oscula f rater'/* 

and even by our author himself, 11. 30: 

"corpus ubi exanimi positum Pallantis Acoctes 
servabat senior*') 

applied to the stretched, formally laid-out corpse, bul that such 
meaning is inherent in the word, and therefore not to be as- 
cribed to it except in those cases in which, as in the examples* 
just adduced, the context shows that it is used in that special 
technical sense. But in our text the context shows the very 
contrary, shows that ^^positus" has not this special meaning of 
formally stretched, straightened, and laid-out, as dead bodies 
are stretched, straightened, and laid-out by the care of their 
surviving friends ; but the much more ordinary, less special sense 
of Imd, or lying dead, of which more ordinary, less special sense 
the following are examples: (a), Stat Theh, 12, 288 (of Argia, 
searching for the dead body of Polynices on the field of battle) : 

. . . "visuque sagaci 
riinatur positos, et corpora prona supinat 

fU4 'iir— CORTCS] 



|6), Stat Theb. 12. 359 (of Antigone): ^ 

*S]tiipp6 tmeem campnin^ et posihw quo pulvere f rater 

in neither of which passages will it be pretended that Polynices 
is described as formally laid out, straightened, and stretched, 
and not merely as laid or lying in his blood on the field of 
battle. Also, [e], Ovid, Met. 13. 5t:i (ITeniba firidinL^ PoIv« 
doms^s body washed on shorej: 

*^*iniiic ^$iti sfiectat vultum, nunc vnlnera nati, ' 

whej« il will as littJe be pretended by anyone that the stretrhed, 
tened, laidnitut position jsjiven to a coqise by the under- 
'and not the position in which tlie corjise happened to be 
laid, placed, or thrown by the sea, is meant Compare also^ \d)^ 
Am. 4. 681: '^sic te ut posiia crudelis abesaem,'* where the 
term is applied to Dido, not even yet dead but only dying; 
and. (e\ Hm. Sih\ L 4. 106: 

dixerat: uiT«maiit pa$iim iaro segxuter artofl (Oallid] 
po^Djuitemqae aoimam; ritti se eingit ittoniun 
pAjdanto, niun«traiit|ue ^imol, pardntquo voldnt4>8; 
donee letiferms vario medJcanuu^ paHoa^ 
et Boapecta mail rujierunt nM^:^ M>moi,** 

wht-n- It \^ applied to GaJlicus, laid or lying on tlie aick hrn, 
ifu Ovid, Mel. 3. 420 (of Narcissus): 

'^spactat fenxmi positus g^minum^ mia lununa, mdoa*'* 
And {ff), Met Epist 4, 97: 

^SMpe sab Eidb^ia Veaefaoi Cmyraqtie cr^atmn 
gu»tinait po&U^ quaelibet ber^ doc*.'' 

JITe might point out a tlioitaaiid-«od-one other intUocM In 
cb it is applied to penons, in perfect health and vigour* laid 
or l>ing on the ground, in bed, oti a aofa, no matter bow. Tbe 
wonk of the nundaa, tliea, in the Hippakftm diracting tht 
attendants lo go and atretch ajid fomuiUr Uy out the corpae 
of Phaedra: 

by the citatioii of wimk Wispier hm endeavouiBd u* throw iigjbl 
on the picture^ mrre onty lo otweiire Md eooliia^ it, the word 



306 AENEIDEA [644 sic— ooHfrtre 

posit us not being used in the narrow and technical sense of 
laid out, straightened, and stretched, but in the wider, more 
general sense of laid or lying, and not at all containing the 
notion of death, not even with all the assistance afforded to it 
by the addition of corpus (for see '^ponere corpus," even 
with the further addition of ''humo," applied to persons in the 
perfect vigour of life and health, Ovid, Amor. 3, 11: 

'^ingenium dura panere corpus humoy 

Id., Art A7nat. 2, 523: 

^^clausa tibi fuerit promissa ianua nocte, 

perfer et immunda ponere corpus /twwo"), 

but that notion being left to be gathered from the words of 
the context: affati discedite; mortem inveniam; miserebitur 
HOSTis; FAcn^is lACTURA SEPULCRi, &c. ; and so far is the posi- 
tion taken by Anchises from being that in which the atten- 
dants are directed by the nuncius to place the dead body of 
Phaedra — 

and in which the chorus informs us the attendants proceed 
immediately to place it — 

ri$Yi yao ci)<; vexQov viv txTHvovai Srj — 

that it is the very opposite, viz., such uncared neglected position 
as had been assumed by Phaedra's body in the noose, or after it 
had been taken down from the noose and before the care directed 
by the nuncius had been bestowed on it. 

To recapitulate: The words positum corpus are equally 
applicable to any one of three states — laid (lying) alive; laid 
(lying) dead; and laid (lying) dead and formally straightened, 
stretched, and laid out. Which is tlie state meant in any par- 
ticular case can only be shown by the context. In the case of 
Anchises the context plainly shows that the state meant is that 
of laid (lying) dead. Pity that the natural and pathetic should 
have been turned into the absurd and ridiculous; that the uni- 
vei'sal destiny, the common lot of man, the position in which we 
are all sooner or later to be placed — viz., that of being left to 




iie, left for dead — should be confounded with the particular 
attitude ajid set whreh it is the fashion to give to tlio body 
after it is dead! 

Corpus strengthens posiTuik!. Anchises does not say, ^'take 
leave of me laid here, as you would take leave of me if I were 
laid here dead," but *'take leave of the, body (moua, Kurip, 
Ekrtr,, just quoted), laid here as if it wei'e dead," 

Sic posftum, sio hid; so pfac^d; m this posiiian, no matter 
what the position may be. Compare EcL 2, 54: 

'^et vos, lauri. carpam, et tc, proxima myrte; 
sic positae quoniani auaveti jniacetis odores." 

4* G81: '*sic te ut posita ci udelis abessem." Unrat. i^ul. 

I 2. 105: 

. , , ^^eporem vonator ut alta 
in nive sectetor, positum gic tacgere noUtj 

fwhere Orelli: "In verbo autem nc inest notio: commode ac 
sine ullo labore le.porem tolii pos^''), Hon Carm. L\ IL 13: 


^'cur non sub alta vel platano, vel bac 
pinu iacenlea sic temere . . . 
potamua unoti?'* 

Sic, o sic. — The and the second sic are added for the sake 
uf pathos, and to shov/ still more clearly that Anchises not 
merely bids his friends take leave of him where he was then 
kid, but bids thera take leave of him as if he were laid there 
dead. We must punctuate sic, o sic, and nut with the editors, 
Heyne, Brunck,\Vakcfieid, Wagner (ed. Heyn.and 1801), Ladewig, 
SIC 0, SIC. In order to express the pathos, the exclamation must 
gg to the secxand sic; otlierwise there is an anticlimax. 

308 AElfEIDBA [645-649 ipse— io!rt 



Ipse manxj. — "Mantj hostis," Servius, Heyne. No; / myself 
unth my oum hmid. Compare "ipsa manu" {Oeorg, 4. 329\ 
ttiou thyself with thine own hand; "ipse manu'' {Aen. 2, 320; 
3. 372; 5. 241; 7. 14 3\ he himself mith his own hand; "ipsa 
manu" (7. 621), she herself with her own hand; "ille manu" 
(6. 395; 12. 899), he with his hand; "ilia manu" (11. 816), 
she tmth her hand. 

Ipse manu mortem inveniam. — Not mortem mantj (which had 
been only violent death), but lnveniam manu, will find by my 
handy i. e. by fightiny. Compare verse 434: "meruisse manu;" 
11. 116: "bellum tinire manu;" 8il. 4. 47: "metui peperere 
manu." That it is death by fighting Anchises means, and not 
death by suicide ("Selbst word' ich mich tiWlten," Voss. ''''Mann 
mortem invenirc valet manum sibi in ferre,'' Wagner^ ed. Heyn.) 
appears sufficiently, fii*st from the just-adduced examples of 
manu used in the sense of pugnando, and secondly from 
the immediately connected MisERmiTUR hostis, exuviasque petet 
— the enemy, in compassion to the wretched old man who 
endeavours to fight, will put an end to liis trouble by killing 
him, and will be the more ready to do so in order to get 
possession of his spoils. 

MlSEREBITUR HOSTIS. — " Nullus dubitO , quiu post INVEXIAM 

particula ant exciderit," Wagner. No, by no means; there is 
no division, no disjunction, no alternative. Miserf31tur hostis 
assigns the how he will find his death by fighting: the enemy 
will take pity on him and put him out of the way. Compare 

ft46-ft49 t?SB— iGKi] 

BOOK 11, 



II. 49a : 

^^figite ine, si qua est pi etas, in me oniuia tela 
ooniicite, Rutuli me primara absuniite ferro; 
aut t\i, niagDO |)ater divum, misen^ro, hioqiie 
mvisum hoc ilrtnide caput svib Taji^ara telo;'* 

also, 10. 676: 

, , . '^vos t> potius miseresdte, venti; 
in nipes, io saxa— volens vos Turnus adoro— 
ferte ratem, sae\i8c|ue vadijs inimittite syrtis, 
quo neque me Rtituli, nen cooiicia fama seqiiatnr/ 

It is not the okl man whum the enemy will kilJ in eoiiipassion, 
but the old man fifjhiiiuj: they will rightly jiid>c<? that his only 
object is to be killed, not to survive his country and friends, 
and therefon; they will kill hini, to do wliich act of mercy they 
will have the additional motive, viz., of obtaining his spoils. 
The mistake <'oniniitted by the commentators here is precisely 
the same as that which they have committed at verse 52 L In 
neither case have they been able to see tliat the pitiable object 
waii not the old man, but the old man reduced to the exti^mity 
itf using arms. 

MisEREBiTUR H0ST7S. Compare Yal, Flacc, 1. 323 (Alcimede 
lamenting the departure of Jason): 

. . . **si fata teducunt 
te mihi, »i trepidis placaliU? inatribus aequor; 
possum equideni luoemque pati, bnj2:iniiriU(? timoreai, 
son aliud Fortima parat, miserere pareijt^iin, 
mors bona, duin metus est, neo adhuc dolor." 

Facilis lAiTUKA SKPuix'Rr.— '^ Hoc a surama rernm omnium 
dosperatione profeetum ut ne sepultTi cjuidem iactum movea- 
tur,'' WagBer (1861), Ladewig (1855). I think not; inasmuch 
as, no matter how great the despair, the loss of the sepulchre 
was still to be lamentetl, that h)ss being rhe woi^r and last loss, 
and the care of the poor remains clinging even to the most 
unhappy, the most desperate. How then is the ucnniA sjtitlcri, 
this worst *jind last loss, so FACmis to Anchises? The explanation 
k to be foimd in what immediately follows. He had been smitten 
with lightning, and so marked out by Jove himself as a repro- 
bate unworthy of sepulture (lAMrRiDEM, &c.). Compare Festus, 

310 AENEIDEA [645-649 rpsE— igni 

Fragm. e cod. Fames. (Mueller's Festus, p. 178): "In Numae 
Pompili regis legibus scriptum esse: 'Si hominem fulmen lovis 
occisit, ne supra genua tollitor,' et alibi: 'homo si fulmiue 
occisus est, ei iusta nulla fieri oportet;'" and again, p. 210: 
"Pestiferura fulgur dicitur, quo mors exiliumve significari solet." 
See also Artemidorus, Chieirocr. 2. 9 (ed. Reiff.): Ov yaq ol 
/,eQavvii)d-£VT€g fAeraTid^evtaiy aX}^ ouov av vTto tov nvqog Kara- 
Xrjfp&ioaiv, evrav&a d^auTovvai, Pers. 2. 27 : 

"triste iaces lucis evitandumque bidental." 
The loss of a sepulchre now by the sacking of the city was a 
light loss, FACius lACTURA, to a man who, having been struck 
many years ago by Jove's lightning, had from that time lingered 
on, 'a useless castaway, hated by the gods, despised by men, 
and unworthy even of a sepulchre. If he lost the sepulchre 
now by the sacking of the city, it was no more than he might 
have expected ever since the day he was struck by Jove's light- 
ning, on which day it had been better for him he had died 
(lAHPBmEM DEMOROR ANNOs). So explained, the facilis iactura. 
sEPULCRi, which has appeared to commentators so inconsistent 
with the religious character of Anchises, is not only not irreli- 
gious, but on the contrary in the highest degree religious, as a 
bowing to and submission of the entire will to the will of Jove 
It is at the same time in the most perfect harmony with the 
changed feelings and conduct of the same eminently religious man, 
that as soon as convinced by two signs from heaven that he had 
been precipitate in forming his judgment of the disposition of 
Jove towards him, he should have allowed his son to rescue him. 

Facius iactura SEPULCRI, cxactlv as Liv. 5. 89: ^^Facilem 
iactura m esse seniorum, relictae in urbi utique periturae turbae." 

Iampridem. — This word and the sentence to which it belongs 
stand [in the most intimate connexion with the immediately pre- 
ceding. It is as if Anchises had said: ^*the loss of the sepulchre, 
great a loss as it is, is a light loss to one who has been so many 
years under the ban of the Omnipotent, and marked out by Him 
as undeserving of any respect and honour both during life and 
after death/' 

FuLMiNis afflavit ventis ET co>iTiGiT lONi. — Accordiug to the 

645-649 IPSE— iGNi] BOOK U. 311 

vague natural philosophy of the ancients, the noise of thunder 
was produced by the clashing of winds, on each other or on 
the clouds, as Claud, in Rufiii. 2. 221: 

''quantum non Italo percu^sa Ceraunia fluctu: 
quantum non madidis elisa tofiitrua Coris;" 

and the thunderbolt itself (fulnien) consisted of ventus and 
of ignis, as Jjucret. 6. 274: 

''heic, ubi rentus, eas idem qui cogit in unum 
forte locum quemvis, expressit multa vaporis 
semina, seque simul cum eo commiscuit igni; 
insinuatus ibei vortex vorsatur in alto, 
et calideis acuit fulnien fomacibus intus." 

And so not only the scholiast of the Veronese Palimpsest, com- 
menting on our text (Keirs ed., p. 89, 1. 9): "Ventumque 
igneum fulmen voc^nt/' but our author himself, in his account 
of the manufacture of the thunderbolt by Vulcan, 8. 430: "rutili 
tres ignis et alitis Austri." 

In the division of the simple thesis fulmine percussit 
into two distinct theses, each relating to a distinct constituent 
of the general subject ("fulmen"), our author has only exhibited 
his usual manner. See Rem. on 1. 550. The '^venti" being 
supposed to be the less, the '•ignis" the more, solid part of the 
'* fulmen,'' it is %vith the strictest propriety that .iKFLAVix is 
assigned to the former, and roNTioii to the latter. Compare 
Callim. Hymn, in Diana f/t, 116: 

ua^fOJOi; to Oil ;itito<jg icTiooruCoiot x i- ituvpoi. 

Stat Theb. 5, 586: 

. . . "raoti tameci aura f:tumrrii 
fulminU et summajs litiavit Uirticfs tsnaiah.' 

And Sa. I. 252 (e^L Rup.;: 

•'spectaruot F'/*:ui w^rnuiV^w: ttxtitKi^txh A>tur, 
torqaentem cum t^U lovhtn. \t*snn\xW{W6 mmhin 
fulmina, fit, *?X';ijaV/>; r*rntornrn flatUnu ufiUf 
\xah$Xff transiret (Ilaooibalj 4y|u//. 

312 ABNEIDEA [653 fatoque— velust 

Afflavit, precisely oiir blnsted; as Milton, Par, Lost, 4. 
928: "the blasting, voUied thunder;" and the Italian ventd, as 
Dante: "col fulmine me vento." Compare also liv. 28. 23: 
"ambusti afflatii vaporis;'' VMn.Paneg, 90: "Utrumque nostrum 
ille optimi cuiusque spoliator et carnifex stragibus amicorum. 
et in proximum iacto fxdmine afflaverat ; '' and, quoted by 
Wagner, Liv. 30. 6: "saucii afflatique incendio." 

CoNTiGiT. — According to the peculiar import of con, struck 
violently, with force. 



I am not aware of a satisfactory explanation of this passage by 
any commentator. Servius's (ed. Lion) "Simile est ut curren- 
tern incitare, praecipitantem impellere " can hardly be called an 
explanation at all; at most and best tells what the Virgilian 
sentiment resembles; while Heyne's '"h. e. exitium quod vel sic 
immincbat accelerare. Urgent quae instant; ut, quae casum 
minantur his si incumbimu^s, ea impellimus ut proruant" is a 
mere vague generalization from Avhich the reader is left to collect 
if he can that Aeneas, in Heyne's opinion, implores his father 
not to push impending fate so hard as to bring it toppling over 
on himself and friends — a picture which, if it be verily the pic- 
ture intended by Yirgil, the reader will, I hope, have less diffi- 
culty in realising than I have. 

But if Servius and his followers are so little precise as to 
afford no information at all, and put us off with sound in the 
place of sense, La Cerda is not only explicit but positive, and 
regards the incumbere of Anchises on fate as beyond all doubt the 
incumbere of the suicide on the drawn sword ("Sumpta pro- 
culdubio locutio ab his qui incumbunt gladiis ut se interimant"); 

fiiitfl lATt^yirK — VELUBT] 




md La Corda is followinJ, says l^'nrbigor, fur I havu not tlie 
Zeitschrffi before rue, by Haockoniianu: ^'Ixcumuehe fato, ex 
analogia lucutiouis iftcumimre gkidio, feiTO.'' Plausible, however, 
Kt first sight this explanation appeai^s to be* and deservedly 
gfeat as is my respect for both La Cerda and Ilaeckermann. I 
have found it impossible to reeont'ile myself to an allu.sion in 
INCU3ABERE FATo to immmijere ferra, and prefeiTed to remain in 
doubt until time, that great revealer of secrt^ts^ should perhaps 
tlirow in my way sjomo truer parallel for incumdere fato than 
inrtif /there ferro. Nor had 1 long to wait, tlie desired parallel 
presenting itself almost immediately in '^ncumbere fortunae,'' 
SU. 7. 241 (of Hannibal): 

*'^ Foriumte Libys tficumbit flataqu© swjuado 
fidit ftgens imppim' 

[kan^ OH fortune, puts pressure oit fortune so as to nmke it 
(JO on faster]. Tljis was tfie hrst trne parallel which presented 
itself. The next was *4nstare fatis/' Sil. 1. 268 (of the same 

"'ergu in^iat faiis^ et runipert? focdera certUK 
qua datixr iatoroa Hoaiam compreudere bello 
gaudet, et extremis pu)sat Capitolia terris" 

[pnssts a ft the fates, v\z.^ so as to make thefn nwve faster]. 
And the third was '^addere eiirsuni fatis/' Sil 12. 45: 

"en qui oos segnes et uo^circ afhkrc ttttsum 
faiu iactastis" 

\to add speed to the fnte^, to make the fates ijo fasffr]. Not 
only then wctg both La Cerda and Haockeimann wrong, entirely 
wrong, but Conington r^o tend his weight to the destiny ttmt 
was bearing ns down") was entirely wrong too, and old Ser\ius 
wa« right, and understood his author well, however little pains 
be took to explain him intelligibly to the uninitiated. 

Urgf.ktl — Is inaiKKTi tran.sitive, either meaning, as it must 
laean with La Cerda and Haeckerniann, pressim^ on him (An- 
ciiises), or meaning, m it means with Conington, pressing on its 
{^bearing us down'')? or is frgkxti intransitive, as it is with 
Servius, and does it mean, as it means with Servius, merely 

314 AENEIDEA [657-661 mene— leto 

hastcuhty'f I need hardly answer: intransitive, and means, 
with Servius, merely hastening. Compare Liv. 5. 22: ''Quod 
decern aestates hiemesque continuas circumsessa [Veii] . . . 
postrerao, iam fato turn deniqiie urgenti, operibus tamen, non 
vi, expugnata est.'' Luean, 10. 30 (of Alexander the Great): 

"perque Asiae populos fatis urgentibus actus 
humana cum strage ruit." 

Virg. Georg. 3, 199: 

. . . "summaeque sonorem 
dant silvae, longique urgent ad littora fluctus/' 

Uroenti incumbere. — Compare Plaut. AuluL 4. 1. 7 : 

''si herum videt supenare amorem, hoc servi esse officium reor, 
retinere ad salutem; non euin quo iiicumbat, eo impellerey'^ 

the ''impellere" of which passage corresponds to the incumbere 
of our text, and the "incumbat" of which passage corresponds 

to the URGENTI. 



Mene effekre . . . sperasti. — Not, hast than expected me to 
more rnij foot':" but is it me {me, thy affectionate son) whom 
thou expectedst to more, &c. ? Compare 5. 848, and Rem.; 
and 1. 87, and Rem. 

Et sedet hoc ANIMO. — Compare 5. 418: ^'idque pio sedet 
Aeneae." Tlie metaphor is taken from a balance, of which that 
scale in which the gi-eater weight is placed is said sedere; 
see Tibull. 4. 1. 41: 

657-661 MENE—LETo] BOOK II. 315 

"iusta pari i)romitur vcluti cum poiidere libra, 
prona nee hac plus parte sedrt, nee surgit ab ilia." 

Patet isti lANUA LCTO. — '^ Ad talem morU'ra ab hoste aeci- 

piendam via patet; ea mors facile obtineri poterit. . . . Idem 

quod (645) ipse maxu mortem inveniam,'* Heyne— confounding 

[with Thiel, who quotes Lucr. 1. 1104: 

^^nam quacunque prius de parti corpora cosRe 
constitues, haec rebus orit pars ianua lethi;" 

Id. 3. 829: 

'•baud igitur icthi praeclusa est iatiua mcnti;" 
Id. 5. 374: 

"baud igitur lethi praeclusa est ianiia caelo," 

as parallel and explanatory] the two very different, alm(»st 

opposite, expressions, patet ianua lethi, avetoyuevai u4dov 

TtvXai, the door of defith is open |Sil. 11. 1H6 (od. Kuperti): 

. . . *'nullo nos invida tant^j 
armavit natura bono, quam iantda viorti« 
quod patet, et vita non ae^^ua exire potestas." 

Val. Flaec. 3. 378: 

. . "non si mortalia membra 
sortitusque breves, et parvi t^^npora fati 
perpetimur. socius superi quondam ignis <Jlympi, 
fas ideo miscere npc^'s, ferroqu** morantes 
exigere bine animas roditura'juo semina caelo 
quippt* nee in v<'ntos. nee in ultima sohimur ossa: 
ira manet duratque dolor: cum delude tremendi 
ad solum venere Jo vis. qiiestuque uefandara 
edocuere necem, patet ollis iamw lethi, 
atque iterum remear»i licet; comes luia sororum 
additur. et pariter terras atque aequora lustrant. 
quis^|ue suos soutes inimir;aque j>ect^ira poenis 
implicat, et varia meritos formidiue pulsant."' 

Eurip. Hipp. 56 (of Hippolytus): 

or ytto oii' n V *■ to y u t va ^ :i i- /.a > 

Id. Hecuh. 1. 

IIxio, vfxoior xnUuisJti* y.tu oxoiot' .11 /.a ^ 
i.i7tvn\ ir Aidr,^ /*^K**y fortornt Unor. 
Iloi.v6ioo<j^. Kxa,ir^;; /im^ yt-yioi r/;* hiooUD^^, 

316 AENEIDEA [657-661 mene— leto 

and PATET lANUA LCTO, the dx)or is open to death, i. e., open for 
death to enter in. Compare Gul. Tyr. Bell. Sacr. 15. 22: 
''Hoc vir audiens magnanimus, licet doloris angeretur immen- 
sitate, et mortem non dubitaret adesse pro foribus, imperiali 
tamen raaiestate constanter observata, sprevit," &c. 

Out of this confusion Mr. Conington in vain endeavours to 
extricate himself: "'Leti ianua' and similar expressions occur 
repeatedly in Lucretius, e. g,, 5. 373, 'baud igitur leti praeclusa 
est ianua caelo/ Virgil has perhaps varied the image a little, 
though it is not clear whether he means the door that leads to 
death, or, as the dative would rather suggest, the door through 
which death may come. . . . The latter interpretation is 
favoured by two passages which Henry quotes— Plin. Ep, 1, 18: 
'ilia ianuam famae patefecit;' and Ter. Heatit, 3. 1. 72: 'Quan- 
tam fenestram ad nequitiam patefeceris ! ' " Instead of saying 
"it is not clear whether/' &c., Mr. Conington should have said 
it is perfectly clear and certain that the meaning is the door 
for death to enter stands open; and instead of requoting my 
insufficient quotations of twenty years ago, might have quoted 
Ovid, ex Pont. 2. 7. 37: 

**sed quia res timida est umuis miser, et quia longo 
tempore laetitiae ianua clausa meae est." 

Id. Fast. 5. 502: ''hospitibus ianua nostra patet," I need 
hardly point out to the reader how inharmonious— nay, how 
inconsistent both with the determination of Anchises to remain 
where ho is, and with the announcement of Aeneas that Pyrrhus 
will be there immediately— are the words patftt isti taxua leto 
understood to mean, the door to death is open to yon, there is 
nothing to hinder gon from going out to meet him; how per- 
fectly consistent in the sense, tlie door is open for death to 
enter, the whole meaning being then: "You are determined to 
remain here and die: there is nothing to hinder you: the door 
is open for death to enter in, and enter in he will immediately 
in the shape of Pyrrhus, who does not hesitate to butcher the 
son before the eves of tho father — the tather at the altar." 

1^70 xxxyrAM— iNLT.n] 





Commentators stumble over this passage more than they need. 
"'NuNguAM pro nan/' says Aeh'vis Donatus, quoting our toxt, ad 
Terent Adelph. 2, L 15. ^'NrxQrAM pro /*o/f/* repeat*i 8cTviiiji 
(ed. Liou(; and '^Noquam pro >io«/' re-repeata H6yna--iUI 
of them, in order to get rid of the apparent inoonf^ruity sajK* 
QiTAii — HODiK, content to reducre passilon's stronges^t negative non- 
QAtTM (i, €,, non-unquam, never, not ever, tiot for all time) 
to the cool, comraon-plac^^ simple negative non {fwt for the 
present time, the time in which the negative is uttered). I 
would not be frnctiotis, but I mui^t prott-t^t agiiinst this rutting 
down of >TLVQrAii* non uuqunm. into mere a on, egpiiciiilJy 
of j!»x5QUAii in thin emphatic poi^ition of flr^t word to the aeo^ 
teoce. I would not so deal even with Juvetml's "^ntuiqaainoe 
reponam"--how much lens with Hie :^i75(fVA)i of Aeii<»ii| fint 
word of the i^bort siutence wirb which the hero untm up at lit 
rushes forth to be revenged and die. Let ua go back a little 
It was plain to Aeneas that the only aafeity eitlmr for bimi^lf 
or his family waa in flight But hii father wa^ immovabhi in 
the detemunatioii not Ut fly. He wan Inmmlt equally diy 
I tarmiaeil not tci dea^t hk bih&* The concl union waa dbrioua: 
d^^h for all — 

rumm, gemt mc na fiLA^ tva linai 


Tbb tfaongbt is iotahsafaia tn Aaoeaa, and b^ catla Utr ansa. H# 
^ wJU at leaal not mi Ifaefa Ui aa^ Ilia wbiAe luuiiy batcbeml and 

be butdierdd biamelU ^Umg viA tli«nL SU wUi hare mmm 
'Xmrr he criei, "altiU «# aU die li>day um^mgtL 
FToq ar? delarauiiad Aat «« ahatl nil di*' ti^Uy Vm^ ir i^^ ^^ 

318 ABNEIDEA f670 nunquaK— inultI 

it shall never be that we all die to-day unrevenged" [compare 
Sil. 4, p. 67: 

•*dii patrii 

talin' me letho tanta inter praelia nuper 
servastis? fortunae aDimam banc exscindere dextra 
indignum est visum? redde, o, me nate, periclis, 
redde hosti, liceat bellanti arcessere mortem, 
quam patriae fratrique probem'J, 

Aeneas's nunquam is not in place of non, denies more strongly 
than it is possible for non to deny - denies not merely for the 
moment in which it is uttered, but for all future time. It is 
more impassioned than non in the very ratio in which it is 
less logical. Logic is the last thing emotion ever thinks of. 

Honre. — But commentators are always logical; and, disap- 
pointed — even Donatus himself— in cutting down ntinquam to 
mere non, change their hand, and letting nunquam stand un- 
shorn {^^Nunquam plus asseverationis habet quam won, ut 
Virgilius: nunquam omnes hodie moriemur inui.ti," Donatus ad 
Terent Andr. 2. 5. 7), vent all their malice on hodie: "Hodie 
autem aut abundat, ut nunquam omnes hodie moriemur inulti 
IDonat. ad Terent. Adelph. 4. 2. 31, a hint which Voss taking, 
translates our text thus: 'nie doch sinken wir air ungerachet 
dem tode!' and is praised by Thiel for so doing: 'Voss tiber- 
setzt mit recht hodie nichV^, aut nniiquam hodie pro 7}uUo 
tempore huius diei, quia minqnani per se generale est " - the 
former of which interpretations, not fixing for any particular 
time, still less for to-day, either the slaughter of Aeneas and 
his family or the revenge which Aeneas promises both himself 
and family for that slaughter, deprives the scene of the interest 
and pathos attaching to inevitable immediately impending de- 
struction avenged on the instant to the utmost ability of the 
sufferers; while the inordinate emphasis thrown on hodie by the 
latter — "nuUo tempore huius diei," at no time of this day — 
necessarily suggests at some time of some other day, a sentiment 
repudiated by the whole context. 

But harsch and unmerited as has been the treatment which 
sometimes the nunquam, at other times the hodie, of our text 

670 NUNQU A^i — 1 S r LTl . ] 


has received from former eonimentators. harsher and still mnre 
unmerited that whieJi both words at ouee have received at tlie 
hands of Mn Conington, who, not content in his paraphrase of 
oar text (''if my father dooms himself and the rest of the 
family to an uoresisring death, 1 will not share it'') with both 
cutting down ninquam to mere iion, and omitting uoorK al- 
together, refers us for further information to his note on EcL 
3, 49, where we are told that ''the phrase ['nunquara hodie'J 
is found in the comic writers ... as an arch way of saying 
that a thing shall not be, and ^hodie' seems to be a sort of 
comic pleonasm/' (J) Poor, almost forgotten l*haer knew better 
than either Donatus, or Yobs, or Heyne, or Thiel, or Conington, 
aiid more than three hundred years ago (July, 1555) in Kilgermn 
forest, coiTectly and vigorously, witliout eke or omission, or 
exaggeration or perversion of any kind, translated: ''never shall 
we die this day unvenged all." Compare Tacit. Hhst, L 29: 
**ipsius imperii vicem doleo^ si nobis aut perire hodie necesse 
est, autj quod aeque a pud bonos miserum est^ occidere.'' Eurip. 
Hipp. 21: 

fnnoXvTov ft* t tj6' t) a * n ft. 

!^oph. (ML Chi, 161 1 : 

oi'jf far* i&' t*^iy rr/<f' * i' *fu^Qtt nnr^Of 
olmkf yttfi <fij nttvrn Ttt^att, xovxut 

Soph. Tfarh, 741: 

T(iv ttpSoit TOP aoy tofft, top «f' i^op Xiyttt 

And also — not correctly only, but conformably to the very 
commonest usage — Erasm. Cblhtj, Opulent. Sardida: '''Heus,' 
inrjuani, 'Orthogone, erit hodie pereundum fame?'** 

320 AUNBIDEA [672-684 wskbt.— pascI 



VAR. LECT. (vs. 683). 
MOLLi I Ver. Ill P. Manut.; La Cerda; D. Heins.; N. HeiDS. (1670); 

Philippe; Pott; Wagn. (1845; Lect. Virg.)\ Wakef. {SUv. Grit. 4, 

p. 227). 
MOLUS I Vat.y Pal., Med. II cod. Canon. (Butler) (molles); *In antiquis 

aliquot codd.," Pierius. Ill Heyne; Brunck; Wakef. {in loco); Wagn. 

(ed. Heyn. and Praest.)\ Thiel; Voss; Ladewig; Haupt; Ribb. ; CJon. 

Rom., St. Oall. 

Insertabam. — Incorrect substitution of the frequentative for the 
ordinary form, merely because inserebam could not be fitted 
into an hexameter verse. See Kone, "Ueber die Sprache der 
Romisch. Epiker," p. 159. There is, however, this peculiar 
propriety in the word insert^ used in whichever form, that the 
strap or handle of the shield through which the arm was passed 
was (as we are informed by Gael. Rhod. ad locmn) .technically 
denominated inserter ium. 

FuNDERE LUMEN APEX. — "Apox propric dicitur in summo 
flaminis pileo virga lanata, hoc est, in cuius extremitate modica 
lana est; quod primum constat apud Albam Ascanium statuisse. 
Mode Hutem summitatem pilei intelligimus," Servius, followed 
by Burmann and Leopardi. An interpretation to w^hich I object, 
(1), that if the fire had been in the cap, the first thing to do was 
to pull off the cap, and that nothing can be more ridiculous than 
the figure made by lulus in the picture in the Vatican Frag- 
ment (reproduced in Pozzoli's [Romani e Peracchi's] Dixionario 
della Favolaj tav. 72), where two attendants are represented 
pouring water on the cap on the top of lulus's head; and (J8), 
that the ^'flammeus apex" which burned on the top of the head 
of Servius Tullius, and which was the prototype of the apex of 





uur text, wais plainly not the apox or tuft of a cap, but an apex 
»kf t!ami% **flHnniious apex;" Ovid, Fast. 6". 6^9: 

*'signa dedit genitor tuna cum caput igne coruaco 
coutigit, inque omm& fiammetm ami apejn;'^ 

Liv. L 39: ''Puero dormieDti, cui Servio Tullio nomen fiiit, 
uput amsse ferunt, nudtoruni in cunspectu/' in both which 
ccounts, the prosaic no less than the poetic, the miraculous 

burning is not of a head-ilresB, but of the head itself or hair. 

Compare Horn. //. IS, 205: 

.Val. Flacc. 3. 186: 

'*acce8sere (nefasl) teoebris fallacibus acti 
T>^ndaridae in sese: Castor prius ibat id ictus 
nestiius; ast illos nova liLX, ittihititsi]U€ diremit 
frantic apej^ 

Claud. 4 Com. Honor, 192: 

. , . ^* Ventura [>otostas 
eiaruit ABcanio, subita oum luce comaruiii 
ioDoouus ilagraret ajtex^ Pbrygioque volutus 
verticci fatalis redimiret tempora candor." 

,.Sil Hi. 118: 

** huic IHasmissae] fesso^ quoe dura fiiga et uox suaaerat atra, 
carp^uti suomos Hubitrus mtilante coraaourD 
vertice fulsit apejr, crispanir|ue jiivolvore visa est 
mitis flam ma comam, atque hirta se spargere fixjnte/" 

^Iso— an example uf the application of the same term to the 
pointed summit of a real tire — Silius, 10. 556: 

^'tani, face coniecta, f)Opulatur fervidus ignis 
flagiuntem molenii et, rapta caligiuo, in auras 
actus apeo' clai^ perfuDdit luiuine campos/' 

The two substantives, apex and flamma, taken together 
present the precise picture which is afforded by ''flammeus 
»x/' Ovid, Fast. iL (i3(K quoted above, exactly as in verse 722, 

^* teste super fuldque insternor yW//' leoDis." 

tlie two substantives ^'veste" and ^'pelle" present the precise 

IflMtY, AlffWDSLA, VOL. U. 21 

322 AENfilbBA t6'2-(>84 insbrt.— i»Aicl 

picture which had been afforded by veste pellicea. See Rem. 
on 721: Tlie same words are united, with the same effect 
10. 270, where 

"ardet apex capiti, cristisque a vertice flamma 

is exactly equivalent to "flammeus apex ardet capiti, cristisque 
a vertice funditur.'' See Rem. on 10. 270. 

Tactuque innoxia molles. — Tactu innoxia, '• unschadlich be- 
riihrend," Voss. "Quae tactu non nocet; nihil consiimens," 
Forbiger. ^^Tactu innoxio," Conington. I think rather, harmless 
to be. toivched; that tvotdd not harm yon if you meddled tmth 
it; just as Geory. H. 416, "mala tactu vipera,'' where "mala 
tactu" seems to be the precise correlative of tactu innoxia. 
If an active signification had been intended it is more probable 
the word employed would have been attactu, as 7. 350. It is 
at least remarkable that our author speaking of the viper being 
touched should use {Geory. 3. 416) as here tlie simple, and 
speaking of the viper touching should use (7. 350) the Compound, 
word. Compare the Greek €r«r/^?^c, yond to he touched, \. e., 
sovi4)thj or soft. 

This interpretation being adopted, the reading of the next 
word is determined to be not molli, but^ in conformity with 
the weight of MS. authority, either mollis, as descriptive of 
FLAMMA, or MOLLES, as dcscnptivc of COMAS. But MOLLIS is not 
wanting for flamma, that subject being already sufficiently 
provided for in TA(nu innoxia: and comas, otherwise without 
an epithet, requires S()m(^ description. We come thus to choose 
MOLLES, and find our choice confirmed, first by the very similar 
"est molles fiamma medullas" nf the fourth book; secondly, by 
the proof left behind by Sidonius Apollinaris that the reading 
in his time was molles {Chun. 2. 114): 

"sic loquitur natura dcos; cunct^intis lull 
lambebant fenero.s incendia blanda capillosf' 

and thirdly, by the consideration that mollis is (see Forbiger 
ad loeufn) a very usual epithet for the hair.* 

* [Among Dr. Henry's MSS.the following ninark oocui-s, dated March, 1864, 

Bdi luntKfi— fikma] 






Iptmei,] AS PICK vos hoc TAvrmi : I Fcrf.,* Mid. (HOSJ, TV. Ill D. Eeins; 
Wigner (ed, Hejrn., ©d. 1861); Lad,; Haupt; Ribbeck. 

1] 4SprcK son : HOC TANTUii : III Venice, 1471; N. Heins.; Fhiljppe; 
•^Heyne; Bninck: Wakef.; Pott. 

I] ASPicR Kos. : HOC TATmjii DI Veil, 1476; F, Maont 

Ji(m.f Si. Gall 


"Atimnnn I Vat,. PaJ„ Med., Ver. Ul Cyntlu Cenet.; Ronu 1473; Jul 
Scalig. Poet. 3. 26; P. Manut; La C^rda; D. Heioa.; N, Heius. a67J); 
PhilipiKj; Heyne; Brunck : Wakof/, Pofl.; Wagn. fed. Heyn.^ I^rt. 
Vtrp., ed 1861): Coningt, 

AimrRmM 111 Probas fad Erlo^, 6. SI): Peerlk.; Keil (PhiicL Getting, 
Tol 2, p. 166 1; Lid.; Haupt; Ribbeok; Weidotr. 

Bom, St. OaiL 

and as I am not certain that the Tiew gi%*eo in the text embodies hii final 
opioioii^ I here iAB€rt the other as a aote. — Eo.J Motu^ not MOLLca^fint^ 
bfcaose the hannlesszieis of the flame requirea to be efxpreaaed more fdUy 
^th&n br the single word iiivoxu. Secoodlj, tactu ixvoxu ta a strange 
pression sot at all inalngoua aa aUeiged to ^'mala taota/' Oearj^. 3, 416, 
fhere '^tactu'' la paseiTe whereas iactt id the coDstmction ta£tu mifoziA 
m active. Thirdlj^ becaoae we have the expreaaum tactua mollis both 
in Ovid, ex Poni4^ 2. 7. 13: 

"CBcmbra refonsidMU soil em qooqiic i«ocb lActlun^** 

and in SiL 6. 91: 

. , . '*mmc porfmt vulnefm Ijrvplui. 
nmc omlctt tocdi; £i»t Inde, ac vcOcn no lit 
cvcwBdaC taciu, ei torpcntci mififal vtai*.** 

The reading, thafdbre, ia mouj, and tlie atmcttim LAMaame TAirrt? noiij. 

"^ Bottan. th«i«i»ra, ia incorrect m frfactng a point afier ;mm. There ^ 
no nppearaocv* at all in the MS. oC a |^| in that i^tiaalioii. 


324 AEirtllD^A t689-69l niprrRR— Fi^l 

Observe the words iupiter omnipotens (expressive of the pmver 
to relieve, even in so desperate an extremity) joined to all the 
verbs in the sentence; the woi*d patkr (moving to exert that 
power) joined only to the immediate prayer of the petition, 


verse 552. 

AspicE Nos; HOC TANTUM. — This punctuation, which is that 
of Nicholas Heinsius, rendei-s aspice nos, already emphatic by 
its position at the beginning of the line, still more emphatic by 
the sudden pause which separates it from the subsequent words; 
see Rem. on verse 246. Wagner removes tiie pause, and con- 
nects HOC TANTUM closclv witli ASPICE NOS I which arrangement 
— while it has the effect, first, of diminishing the emphasis of 
the emphatic words aspice nos; and, secondly, of substituting 
tor a simple, pathetic, passionate exclamation, one bound up 
with a cool, phlegmatic, lawyerlike condition or limitation — is 
directly opposed to Yirgil's usual manner, which, as we have so 
often seen, is first to present us fully and boldly with the main 
thought, the grand conception, and then to modify, limit, soften 
down, adapt, or cxj)lain afterwards. And so, precisely, on the 
present occasion, we have first the short, strong, emphatic aspice 
NOS, and then, after a j)ause. hoc tantum: tin hut so mveh and I 
am sftre of all ihc rest. 

AspiCK NOS, look on as (i. e., /// oar froahfe); .see the trouble 
we are in. Look on as, see the troahlr we are in, ami I ask 
no more. Compare Aosch. Sappl. 206: Zer^ i)e yevvi^nog tdoi 
[not the vocative, nor addressed to God, but expressing a wish 
only: may God look on as!]. FJurip. Hec. 808 (ed. Fix) 
(Hecuba speaking): 

/(Tor af Xid'd'hjrjaof 01* t/u) 

Prudent. Catbem. Hipnn. /y. 6: 

'*huc nitido. precor, intuitu 
tlecto salutiferam facieni." 

Aspice. — The opinion was, that your cause was safe, your 
wishes acceded to, your prayer granted, if the god or other per- 
son to whom your prayer was addressed looked on you, espe- 
cially if he looked on you with a mild and placid aspect. Com- 

H mintKn-^ntuiA] BOOK IL ^^^V 325 

pare Aesch, Suppi, 'J id [vhmxi^ of Danaidej;*); 

SiL 7. 239: 

""tnagDimi iUtid^ so!is<|ue datum, ^uus mitis euuu-s 
lupiter a«pexiU mAgniUii est, ex hoste leveiti'^ 

(with which i-tintrast Aen, 10. 473: 

•^sic ait, %\i\vw ocitUm Kutulorum tviicii nrvis"). 

Llso Heisiod, Theog, SI: 

find. Mhm. 2. 18 (ftd. Bisson): 

xiu to'h 

f where Dissfn: ^'Benevole aspexit^K 

In Itiily Ht \h(^ prison t Hny f»verv supplication for aloiB by 
the coram unest be^^ar is pri*frti'**d by the identical prayt^r 
'*<juardi;' so little have niarmei-s <»han^ed in two thousand years. 
;ind Rt narrow thr lino of demarcation betwr^f^n worshipper and 
beggar: .so insensibly Hoe«i prayer raerp' in be^^'ary. 

Hoc TAJUTM. — Compare Claiul. //r//. flthf. 314: 

"sed fanhirn p^rmitte cadat: nil posciniuB ultra." 

Kpitom, Ilkuhhs, TIG tof Dolun); 

'•iUe timore pavens, ^vitam coDc€Fdite/ dixit. 
* hftr itnum satis est/ ' 

And—exactly |>iirrtl lei --Claud. /.V//>/. Pros. ■/. 2^8: 

. . , "Uceat rogrioscerp sorteni. 
httr ttinhun. li< eat eeitw habiiisae dolores/* 

AJso 8il 4. 407 : 

*^j>ost me Btaie^ viri, et pulsa loiuiidiiH^ fttniuttt 

And Sil. 2. 230: "spectat'ula Uathim tcrtc, viri.'* 

326 ABNEIDEA [689-691 iupiter— firiia 

PiPTTATE, not our piety, viz., towards heaven, but our tetider- 
nessj viz., towards each other. See Rem. on Aen. 1. 14. There- 
fore the expression, aspice; look on w^, see what a picture of 
family affection we present; and so, precisely, Ovid, Trist, 3. 
4, 35 (addressing his friend, from exile): 

''quae pro te ut voveam miti pietate mereris, 
haesuraque mihi tempus in omne fide" 

[by your brotherly kindness and fidelity towards mej. 

AuGURiuM.— Notwithstanding the preponderance both of 
manuscript and editorial authority in favour of auxiuum, I am 
inclined to think that auguritjm is the true reading: (1), on 
account of the very parallel passage of Sil. 15. 143, where on 
the occasion of a first prodigy's being established by a second, 
sent as in our text by Jupiter himself, the word augurium is 
not only used but even repeated: 

. . . "bis terque coruscum 
addidit augur to fulmen pater, et vaga late 
per subitum moto strepuere tonitrua mundo. 
turn vero capere arma iubent, genibusquo salutant 
summissi aufjuriumy atque iret qua ducere divos 
perspicuuin, ot patrio inonstraret semita signo." 

And (2), because the identical expression, ''da, pater, augu- 
rium," is used by our author himself, 3. 89: 

"da, pater, augurium atque animis illabere nostris." 

Compare also 7. 259: 

. . . "dii nostra incepta secundent, 
amjiirium(\}XQ suum;" 

and Iscan. 2. 131 : 

. . . "da, maxinie, felix 
auiiptciitmy laetum tribuas iiubentibus omen." 

KI— FiniAST] 

BOOK 11. 




sieNAjerEMguE vias itm lungo limite sulcus 


Et de, &c ciTciJKEJT, — Cumpare 8. Matth, Kvang, 2, !J: Km 

idot\ o €t(finQi or Et()or a* nj avaroh^y .t^o^yir avzov^^ iiog 
iJL^un^ earij trtan** ot t^r to ycaahur. In ''Saundei's^s News- 
Tjetter/' of July 25, 1844, there is, in an extiftct from a letter, 
the folltiwin;? account of a nietenn seen alaiost on the same 
!»pot, and presenting precisely the same H}>peaiuni"es as that seen 
by Aeneas :--"Constantinoph\ July :i i>ri Sumlay last^ five 
minutos befon? su!iset, \vf» had a spleudid sight here. The 
atniusphere was hazy, but vvithuut cloud. Therroumeter about 
90**. An immense meter »r, lik>* a gigantic l.'ongreve rneket, 
darted, with a rushing noise, from eiust to west Its lightning 
eonrse was marked by a streak of fire, and, after a passage of 
some fortA* or tifty degrees, it burst like a bumhsbelh hut with- 
out detonation, lighting up the hetnisphere witli the brilliancy 
of the noon-day sun. On its disappearance, a white vapour re- 
mained in its trark, and was visible for nearly half an hour, 
Kverybody tlnuiglit it was just before his eyes, but it was seen 
by perfc*ons twelv*' and hftoen milet^ to the northward, in the 
iiame Hpparx^nt pusitiun, and positively tbf' self-sarnc phenorne- 
noti. Many of tbi* vnigar iuek upon it as a very bad ornen. 
whikt othei^ attribnti* it tn tfie warm weather, which continues. 
Th^ thermometer stands, at this moment, at 91** in the shade, 
and in the coolest spot could be sehn-ted." 

SuMMA SUPER LAiJENTEw ct LMiKA TK'TL - Compare ApoUon. 
Kbod. L 774 [ed. Beck), of Jiuson; 

828 AENEIDBA [698-008 irr— fitmaot 

jHq (f' tutv(ti TtnoTi 4(07 v, ffativM (iOTtut iao<;, 
ov otc rf i'ljyaTbijoiv i^eQyoufvat xakVfirint 
t'l'ILi ff (u if^rjfjoat^TO 6ouo)v v n t {}(iVT hkkovj a, 
X(ti atfiai xvavtoio di^ rjfoo^ ouunra i>t).yn 
xuXov i()tv0^o^tvog, ynvvrtu (ff Tf- rjid^fOLO 
TiaQ&fros tutinovOd u(T^ {iXXoditno^air tovio^ 
icv&ouatv, at xfv fiiv uvriorrjv xoufcaai Toxtjf^. 
TO) ixtXo<; HQO nokr^oq avtt an^av ijitv rfnta^. 

Cernlmus, &c. — Wagner {Praest.) and Forbiger, understand- 
ing the structure to be claram signantemque vias se condere, 
liave removed the pause placed by the two Stephenses, the two 
Heinsii, and Heyne, after silva. The pause should undoubt- 
edly be replaced, signantem being connected by que, not with 
its unlike claram, but with its like labentem, and it being 
Virgifs usual method thus to connect a concluding or winding 
up clause, not with the immediately preceding clause, but with 
one more remote. See Remm. on 2. 148; 3. 571; 4. 483; 
5. 522. 

Signantemque vias, /. e., marking the way; which way, 
being towards Ida, signified to Aeneas that he was to take 
refuge in Ida. Compare {a) the \vay to the newly bom Christ 
pointed out to the Magi by the star. Prudent. Cathem. 12. 53: 

"exin sequuntur, perciti 
fixis in altum vultibus, 
qua Stella sulcum traxerat 
claramqiie signahat viamy 

(ft), the pigeons pointing out to Aeneas his way to the golden 
bough, 6. 198: 

''observaus, quae siyna ferant, quo tendere pergant.'* 

ic), the way marked for Acestes to heaven by the flamiiig 
arrow, 5. 525: 

"nainque volans liquidis iu uubibus arsit arimilo, 
si(/navi'f(ji(r riant tlaiumis.'' 

(rf), the way towards Africa pointed out to Scipio by the fiery 
snake in tlie skv, Sil. 15. 1*^9: 

6a^-^''^ t^^Lrxf.vT] 



effulgt^iis uiaeuUs, lorri inter mibiln visa8 
augAiiSt et ardent i rwiiifire per aera suluo. 
•luafnio ad caoliferi teudit plaga littur? Atiautis, 
^»erlabi resotiaote polo , 

tuni vero eapeve arma iubent, genibuHque salutant 
SMmmissi auguriuni, at^ue iret, qua ducere ciivuf 
[jerspicuam. ot patrio monstrarri Hcmita sipio." 

ho way marked by the admiral's ship tor tlK* rest of tlir 
tWr lit foliuw, Senee. Affum. 427: 

•'feiignmu HM^ur^ius repa ut rulsit rafe. 
el f^lam l^ntum iH?rnigem nionuit tuba. 
aurata piinias prom ihsitfmtt iunn, 
Ujierit<|U»' cursiiN* iiidl<^ iums pM|/|>t's SL'rPut. 

if\ tbe light placed nn thi' Tiirrf*t by Hon) to be "*;i^'nao viae*' 
Til Loander crossing thi- Hi'lh^spont. Ovid, Herml. IfK 35: 

'■protaniiH in Humma vigdantia lunutia tune 

(lOmtnus, assuetat? ^i^jnn notaiinine viat'^ 

((f), the way i'voin this same Ida tn rlh' (irman erji-anipmeiit 
pointed out tu Hertor and tbe Trojan army by a miraoulou!^ 
floud of dust. Horn. //, VJ, 252: 

fhtXyi f'ooi', Totoaty it ^ui I^^Tout xv^o>; onttZn\ 
foi' nt{i it} rt{mfifm jttfiotikMt>;, tf&t ^tt^qtv 

fand so the SclinL of tlie Voronesr Palinipsost (KcdTi^ ud, p. W. 
L 21): ''Ait Tndauus stelhiiii diireni (iiscossionis habiiisse''). 
And9 </i). Pint, in t'aesar: f\ *h tou tr^^ <'«X'^c |of Pljarsalia) 
vvjtri tagqvKiTAai: ufothtovtoc avtov, /ff^/ ro maovv/.noy vMffh^ 

ft;thn\ }jttt^r{trir /jtt tfXoy(fM\r^ yfvoiiEr}^i\ ffVoiffi' n^ ru^ioi 
'Mti'€tnmtiv (thus indii*atin^ la \\\m tfiat be was to go ti»wards 
Putnpey, tliat hr was to j*ei>;ist in his intention of fiefhtin^ 

330 ABNBIDBA [702-714 di— cerbris 

SiGNANTKM viAS, not flmwing or marking a path or line in 
the sky. but marking, or signify ingj or pointing out the rfnite, 
viz., for Aeneas, the method by which this is effected being 
explained in the immediately following words to be by drawing 
a long luminous furrow in the sky: tum longo umtte sulcus 


LiMiTE, track or path. Contiguous properties being anciently, 
as still very generally on the continent of Europe, separated 
from each other, not by a fence, but merely by a narrow inter- 
mediate space, along which (in order not to trespass on the 
ground on either side) it was usual for those who had business in 
the neighbourhood to walk, the term limes, primarily signifying 
a boundary or limit, came by a natural and unavoidable 
transition to signify a path, way, or track. Compare Stat. 
Thcb, 12, 240: "quoties amissus eunti limes?" [hotc often 
the way or path lost?] 


Dl— CERWilS 

Di p.vTKii. — Commentators bein^ generally silent with respect 
to these words, the Yirgilian student is left to himself to find 
out their meaning the best way he can. It occurs to him that 
it may be either gods of nuj eotnitryy or gods of my fathers. 
The difference, perhaps, is not great, but still he is cuiious to 
know which precisely was in Virgil's mind. If he has recourse 
to the translators he finds they are pretty well agreed that 
Virgil meant gods of my country — Surrey translating: 
••0 native gods I your family tiefeiid; " 

Phaer : 

•'o contiT^y gods! our house beliold; '" . . . 

Caro : 

. . . '*o do la patria 
sa«;ri uuini Penati, a voi mi rendo;'' 

702—714 i.r— - rtthiiisl 



lin tlon : 

** kee|», my country gods! our dwetlitig ]j|aots ' 

ami J, H. Vuss. aUmc of traiitilatois uf rrputt\ rpnilering; 

. , . ^*i(jh folg' ouch, gtitter der viiter. 
wo ihr aucb fiihil; erhnltet das haus/' 

Tumiiig to Uesiier's excellent lexicon lie finds twu separate and 
distinct adjectives [nitrius, one placed uuder the head puter 
and the other under the head pnti ia. and «nir text cited a^ an 
example of the latter. He is quite pei^uaded, and for hirn it is 
to his country's gods Anchises eaniinends hi^s house and gmnd- 
son. But let him beware. The minority or ueakei side is 
8hown by all experience to be oftener in the right than the 
majority or stronger side, and the present case constitutes no 
exception to the general nilo. The oi patku of our text are 
tfie identical iraiQtmt ihot vvhicli Aeneas carries <Hit of Troy on 
his* shoulders along with his ^t^iQCJot iUot, or gnds of his motheix 
and therefore are and c^in only be gods of bis fathers. Compare 
Xenopb. de Vetmi, L 25: .itrttttg tk aojaa^ mv roic /^or^iu- 
oi i; AUA ut^io r -J 1 v; /> e o r ^\ nvfijai; *)« xa< a t lo r / or .raitQU, 
doBay tra€(iet(x^ t^t^viyAitio, o*aii /mi ot siokittiot ^toHfj i:%ttvv}^ 
I'ly iyL(Ktiffiav iv 7(>oi«, idoactv lu^ avh]thivia. 

But the student bas not been left equally free with respect 
to the relation these words bear to the context, A period at 
ausom in tlie editions shuts otf j)i eATRJi from ducitis, and 
throws tho»e worrls wholly to servatk. In vain the bewildered 
student asks himself: Is not the ducitis no \^m than the ser- 
vatk addressed to the or patku? Is it not the di fatru who 
have just sent the guiding leading star, sionantkm vias? Is it 
possible that ditcituj can be addressed tn Aeneas, Creusa, and 
As€anius,^and only skrvate to the m patkh? tliat Anchises 
addresses in the first place his friends, and only in tlie second 
place his gods; begins with bis friends and ends with his friends, 
and bundles his gods into a parenthesis in the middle? Again 
the commentators are silent, and of live translators three follow 
Ihe editors, Surrey translating: 

382 AENBIDEA [702-714 di—cererk 

'*'iiow, now,' 4Uod he, 'no longer I abide: 
follow 1 shall where ye me guide at hand. 

native gods', your family defend;'" 

Pliaer : 

'*now, now, no more I let lead where ye list, I will not swarve. 
eontrey gods, our house behold, my nevew safe preserve;" 

Dryden : 

•"now, now,' said he, 'my son, no more delay; 

1 yield, I follow, where heaven shows the way, 
keep (o my countiy gods!) our dwelling place;'" 

Caro : 

. . . "o de la patria 
sacri numi P«:*nati, a voi mi rendo. 
voi questa casa, voi questo nipote 
mi conservate; ■ 

and J. H. Voss: 

. . . **ich folg' ouch, gotter der vater. 
wo ihr auch fiihrt. orhaltet das haus, erhaltet den enkel." 

Yes; it is not only possible but certain, conclndes the student. 
surrendering" his common sense to the weight of authority, and 
<'ontinuin«i' to do so until sueh time as editoi-s shall perceive 
that there is no reason why tho v^ry tirst words Anchist^s 
utters after he has seen the i^'-uidiniu^ star should be ciit off from 
the "aft'ari deos" which the si^i^ht of that star prompted — that 
the structure is not: iam iam nuu.a mora kst; se^»uor et qua 


SERVATE DOMUM. SERYATK XEPOTEM — and shall substitutc a comma 
for the period they have placcnl at adsum. 

Vestroque IX xuMixK TROiA EST. — ""In tua.' incjuit, *pat*?r 
carissime, in tua sunuis custodia,' *' Petron., p. H5-4- led. Hadr., 
Amst. 1669). 

Lox(iK SERVET vEsTioiA roxiux I VS. 711).- There seems to 
be no •::round whatover foi- the charj^e which has so frequently 
been brouirht a^^ainst Aeneas, that he (h'serted, or at least 
ne/^lected, his wife. Comp. Ovid, Hcroid. 7, <S.V; 

"si qiiacras, ubi sit fonnosi mater luli: 
ot'cidit. a duro sola relicta viro.' 

70i;-7lt or— cKWOWfil 

It was necessary to divifle the party, in avilvr the better to 
f^capo ohsenation l»y the (jreeks; niitl not un]\ the greater 
imbecility of, but stronger natural tie U\ Th<* fVitlier uml the 
ehilcl, reniierod it iin|ierative to bestuw the Hrst niid rhief rare 
(in them. If Aeneas i> direction t\u\\ Oreusa should keep, not 
merely behind, but far hetiind fL0K<iK sKuxtrr vkstwia conicx), 
excite animadvei^iou, I beg to suggest that it was indispensable 
that the separation should be to some considenible dfstanee, not 
merely in order t<» ensun* its being effectual f<»r the i)urpose 
abnve nientioned, but in order tn nft'oni t/reusa herself the 
chance uf e^cap^', in eas<^ of the niisraniagt' «d' tfmse wIicj lod the 
way. Witfj this acenunt of Aeiieas's loss of C'rensa cmnpare 
tJutlie's not lesi* charming description t>f ^^pimetlleuss loss of 
Pandora, in bis untinislied draniatie piece entitled PintdonL 

Tkmplum VETUSIUM nKsr:izTAE cEKEfiis. — *'Cui»is t*^nipluni fjrat 
desertum velustate ve! h(*lli <iecennalis tempore," Heyne, No; 
Wa^ner^s explanation is the eoirect one: *4)Esertah. nuod 
tenipluni habuit in b»c(> infrequenti.'* The tnith of tliis inter- 
pretation < rested by Wagner snitly an the context, and the 
similar nsr made i>f tin* term desertns by utfier autbfirs (i^eems 
tn he e:*tablished by the testimony of Vitruvins, that j'eligion 
rr*qurred that th»^ temples of Ceres should be hviilt outside the 
walls and in hmeJy situatinns r' Item Cereri, extra urbem loco, 
ipn) nun semper homines, nisi p+^r sa<'iitiriimi, neeesse habeant 
adire"r. iu order, nu doubt (see the EmprTnr Julians Letter to 
Libanitis, Epitil, Mfii. (imet^iH, p. I4K^ tn pay t'eres the e^je- 
cial <'Hmpliment, tinil fjer wnrship should be apart from all 
!WH>ular (HiDcerns, niit perfnimed ctt pa.^sfttfL 

The temple of Ceres mitside lYiiy was thei-efore a tit place 
for the unobserve<l rendozvMns of Aeneas and his part}-; as in 
renl history the temple of Cei'es outside Rimte wa? a Ht place 
for yho (the intendt'd successor tn the enipire) to uait unob- 
served until the c^mspirators should have dGS|mtcbed Nero: 
"" Interim Piso apud acdem Cereris oppeiiretnr, unde enivi 
praeiectus Penins ct ceteri accitum ferrent in cat^tra," Tacit, 
Aitmti to. 53, 

334 A:fiNEIDfiA t^2l-?25 haKc— LooofttJk 



Latos humeros, &c., . . . LEONis. — "Iiistravit Aeneas humeris 
vestem, vestique pellem/' Heyne. 

'^Breit' ich daraiif ein gewand und die Haut des gelblichen lowen." 


Certainly, and for many reasons, not the meaning: (1), because 
Aeneas, about to undertake a perilous flight with his father and 
SACRA on his shoulders, should not load himself with two outside 
coverings when one was sufficient. (2), because Agamemnon, 
issuing out at night, puts on over his tunic only the lion's skin, 
Horn. //. 10, 23: 

icuqi d' fnfiTit Stiff oivoi' btooaro dtouu Xtovro*;, 

and Dolon (7/. 10. 334) only the wolfs skin: 

taaaTo d" txioaiHv (jtvov nohow kvxoio. 

(8), because the lion's skin was the sole (outside) covering of 
Hercules, the rough block out of which courtly Aeneas is hewn. 
Aiicl, (4), because tlie construction by liendiadys, so usual 
with our author elsewhere [compare 9. 806: 

'^dat Niso Mnestheus pel/em horrentesque leonis 

not two objects, viz., a skin and a lion's spoils, but the single 
object, a lion's skin, twice described} affords the unexception- 
able meaning: rug, or cover of lion's skin. 

Vj:ste FULVIQUE PFXLE LEONIS, a ru^ of lion's skin. I say 
rug, not gnnncnt, because* Aeneas represents himself as "super- 
instratus" with it, and sri'KKixsTKKXOR ])oints diivctlv to a rus- 

*2l— ?25 iu>:< — Loroin^Ml 



such as is laid or spread upon a bed. or floor, or hearth, or 
table, or iiorse, not to a ;^armont for the person. Compare 
8il 7 (p, 105) ot Haunihal: 

* . . *Mam membra oubili 
nrigit, ct ftiiri eirr-unidat itrftr^ froniit, 
ijUA MHi/t^r m^trnttis f«roi*^<fus ^rrainin*^ caiJiidt 
presserat ante /wo*," 

where we havu not only the pi'ecise "fulvi ihAU^ leonis'* and 
-superinstemor"' i>f our text, but the double use of the vest 18, 
first HJs a ru^^ to lie ini, and then a.s a wrapper. See Rom. on 
2. 682. 

Vestis, g^enerally, is any onfsit/f covpr, whether of bed. 
table, or person. See Lucret. 2. 34: 

**nec ualidae citius de<5eduiit corporo febres, 
textihbus si in picturi^ ostroque rubenti 
iacteris, *|uain si plf?bcia in rentr cubanduin e^t, 

^f^H. L 64S: 

''ai1a lalxjrata»' rmtes oeitroiiue superbn/' 

Celsus, (ir Mediciim, L 3: *'per antumnuni vero, proptei* caeli 
varietJitem, periculum maximum ej^t Ita{iue neque sine 
nerjue sine calceamenris prodiro uportet/' The corresponding 
Greek term iijua h also applied to the coverings of the tbmr 
or frrounil. carpets, as Aesch, Aijam, ^21: 

Instkrxok, — ^This word, properly applied to the lift/r.-cia or 
jvering of the horse (tlie mndern sadflle-t loth nnd ^inrient 
Idle; compare 7. 277: 

**ins(r(Uo» ostro alj pedes pictisqtie tapetis"j 

sbowB unmistakeably Aenejjss tacit comparison of himself with 
iborse equipped for and receiving his rider on his back. The 
iltusian is continued in succedo oneri, the term snccedere 
being commonly applied to hoi-ses or other animals yoked or 
put to a carriage or other buithen, as 3. 541 : 

**aed tamen ideiu uliin cttrnt sucredctr saeti 
(jimdmpodeH. et IVerin in go rimr'ordia forrft." 

336 AENElDEA [121-126 haec— loCorum 

Sequiturquk patrem non passibus aequis. — The picture pre- 
sented is that of the child in his father's hand, and striving 
to keep up with him; but having shorter legs and taking shorter 
steps, not quite abreast with him, and trotting while the father 
walks. A similar picture, except that both parties are nuining, 
is presented by the words, ^'manu parvum nepotem trahit," 
2. 320. Compare also Stat Tkeb, 5. 441: 

''audet iter niagnique sequens vestigia mutat 
Herculis, et tarda quamvis so mole ferentem 
rix enrsK tcuer aeqnat Hylas." 

Horn. Od. 15. 450: 

xto$(t).tov 6ri JotoVf (c ft (( TOO/ 0) via 'hv()it^f' 
Tov (cyoiu' tni I'/^Os" o $ vinv avQiOP invov 

uXifOt, OTJI] fltOKOtfTf^ '/AiT t().).0'hO00l\- (iP'^()U)710Vy;. 

Sil. 4. 30: 

. . . '^dextra laevaque trahuntiir 
l»aivi, iio)i aequo coniitnutc.s ordinr, nati. 

Val. Flacc. 1. 704: 

. . . •'•acrisona volucer cum Daedalus ora 
prosihiit, iuxtaque contes hrrriorihtts aJis." 

Senec. ad MardatHj 11: ''Hue [ad mortemj omnis ista quae in 
foro litigat, in theatris desidet, in templis precatur turba, dispari 
f/radft vadit'' |/. r., some quicker, some slower, some walking, 
some running]. 

Skquitijr patrem [lulusj: ponk si hit coniux. — lulus has his 
hand in Aeneas's, and sequitur haud passhjus aequjs, goes 
along with Aeneas, keeps company with Aeneas: Creusa alone 
follows behind both. This meaning, viz., to go along with, to 
accompany as an inferior, to follow^ the lead of, without, how- 
ever, being actually behind, is a very common one of sequi. 
See Senoc. Hippo/. 844 (Theseus speaking): 

, . . *'heu, labor quantus fuit 
Phlegethonto ab imo petere longinquum aethera, 
pariterque moi-tem fugere, et Alcidem sequi! '^ 

72l-?25 HAKc— locorum] book II. 337 

Ovid, Amor. 2. 14. 1: 

"quid iuvat immunes belli cessare puellas 
nee fera peltatas agmina velle sequi'' 

[fiot follow behind, hit go along with as inferior]. Ibid. 3. S. 25: 

"discite, qui sapitis, non quae nos scimus iuertes, 
sad trepidas acies et fera castra sequi.'" 

Ovid, Fast. 1. 419: 

"festus inest pulchris, sequtturqvie superbia fonnam." 

And our author himself, Aen. 4. 384: ^^sequar atris ignibus 
absens," where see Rem. The Greeks made a precisely similar 
use of ercead^aiy as Hom. //. 16. 154 (of Acliilles' horse Pedasus): 

og Xiu xhffjTog t(ov, tnfO^ innoig ((d-nvaioiai. 

NoN PASSffius AEQuis, Hot keeping pace mith him. Compare 

Val. Flacc. 3. 485: 

. . . "petit excelsas Tirynthius omos; 
haeret Hylas lateri, joflr^sw^que moratur iniquos^ 

Stat. Tlieb. 11. 321 (of Jocasta): 

"non comites, non ferre ipsae vestigia natae 
aequa valent. tantum miserae dolor ultimus addit 
robur, et exsangues crudescunt luctibus anni." 

Ferimub per opaca locorum. — Opaca, not dark, but only 
shady; not so dark but that one could see the way. Compare 
Plin. Epist. 7, 21: ^'Cubicula obductis velis opaca, nee tamen 
obscura, facio." Also Plin. Epist. 8. 8: "Modiciis collis assurgit, 
antiqua cupressu uemorosus et opacus.'' 

Hionrr, aiwrtora, vol. n. 22 

:^38 AENEiD^A [i?29-769 suspenrum— actus 



VAR. LECT. (vs. 738). 
FATO NE I Pal. U H. Ill Ven., 1471 and 1475; Mod.; R. Steph.; 

P. Manut. 
FATONE II ^\. Ill D. Heins.; N. Heins.; Philippe; Heyne; Pott.; Haupt; 

Wagn. [Lect. Viry. and Praesf.). 

FATO K8T III Peerlk.; Dietsch; Lad. 
FATO Ml III Ribbeck. 

VAE. LECT. (vs. 755). 


ANiMos, siMUL III P. Manut; La Cerda; D. Heins.; N. Heins. (1670); Phil.; 

Heyn.; Brunck; Wakef.; Wagn. led. Heyn.). 
ANIMO, SIMUL I Pal. (ANIMO*- smuL). Ill VoBs; I^d.; Haupt; Wagn. (LeW. 

Virg. and ed. 1861); Ribb. 

SusPENSUM, ^^sollicitum,'' Servius, Heyne. No; suspensum is not 
"sollicitum/' eciiiivalent to mrxious, Htteasy; but su^pendedy hung 
hetweot hopv and fear, and so irresohtfej undecided,, not himving 
whether to go on or .*ito]). See Remni. on 2. 114, and 3. 372. 

Heu! MISEKO, &C., . . . TNCERTUM (vss. 738-740). — ''Ex- 
cusationes istae ad triplex caput reducuntur; aut ad deos et 
fata, quae eripuerunt; aut ad Aeneam, qui non potuit ani- 
madvertere: aut ad Creusam, quae dispaniit subsistens, errans, 
sedens prae lassitudine/' La Cerda. ''Coniux [miht\ misero 


RESEDiT," Heyne: approved of both by Wuuderlich and 
Forbiger. "Musste sie nach dem willen des schicksals stehen 
bleiben, urn von den feinden getodtet zu werden," Lade- 
wig. I agree, however, entirely with Servius: "fato erei*ta 
CREUSA, suBSTiTiTNK ERRAViTXE VIA." Aeueas is Certain of 

* Ribbeck has omitted the point. 

-75fi su&MLNsuM -ai:kah] book li. 


one thing aiid of oiif» thin^ only, viz , that Creusa was miskko 
FATo EREiTA, Hovv it happened tliat she was misero fato ERKin*A 
was entirely unknown to him — reniainfMl wrapt in ohsciirity; 
it might have been that slie luul stop|je4 short, being afraid to 
go on, or that she had miss^ed her way, or that ^he had grown 
weary, and sat down to rest He could nut tell in which of 
these three possible ways it had happened ; but certain it was 
that she had been misero fato erepta. 


FATO, exaetly a^; 10. 668: ^'taiitou' me rrimine dignnm duxisti'' 
- "dnxistine me dignum tanto crimine/' not only fatone and 
"tanton*/' but sunsxiTrr anrl ^'duxisti*' occupying the same 
positions both iu their respective verses and respective st^ntences. 
8ee Rem. on ''Pyrrbin' eonnubia servas?" 8. 319. 


Wunderlich, Do Bulgaris, Wagner. Forbiger, and Conington. I 
have two reasons, however, for thinking that misero certaitily 
belongs to fato, and not to "mihi" understnoil: First, the 
personal pronoun is usually expressed when miser is applied 
to the speaker in the third cas€% as KcL 2, 58: '*heu! heu ! 
quid volui mhero mihi'f'' Aen, 2. 70: *^ ant quid lam misero 
mihi denique restatV" Aen. 10. 849: ''heu! uutic misero 
mihi demum exitium infelix/' Seeing that our author has 
thought it necessary to supply the personal pronoun to*' misero*' 
in tJaese instances, iu which there was uu ambiguity to be 
apprehended from its omission, and yet has not supplied it in 
our text where thei*e was the ambiguity arising from the near 
vicinity of fato, 1 conclude that there is no pronoun at all to 
be supplied, and that the adjective really belongs (as at first 
bright it appears to do) t<> the substantive expressed; compare, 
only tliree lines preceding, 


And nerondly, fato eeeita, imikoui the addition of miskro, 
means died a natural death (see Livy, H, 50: ''quod ad se atti- 
neat, nxorem sibi fafn erepfam;'* also Aeu, 4, 69fJ and Rem.j; 
icitfi the additimi of miseko, fato erecta means died a violent 


340 AENillDfiA ['?29-?59 suspRxsuM—AtmAS 

death, the only kind of death which can be meant by Aeneas. 
Compare Aen, 4. 20: ''ynheri post fata Sychaei." Aen, L 225: 
'^cnuJeJm secum fata Lyci." Aen. 4. 696: 

. . . "peribat 
sed miset-a ante diem subitoque accensa furore.'' 

Defuit (vs. 744), well opposed to venimus; the two words 
of so opposite significations con*esponding exactly to each other, 
not merely prosodiacally, but in emphasis arising from position, 
each being last word of its own clause, first word of its own 
vei*se, and separated by a pauso from the sequel. See Itera. on 
"ora,'' 2. 247. and compare "substitit." 2. 243. 

Et rursus caput obiectare i'ericlis. — Compare Bibl. Sacr, 
[Vulg.] 4. Reiftiui , 25. 27: '* Snidevavit Evilmerodach rex 
Babylonis, anno quo regnare coeperat, caput loachin regis luda 
de carcere." 


less finely of Vitellius: ''In palatium regreditur, vastum deser- 
tumque . . . terrrt solitudo et tomitcs loci.'' Compare also 
Schiller. Bratft ton Mps.sinff: 

'^es schreclU niich selbst das wesenlose schweiyeti' 

Si forte pedem, si forte tui.isset. — Compare Ovid. Hrroid, 

IS. 164: 

'"■sire, quod heu tinieo! aire supei-stes oris.' 

Exsuperant fi.ammae, furit aestus ad auras. — Sec Schiller, 
Wilhetw reft, act 5. sc. 1: 

''die ilamme prasselnd schon zuin hiinmel schlug." 

Auras, the sky; exactly as Ect. 1. 57: 

"hinc alta sub nipo canet frond ator ad anra^sr' 

and Claud. Bapt. Bros. p. 199: ''quid inc^stis aperis Titanibiis 
anm^?'^ in both which passages ''auras" is the sky; in the 
former, as in our text, literally and simply the sky, in the latter 
the sky figuratively, /. e., the upper world, on which the sky 
looks down and shines, as contrasted with the lower world to 

769-779 iMPLEVi— oLYMi'i] BOOK II. ;m | 

which the Titans are condemned and on which the »ky ncvor 
looks down or shines. Compare also Ovid, 10. 17H: 

'M|uem prius at^rias libratuni PiiooImM in aurnH 
misit. et oppositas dLsiecit ponden; iiuli<?H;'* 

and Val. Flacc. 6. of): 

. . •• tandem dulces iam r;a«HUH in aunin 
respicit, ac nulla caelum reparabiii; ^aza/' 

in the former of which passages "auras/' simply and liu*rally 
the sky, is repeated with a slight variation in ••niiht*s/' and in 
the latter of whicii passages "auras/' simply and literally the 
sky, is repeated with a similar sli^it variation in "<'aelum." 

l^iU iiu. 

•MPJ.KVl — ijlAHi'l 

Imflevj . . . v«.M. avj - O.'jjjj^n-' Orph<^u^ <aiJin^ 'ju Kury<ii<X' 
in the fourth ^ff^»'r^i' . and yojMt't- tin*- iujilatiou f/fjU: on St. 

Cecilia K Ikiy : 

••£urydi'>. tjj* w^/A^. 

I'XEcmAE. lust variaTi«»!j: \fn . .tiAioK j.\ia<v.». NirxxMid variation. 

SnrrLA<.'Ki'M- ///>'//'>>. ////'^y^. f^ji^ -yu^iU . nixhin^ luor*-. ^'ouu- 
pare f 'ioep'. iU Jurtui, Kh*l. J. ] «»f Z«*UAi^ : "JHenae be 
pill|2?ere ^^iiutdtifrum N»'!l» dj>. It. 

Et .V'-Ha AiAi'T :>:;»<•'•. Jt i> rii*r •»"lii..i«.i»«rV t«-j«i luaiie."- tiie 
:rb<»rit appear iurirei *lian ilt»- 'Wy- v^\>\ lixin^ KMn«*ialda. lalw»HJ 
fc«r ber <»wii ^tios? t»\ '.'iaudfr >n-»ll". appeiin.-d t*.* be al>ove bw 
u»aaJ sixe. Vi«M'.r Huiio. :Vo»r JMiw*, V. 7 "KIU' lui parut plut^ 
^rafide ij»^ jurNijii '♦*!»♦ \ivait." T<' a not \Hrv dinrtiiuilar f«^tu' 

342 ABNEIDEA [769 779 iMPLEvn— olymi»i 

is, no doubt to be traced the notion of the supeiior size of the 
^ods, if not, with Lucretius, the very notion of gods. 

Src AFFART, theme; curas his demkre dictis, variation. 

''Fas, fatuiH ; 'non fatum. nee interpres fati, lupiter/'' 
Wagner (Praest.), following Heiiisius. And so Forbiger, who 
adds: ''Cetoruni ad fas noii supplenduni verbum est, sed iungen- 
dum FAS siNiT." So also Voss, Thiel, and Conington. Neither 
the meaning of fas, nor the structure. (1), not the meaning 
of fas, for how would that meaning answer for Sinon, where 
he says, verse 157: 

"/«« mihi Graionim sacrata resolvere iura, 
fas odisse viros, atque omnia ferre sub auras, 
si qua tegunt"? 

How would it answer for Aeolus where he says to Juno, 1. 81 : 
'Mnihi iussa capessere /«.s est?" How would it answer, verse 
402, for ''heu nihil invitis fas quenquam fidere divis?" or for 
8. 55, where Polymnestor 

^^fas omne abrumpit, Polydorum obtruncat, &c..'' 

or how would it answer in any one of the numerous places in 
which our author has used the word? No, no: fas is here as 
everywhere divine .sanction, pernmsion, license, and differs from 
licet only in being more solemn and refen'ing always to the 
permission granted by laws above human. While fatum is 
positive and obligatory, fas is permissive and optional; wliile 
fatum is what must happen, fas is what may. So far, there- 
fore, from fas being equivalent to fatum. it is as directly 
opposed to it as permission is to obligation, as may to must. 
To do anything except according to fas involved responsibility 
and punishment, to do anything except according to fate was 
impossible. The relation of fas was to the innocence or guilt 
of the ai't in tlie eye of heaven, the rehition of fatum was to 
the pliysical occurrence. The same act could therefore be. and 
in the (tase of every great crime actually was, at one and the 
same time contrary to fas and according to fatum; ex, yr,, 
Polymnestor murdering Folydorus "abrumpit i)mne fas," while 
he is all the time only fulfilling fatum. (^SJj, nor is the striic- 

769-779 uiPLKVi— oLYMPi] BOOK II. 343 

tui-e FAS sixiT, because the sinit, the periuissiun, the hiwtulness. 
is contained in the very notion fas. In other words, it is im- 
possible for FAS to p^Tmit, fas itself being permission. The 
structure is fas est, exactly as the structure is "fas est" both 
at verse 157 and vei-se 158, (|Uoted above: as it is "fas est," 
Geary. 4. SoH: '*'fns illi limina divum tangere." ait:'' and as 
it is "fas est," 4. 850: "et nos fa^s extera (juaerere regna." Xor 
is FAS est only the true structure, it is also the emphatic : 
the pause after fas throwing a very strong <*mph<'isis on that 
word (see Rem. on 2. 247). while, on the contrary, the struc- 
ture fas SLvrr furnishes us with a sing-s^^ng line in which there 
is no prominent or emphatic word. Xor is the structure <inly 
the most emphatic: it affords als<j the most elegant line and 
most according to our author's iLsual manner^j K4.*m. on '^.2): 
fas and act illk sixrr superi uv/is atoh olympi not Inking two 
permissive authorities, fate and fate's interpreter. Jupit«*r. but 
one permissive authority only. viz.. Jupit^/r. the |K;nniHsion 
being expressed in fa.<. and more fully explained and s<?t out 
in ILLE sixrr slpeki KE*iNATOK OLVMPi: in other words. y\s being 
the theme, of whirh iixk simt svvkui uvjiswm olvmpi is the 
variation. iSee Rem. on 1. 550. r If I may us^; a very fami- 
liar illustration. Cn.*usa r>ay.- to Afiicdn, "you are not Mowtnl. 
Jupiter will not permit it." a> a little sister '^lys to her little 
brother, or a little s^ho^-^l^rirl to a littK- ■^'h^>';I^M;y. -you are 
not allowefl to do that: papa or the master; will \pt: anynj at 
you." See Rem. on -fata ol/stant." 0, \^H, and on "imrnortale 
fes," 9. 95. 

344 ABNEIDEA [781-784 kt— chkusae 



Ubi lydius, &c.— Comp. Schiller, Wilhelm Tell, act 2, rc. 2: ''wo 
jetzt die Miiotta zwischen wiesen rinnf 

Arva OPIMA. — ^^ Terra fertilis," Donatus. "Fruitful fields," 
Surrey. No; opimus is not fniitful, but i?i prime conditUm; 
in that condition, sciz., of which fruitfulness is the consequence. 
Land is opima {in prime cmidition, or of the best quality) 
before it bears, and even before the seed is put into it; it is 
not fruitful until it bears. Accordingly, both adjectives are 
applied by Cicero (de imp. Pomp. 6) to one and the same land: 
'^regio opima et fertiUs;'' and the opima akva of Virgil are 
exactly the uteiQa aQoi-Qa of Homer, //. 18. 541; Od, 2, 328, 
and the 7cuiQa of Find. Nem. 1. 14: 

(coiGTfvoiaar tvxuijTiov yjhn'0<; 

Opimus has precisely the same meaning when applied to ani- 
mals: viz., in prime condition; not, as incorrectly stated by 
Gesner, and even by Forcellini, fat (pinguis); fatness being 
only one of the qualities necessary to entitle an animal to be 
styled opimus. This primitive sense of opimus (to which its 
meanings in the expressions spolia opima, opima facuu- 
dia, &c., are but secondary), is expressed in French by the 
phrase ''en bon point." 

Uryden has had his reward with the English reader for 
giving himself no trouble about such niceties, but substituting 
at once, for the Yirgilian thought, whatever idea, suited a4 
captum iiil<fi, came fii*st into his mind; 

Till 784 n 

!*;i »ak] 


** where gentle Tiber from his >>ed Ijeliolds 
the tlowen^ meadows and the feeding folds.' 

Virgti is iiinofeDt of all 1>ut t!ie first tlin^e words. 

ARVA IKTEFC 0PLV1A V[fiL,M. — Wltll HoVM I refer VIHLM to 

4UV4, and not with Biiniianii aitd Forniliui to ui'ima: ill 
because Tire:il uu the other nirasions *m which lie has used 
Tjie word upimus. has used it ahsuhitely. (2i, heraiise opiiiius 
in the forty examples of its use (juoted by the industry of 
ForeelUni stands absolute in thirty -eight, and only in two is 
eouneeted with a ease, which ease is not the genitive, but the 
ftblative, {Si because, even though it had been tiie [jrariire of 
Virgil, or of other good authors, tn joiu npiious to the geni- 
tive, tiie phmsc opima virum were neither elegant nor poetic, 
and had besides not failed to reral to a Konnin reader or hearer 
the "segctes virornm** of Cadniuis, than which no allusion couhi 
ha ve bee n rn ore mai-a -propos — M a u i I 3 . 8 : 

•'Colchida nee teferam vendeuiem regna paientis, 
et lacerum tnitrt5m stupro. ^c^jeivmine rirontm, 
taurorum(|ue tiuces llaininttH, vtgilemque diaconem. ' 

i4i, bt^'HUse OPIMA, taken absolutely, is in perteet unison witii 
the plain intention of the apparition, viz., to reeonimend Het;- 
peria to Aeneas: taken in t^onnexion with vihcm, eontradiets 
that intentiuiL, a ex>nnti'y being the less eligible to new sottlers, 
in the direct ratio in w^hieh it is already opima vikum, iS^l 
be*:au8e w^e have iAeit. 10, 14! w 

. , . 'ubi |>ingiua culta 
idXercentque viri, l^acfolo.sfiiie irrigat .auro," 

Sere niit only the strueture. rhytlnu, and thought correspond 
rith those of our text, hut even the separate word — "ubi'' being 
the sarae in both* and "pinguia" answering to opima. '^culta" 
to arva, "viri" to virum, *'Paetolos'' to typhis, and "irrigat'' 
to Fixrr And. (tfi, because in the ai'eiumt of the fulfilment 
iif the prophecy, s. (iij nvliei^^ we cannot but suppose our text 
wiui present in a Hvely manner to our author's inindl it is 
**pinguia t:ulta." 

AuvA viHL'M, m '*saecula viruni/' ^/ro/v/. 2. 295, 


346 AENEIOEA [781-784 kt— ckeusae 

Lkm FLiiT AJiMiNK. — It is difficult to (leteriniiio in which of 
three possible senses '•agnien" is here to be understood; whether 
in the sense of a body consisting of several parts and in motion, 
or in the sense of a body consisting of several parts, considered 
absti-actedly from its motion, or in the sense of the motion of 
a body considered abstractedly, no matter whether consisting 
of several parts or not. 

If in the first of these senses, we have the picture presented 
to us of the innumerable waters which make up the Tiber stream 
marching quietly and in good order through the country, the 
very picture, only less detailed, which we have at 9: 25, of the 
Ganges and Nile: 

**iamque oinnis cami>is exercitus ibat apertis 

ceu septom surgens sedatis amuibus altus 
per taciturn Ganges, aut pingui flumine Nilus 
cum refUiit campis et iam se condidit alveo.' 

If in the second sense we have the same pii'ture, the motion of 
the compound body, the ''agmen" being expressed not as in 
the former case twice, viz., both by A(iMiNK and by fluit, but 
by Fi.uiT alone. If in the third, we have no longer the picture 
of the waters composing the river, but only of the river alone 
flowing with gentle march, as Steph. Byz. (of the river Parthe- 
nius): ()ia to i^Qiuaiov /Mt /caQihvcjdeg ror ^er/i«foc 

It is in the last of these senses, as the simplest, I think our 
author has used the expression vtiMiXK in our text; and Servius 
is right in his gloss: "i.eni A(iML\K, leni impetu '^ Compare 
2. 212: ^'lUi (Ujnnne certo I^iocoonta petunt,'' where ''agmine 
certo" is .sure and ste/tdt/ march, and where Servius is again 
right in his gloss, ''itinere, impetu." See Rem. on 2. 212. That 
AdMiNE in our text, no less than at vei-se 212 of this book, refers 
to motion only, and not at all to composite nature or aggrega- 
tion, is shown further by the application by Silius, 14. 442, of 
agmen to the motion of a simple uncompounded body: 

. . . '*tremulo vouit ay mi tic cormiti, 
et Neptunicolae transverberat om Telonis." 

785-802 non-wem] BOOK II. 347 

DiLECTAE, not merely loreih but lorvd hij choice or preference. 
An exact knowledge of the meaning of this word enables us to 
obsene the consolation which Creusa ministei*s to hei-self in the 
delicate opposition of dilectae creusae to regia oomi:x parta. 



VAR. LECT. (vs. 7U4). 

soMXO 1 Med, (Fogg.) Ill Serv.; Von. 1470; Aldus (loUi; l\ Manut. 

FUMO III Macrob. Sat. 4. .5; Manil. 1. 82*2; Wakefield. Compare Acn. 
5. 740; Georg. 4. 4U9. 

Vat.. Rom., Ver., Sf. Gail. 

Nox EGO . . . ni:rls. Compare Shakespeare. Anton, and (leop., 
act 5, sc. 2 (Cleopatra speaking): 

. . . *'know, sir, that 1 
will not wait pinioned at your master's court, 
nor once be chastised with the sober eye 
of dull Octavia. Shall they hoist me up. 
and show me to the shouting varlotry 
of censuring Rome?" 

NoN EGO .\spiciam, aut ibo: just as 3. 42: **non Troia tulit, 
nut cruor hie manat." In both of these places our modern 
idiom would use (as Shakespeare, in the passage just quoted) 
the negative not the affirmative conjunction. 

Haec UBi mciw, &c LMAno ivss. 790-7}),-^): 

"this having said, she left me all in tears, 
and minding much to speak; but she was gone, 
and subtly tied into the weightless air. 
Xhrice raught I with mine arms to accoll her neck; 

'MS AENEIDEA [785-802 Nox-niKii 

thrice did my hands' vain hohi the image escape, 

like nimble winds, and like the flying dream. 

So, night spent out, return 1 to my feres: 

and there, wondenng. 1 find together swarmed 

a now number of mates, mothers, and men; 

a rout exiled, a wret(died multitude, 

from eacli-where flock together, prest to pass 

with heart and goods to whatsoever land 

by sliding seas me listed them to h?ad. 

And now rose Lucifer above the lidge 

of lusty Ide, and brought the dawning light; 

the (Greeks held tlie entries of the gates beset: 

of help there was nu hope. Then gave 1 i)lace, 

took up my sire, and hasted to Ww hill.'' 

Such are the concludiiiju* words of Surrey's translation of the 
second book of the Aeneid; such the sweet, chaste voice, which 
the bloody axe of an obscene and ruffian kin^ silenced for ever, 
at the age of thirty— "diis aliter visum." And this, let the 
reader observe, is blank verse in its cradle; before it has acquired 
the sinewy strength, the? manly dignity, the high, chivalrous 
port, of Shakespeare and Milton. Let him, further, conipai^e 
these lines with the corrospondin*:- rlnjntrs of Ih'yden, and then 
hear ^vith astonishment (ast(»nisjunent at the une(jual rewards 
of human deservin^nm that Surrey's biographer i Ur. Xott) deems 
it praise to compare him with that coai*se and reckless writer; 
and that Dr. »Johnson, and evcMi Milton, was so little aware, 
not of his merits only, but almost of his existence, that the 
former writes in his lif«' of Milton, ''The Earl of Surrey is said 
|/n said!] to have translated one of VirgiFs books without 
rhyme;*' and the latter (Preface to Parfulisc Lost) claims for 
his great poem the (perhaps) only praise to which it is not en- 
titled, that it is ''the first example in English of ancient liberty 
recovered to heroic poem from the troublesonn^ and modern bond- 
age of rhymin;:." Whotjver wishes to know more of Surrey 
"of the deathless lay," and has not access to Dr. Nott's Life of 
him, will find a passing mention of him in Fitztravei*s' song in 
the Lay of the Last Minstrrf, when^ Sir W. Scott only too little 
admires and pities the unhappy youth, only too little execrates 
the siivage English Commodus (Cant. (>. 20); 

78^1-8(12 Nos— liiioil 

BUUK 11. 


'"thim jealous, nithlosii tjTant! Heaven repay 

ou thet\ and on thy cluldren's latest line, 
the wild ciprice ot thy despotic sway, 

the gory !>ridal bed, the plunder d shrine, 
the mtirdpr'd Sun'ey*^ blood, the tenrs of ftoraldine!*' 

DE-SEnriT (791k— Observe tbe teoder jepruaeh cuntaiiied iJi 
this wiird: observe, also, that it is spoken, not of Creusa (on 
whom the exquisite jiulgnient of the poet is careful not to 
throw even the sba<!ow of an imputation), but of the appari- 
tion, against which it falls liantiless, while at the same titne it 
expi^esses the bereavement of Aeneas, and his affection towards 
his wiff*. a^ strongly, nay nmro strongly, rfiRO if it had been 
t^poken direi-tly of Creusa heiNelf How the word niust havo 
Hounded in tbe eai's of Dido! DKSERt^iT, deserted; therefore 
h»ft him free to form a new attachment. 

Tkr conatus ibi colt.0 n.uiE bracbu rtRcrM, &e. — Compare 
^pjint*. Pttrgat, 2, 80: 

ti'e volte dietro a lei le mani avviosi, 
e tunte mi tornai eon esse al petto. " 

Different but no less strikini?, ivi less affectionate, is the cogDatc 
thought of Saint Ambrose, (*'De exoessii frati-is sui Satyri," 
1 19): ''0 amplexus miseri, inter f|Uos exanimtim corpus obri- 
guit, halitus suprenujs evanuit! stringebam *]uidein bnicbhi, sed 
iani perdidei*ara quem tenebam." 

The Dart'deLs, that wild, unequal, and iiTegidar, but highly 
poetic, effusion of the neglected Cowley, is a paraphrase, and in 
many places almost a translation, of the two fiivt hooks of tin* 
Aeneid. The Lntrm of Boileau i^^qui fait d'un vain pupitre 
un second Ilion," Litintty c. 1) is a very elegant, witty and 
amusing parody of the sec^ond, 

Opmrs (vs. 799k— No English word, perhaps, comes so near 
to tbe iiBe of opes as means. The word is used in precisely 
the same sense, L 575: 

*'attxilio tiitos dimittam, opihtmi^^ invabo," 

id L 367 (wliere see Rem/): ''purtjmtur avari Pygmalionis opeft 
"pelago." In all rbe three places opes is the money, clothes, 

8S0 AEKElBfiA [t86-802 non— Dfaai 

provisions, furniture, guides, and means of transport, and appli- 
ances of all kinds, necessary for a long journey ; and in two of 
the places, viz., in our text and at 1. 367, not only for a long 
journey, but for founding a colony at the end of the journey. 

DucEBAT DIEM (vs. 802) is a ti'anslation, no doubt, of the 
preceding Lucifer, or (pcoaipoQog. 

The compliment which Lucifer paid to the sun every morn- 
ing, thus ushering him in and introducing him to the world, 
was duly paid back by the sun to Hesperus every evening, 
Eurip. Ion, 1148 (ed. Fix): 

171 nov^ ufv rihtvv f^ ThkfvTtutcv (f ).oyi( 

liklOs, mhlxtm* Xu^HQOV rMJIhOOV 1f(Ws. 





Kes AsiAE. — Res, thus used in the sense of power, is a literal 
translation into Latin of the Greek TtQay/naza, as Herod. 1. 46: 
Metitt de ?/ ^atvayeio xov Kva^aQiio r^y£f^ovnl AavaiQed^aiaa 
vno KvQOv Tov Ka^fivaeio Aai xa viov Tltqattov 7CQriyinaTa 
ccv^POfieva . . . where nqr^yfAaict is power. 

CBCiDrrguE superbum, &c., . . . — Troia, a repetition not only 
in thought, but in expression and structure, of 2. 624: 

•'turn vero omne iiiihi visum oonsidere in ignes 
Ilium, et ex imo verti Ncptunia Troia.' 

In both places '^ Ilium," owing to its position (see Rem. on 2. 

247), is emphatic, and '*Neptunia Troia'' is its complement. 

The structure is, if I may so say, Virgil's habitual structure. 

Compare 2. 778: 

. . . '^UHC te hinc comitem asjiortare Creusam 
/iw, aut ille sinit superi reynai/)r Olympi,'' 

where see Rem. 


852 AENEIDEA [I 4 i-ost^uam— tkrras 

DivEiiSA EXiLiA. — ''Miilti ad illud referunt: 'magnum quae 
sparsa per orbem.' Constat namque diversas orbis partes tenuisse 
Troianos, ut Helen us et Antenor: sed melius est speeialiter hoc 
Aeneae dare, qui compulsiis auguriis est diversas terras, hoc 
est in diversa regione [codd. h. e. e. i-eg.] positas quaerere,'' 
Serv. (ed. Lion). ''* Diversa exilia, deserbie terrae,' pro terris 
novis ac diversis, longinquis, inhabitandis," Heyne. ''Feme 
verbannungen/' J. H. Voss. ''DrvERSA, longinqua, longe remota/' 
Gossrau. '' Diversa exiua, positum in oontraria parte orbis 
terrarum exilii locum," Wagn. (1861). ^Diversa, widely re- 
moved from Troy," Conington. 

The essence of this, the first, or as it may be called, the 
Servian interpretation of the passage, is that only one exile is 
spoken of, and that that exile is in a remote or contrary part 
of the world from Troy. The interpretation is false in both its 
pai-ts, (1), because, in no one of the other six-and-thirty in- 
stances of our author's use of the term, is di versus applied to 
a plural expressive of a single conception, but in every instance 
either to a singular expressive of a single conception, or to a 
plural expressive of plurality; (2), because it i-cmains yet to be 
shown tiiat in any one of tliese six-and-thirty instances the term 
is used in any other than its well-established sense of differe^it, 
dirers, diverse — the two latter words being neither more nor 
less than diflerent, ditens English forms of the identical Latin 
word, viz., divers- us. Let not the reader be alarmed. I am 
not going to drag him through the thirty -six instances, only 
through one of them, and to ask him w^hether he requires to be 
informed more explicitly tiian ho is informed by the ''septem" 
of (ieonj. 4. 202, that the "diversa ora'' there spoken of are not 
one single mouth in a remote or contrary part of the world, but 
difterent, divers mouths, mouths opening in different directions, 
divergent. And, (51), on account of the exact parallel, Liv. 
42. 8: "post banc pugnam, ex dirersa fuga in unum collecti 
Ligures. quuni niaiorem partem civiuni amissam quam super^ 
esse cernorent . . . dediderunt sese," where any doubt that 
''divei*sa fuga" can by possibility be anything else than flight 
in diffevpHt directionsj scattered fiyhtj is removed by the ju«;t 




preceding ^'inde terror iniectus Ligiiiibus: diversi in omDes 
partes tiigenmt/' The divrrsa kxima of our text is therefore 
to b^ undei'stoud fn»t as mininiiifir one lar **xilo. but as meaiiiiiju 
iUffereut, divei-s exiles. 

What, then? What are tlitNo ilivui-s, these ditiemiit, exiles? 
Are they, witli Cyjithius Ceiieteiisis, Aern^as's own exiles, the 
successive exiles of Aeneas and his purty ?— "Diversa exiua: 
&xilia Aeneae haec fueruot. Xani Aeneas venit in Chersoiie- 
Bum , Tliraciani , Macedouiain . A readiani . Cytheram , Cretam, 
Spirum, Sicilian! et Afneani/' 1 think not. DesertaS t^irras 
eing, as I shall by-and-by shuw, not wwy specific deseit lands, 
3ut the desert lauds of exile generally, iuvi-irsa kxuja are nut 
any specific exiles, are not Aeneas 's own several special exiles. 
they ai-e divei-s exiles generally, the divers exiles, the, if I may 
so s«ty, divergent exiles from a central point, whicfi are tlit* usual 
lot of the coufjueretl natitiO. and whirli were im the present ocea- 
sion the lot of the '"gens Dan Ian ia/' scattered over the wide 
wurld ("magnum tiuae spai-sa per orhem"); and the *'multi'* 
of Servius led. Lioni ("Multr ad illud retV^rnnt: nmgnnm (|uae 
sparse per orberu'''> are. as they so ufh*n are, nearer light than 
eitlier Ser\ins himself or Cynthius, The.twn indetinite plurals, 
iLXiUA and tkrrvs, are thus perfectly in place, the two clauses 
of the vei-se tally, and each predicate whilst it r»»fers directly 
to its uwn subject has a ccrtjiiii indirect reteretuje tt» the sub- 
ject of the uther predicate, the exiles being not only divei's 
at desert, and the lands not only desert but divers. 
In whichever way, however, we interpret rli(^ passage, there 
is, as so often hapix-ns in passages nf \'irgih a defect in it. If 
the ordinary interpretiitiun be adupted: if r>rvEitsA exiija be 
understood to be the precise distant exile, and oenektas terras 
the precise desert land for wfneh Aeneas is bound, wliethej- 
Hciiperia ur any other precise place nf destinatiun; ur if with 
Cynthius Cenetcnsis divefjsa exuja and OEsEitrvs terf^as are 
Aeneas*s sueeessive attempts at settlement, huw cumes it that 
tliere is im notice whatever taken ^A^ any nf the nther fugitives 
from the great city of Troy? How runies it that we hoar ni» 
word of any one ssm-viviug the fall bulh id the empire and 


854 AENEIDBA [1-4 postquam— tirras 

citadel of Priam except Aeneas and his party, not one word 
of those relics of the vast ruin which are to be scattered over 
the whole world? — those relics of which Aeneas himself ex- 
pressly informs Dido at his fii-st interview that he and the 
Trojans with him formed but an insignificant moiety: 

'*non opis est nostrae, Dido, nee quicquid ubique est 
gentis Dardaniae magnum quae sparsa per orbem." 

stood of the ultimate settlement or of the various attempts at 
settlement of Aeneas and his party, is but a meagre apodosis 
for the grand and imposing protasis: 


It on the other hand, diversa exllia and oesertas terras are 
different exiles and (difFerentj desert lands, and — not Aeneas 
and his party only, but — all the survivors of Troy form the 
subject of AGiMUR, we have indeed a more worthy apodosis, and 
the three grand fii*st verses remind us less of the mountain in 
labour, but we have almost instantly afterwards the fugitives 
limited to Aeneas and his party, and the apodosis, of so good 
promise in divkksa exilia et desehtas quaerkre terras, shrunk 
like a Miltonic devil all at once into a pigmy. 

The defect— not, so far as I see, to be remedied by any 
conceivable interpretation —must only be acquiesced in like any 
other of tlie numerous defects of the work — most of them defects 
from which no work of the magnitude, and especially no work 
left without the last touches of the master— can ever be expected 
to be entirely free. It is our part, if we are wise, to enjoy 
the good without being put out of humour by the inevitable 
admixture of bad; and, regarding the Aeneid in the light of a 
friend, relative, or sweetheart, 

'M)e to its faults a little blind, 
and to its virtues very kind;'" 

and accompany all the fugitives from Troy iis far as the sea- 
shore on their way to divers desert exiles, but on the seashore 

1—4 POSrQl'AS*— tKBRASJ 

Book: iil 


attach oui-seives to Aeneas and go witli him unly across tho 
deep — 


CUM socna natoque, pknatibus bt maoots dir. 

Besertas. — Tlie commentators have vexed themselves about 
the meaning of this word: '*Dksertas autem a Dardano accipe. 
Nam ubique laudantur, et uberes eas esse legimus, ut (1. 531): 
'atque uhere gkhaey'' Serving (ed. Lion), CyntJi. Cenetena, and 
Wagoer (ed. Heyn.). To this, as usual, too literal and matter- 
of-fact interpretation the objection of Dietsch is, as I think, 
unanswerable: ^'quas qui desertas ab Dardano, Troianae gentis 
auctore, intellexernnL, Senrius etWagnerns, secum non reputasse 

.videntur rjuantopere 8agacitate ant potius diviuatione Didouis 
et Cartha^iniensium confideret Aeneas^ si eos tenere putaret 
quae nonduju commemorasfiet, et nisi ab Apolline cognovisaet, 
ipse, Daixlani progenies, ignoraret "— an objection no less appli- 
cable to, and no less conclusive against, Servius's still more 
strange and untenable aiifer: "aut tptas ft hnutmtts H de^ 
ReruimuSf ut Cretain et Thraciam/' 

Next in order comes the interpretation of Voss: ''^desertae 
terrae* sind aus dem dunklen orakelspniche entJehnt wo sie 
ode lander zu heissen scheinen, und nur vom Dardanus ver- 
laBsen heigsen,'* which it will be time enough to confute when 
Ibe **diinkel orakelspruch '* *'wo sie ode lander zu heissen 
lieinen ** is produced. We liave next the second or improved 
nterpretation of Wagner «1H61|: ^^Auguria quae Troianis 
obtigerant ita interpretabantur ut oinnino statuerent TKaaA^s 
quasdam diversas ac desertajs petendas esse," where the com- 
mentator, smarting under the castigation of Dietsch C'qu&a 
qui/' &c„ above) crie«: ''peceati: d1':sertas is not 'desertas a 
Dardano'; it is desertas. Aenerts and his companions under- 
stand themselves to be sent by tl)e auguries of t>ie godt* in uearch 
of DESfcaiTAS TEaiiAS.*' Of the amount and value of thifi mfor- 

juation let the reader judge for himself. Then comes Bibbeck'ft 
funding '"Novas sedes in desertae pahiae vicem in alia patria 
quaerere;'* and tlien Heyne's so much nearer approacli tu \\\v 
truth (1 mean, of course, to what I conceive to be the* trutiii 

356 AElNEiDElA [1-4 vostquam— tbMuls 

than any of those yet mentioned: "Poeta hoc unum agit ut 
miserationem moveat" So much nearer, 1 say, for even the 
explanation of Heyne is still far from the truth, inasmuch as to 
excite sympathy by a knowingly false representation had been 
unworthy of the poet, and still more unworthy of the hero (who, 
it will be observed, and not the poet, is the speaker), and is not, 
in fairness, to be ascribed to either, unless in the case that an 
explanation more honourable to one or other or both is not to 
be arrived at. What, then? Has Ladewig at last arrived at 
that explanation? Does Aeneas formally contrast the home he 
has just lost with that in store for him. the former glowing in 
the bright colours res asiak, priami gentem, supehbum ilium, 
XEPTUNIA TRoiA, the latter deep in the shade of diversa exiua 
and DESERTAS TERRAS? — '^ Desertas TERRAS. So crscheiut dem 
scheidenden Aeneas die neue heimath im gegensatz zu dem 
innig geliebten superbum ilium," Ladewig. Impossible; he does 
not even so much as know where he is going— 


How could he who has no fixed destination, who does not know 
whither the fates may bring him, where they may allow him to 
stop, designate his new home as desert in comparison of that 
whicii he has left? He could not. and does not do so. The 
*4errae dosortae" of which he speaks are not those of his new 
home — he ha.s no new iitmie — they are those of exile generally, 
the desert lands of exile, the exile's desert lands. It is not with 
a petty contrast of the old home of Aeneas and his companions 
with the new home which the fates have provided for them, and 
for which they are bound, the poet commences his third book; 
it is with the retrospect, in a few words, of the great events of 
the preceding book — the overthrow of the Asiatic kingdom and 
entire stock of Priam, the fall of proud Ilium, and the smoking 
from the ground of all Neptunian Troy, followed by the prospect 
before the survivors of dispersion and lonely exile. The notion 
of home, of the home lost for ever, has been entirely omitted; 
that was too touching a note not to be struck by the poet, and 
we have it, not here either in res asiae, or priami gentem, or 

I -4 WST^i lUai — T KHU\ ^ J 


siTPERBi[7M njuM, or NEPTUNiA TRoiA, biit seven lines later, in its 
proper place, at the actual parting: 


Ef cAiiK)« vm rmu Ftnr, 

with the superadd itiou of the character under which home was 
left, viz. that of an exile ; and not merely that of an exile, but, 
before, that of an exile without specitii' destination: ttiat uf an 
ile who had yet to find oat a new hunie to replace tjie old — 
FBROR EXTJL i:n altcm, as if he had said: *^away to the wide 
deep, an exile/' And thenV what then? out on the wide deep 
he makes, of course, immediately for Hesperia? For from it. 
-It is for Thi-ace he makes, and thore he begins to build, and is 
only very sorry when he finds the gods' auguries do not allow 
him to remain, but send him back the very way he came. B»it, 
at least, he then steers direct for Hesperia, liis appointed dci*. 
tiny, that Hesperia wliich, in comparisnn of tlin home he Um 
left, he expects to find so '"deserta?'' Not one word of it He 
is totwlly at a loss, does not know wliither in the world to turn, 
and in his perplexity goes to ask the oi-acle in Deloi*: 

"da propriam. Thytnbraee, domum; da mcmim fefiHtft^ 
ef genus et man?iiratti arbem ,...,.,, 

rjuem se<|ttinittr? tjaore ire iube«i* tibi ponen! ntnioHf * 

•Sent by the answer of the oracle in (leareh of hia ancient mother 
r'antifjuam exquiriie niatrera*'), not even then doaa be ao much 
guess it IS Uespeha he is sent U*; on the contrary, guesses it 
iiust be Crete, and bearing accidentally that the c/>ahtjt of (Jrete 
are clear rdeeerta," our ver>^ word), and th<^refoi^ Crete the 
precise place for settlers, aets off without moi^ ado for Cr<*ie, 
and besins to bnild tbere — • 

, . . ^avtdos mnrMi of»tatA0 molior nrUn, 

boreor §mmm tocm, wrmm^w attoPiw U oHi » '* 

and contiaaea to bitiM, and eiilabll«h himself tbeiv, till tbe viai- 
tation i»f ar pestileiir^* rnaken him dotibl be la in the righl (kix; 
utid, adriMed by Aociiiscs, be ia tiii cbe Kury pi/iut *if r«ftumiiig 

358 ABNEtDEA t^-^ postquam— tsteAS 

all the way to Deles to inquire more particularly of the. Made: 

^^quam fessis linem rebus ferat; unde laborem 
temptare auxiliuzn iubeat; quo vertere cursus/' 

when he is saved the trouble by the apparition of the Penates to 
him in his sleep, who inform his total ignorance, in the ideritical 
teiins in which the total ignorance of Dido is informed by Dio- 
neus in the first book, that there is a certain place the Gieeks 
call Hesperia, an ancient country, warlike and fruitfiil, onoe 
cultivated by the Oenotrians, and now called by the present 
inhabitants Italy; and add that this is the proper plaoe foi: 
them, the placo whence Dardanus and lasius came, and they 
would be obliged to him to bring them thither— information 
which calls forth the remark of Anchises that he had never 
heard the name either of Hesperia or a kingdom of Italy men- 
tioned by anyone except Cassandra, whose ravii^ nobody 
minded. But as those then supposed ravings had since turned 
out to be oracles, he would recommend Phoebus's advice to be 
followed, and Hesperia soai-ched for immediately. 

Hesperia, therefore, neither at their setting out from Troy 
nor up to this time had so much as once entered into the minds 
of the Trojan fugitives; and there can by no possibility be either 
comparison of it with Troy, or allusion of any sort to it in the 
word DRSERTAS, wliich becomes therefore, and as a matter of 
course — not to speak of its being in the plural, and from that 
circumstance even alone more probably general and ind^nite 
than particular — descriptive of exile, and desertas terras the 
logical predicate of exilia. But Aeneas was expressly told all 
about Hesperia by the shade of Creusa at the close of liie first 
book, and just before leaving Troy? No doubt; but the con- 
clusion to be thence deduced is not that desertas refers to ^t 
Hesperia announced by Creusa to Aeneas — for that neither 
Hesperia nor other tixed goal is in his mind at all is placed 
beyond all doubt not only by the immediately subjoined 


but by the whole narrative of his wanderings— ^b«t the con- 
clusion to be thence deduced is that the narrative of the third 

a — AR1tK8TF> 



book iti uieonsisteot with and CAntradietory to the naiTattve of 
the sci^ond — an inconsistency and contradiction affordiuj^, along 
with some others of a like kind, a better ground than the in- 
t'c»mpleteii6fis t*f a few individual verses, for the imi Tergal and, 
no doubt, correct opinion that the Aeneid is an untini.^hed poem, 
one wliich its author vvat> prevented by a premature death from 
thoroughly reducing into order^ and making barmonioui^ with 



kr\ FERAXT, theme; ubi sistere detur^ variation. 
AxTANDRO.— Compare Thucyd. 4. 52: ^4rravd^ov . . . ravg i£ 

Wijvr iz€iA€iiavtjg, See also Strabo, I'i 606; also Choiseul 
Gouflier, V. P. 2, 79; '*Le village d'Antandros conserve encore 
son nom sans aucune alt^ratioo. Le port^ appek* aujourd'hui 
Lidja, est excellent et met a Tabri de tous les vents. C'est la 
que les navires et les bateaux du pays viennent charger les pro- 
dults de oes riches contr^^es, ainsi que les bois, quo Ton tiro du 

Cum rklixquo {vs. 10).— I a^ree, though not without con- 
Uiderablo hesitation, with Peerlkamp. Forbiger, nnd the older 
commentators, against Wagner (ed. Heyn.) and Conington, that 
not CT PATER but CUM iiELi.\gu(» is the apodosis to vix prima. 

LirrofiA CUM, Ac., . . . um troia fdit.— In the more trivial, 
no less than in the more important, features of his character, 
Aeneas is drawn after Jason: not only is he the daiing adven- 
turer, the inti-epid uavigtitor, the faitliless seducei', but he leaves 
home weeping (ApoUou. Rhod, L 534): 

Aero, on Aeu, 4, 143 and HO 5. 

^60 ABN£IDEA [6-34 antandro-aqrkstks 

PuiT (vs. 11), lOas once, and is no longer. See RemuL on 
1. 16, and 2. 325. 

HospirrcM antiquum troiae (vs. 15). — Compare Lav. 5. 28 
(ed. Walker): ''Hospitium cum eo senatusconsulto est. fac- 

Fatis ingresstjs miQuis (vs. 17), exactly as 10. 380: "fads 
adductus iniquis." In both places "iniquis" is, as so often else- 
where, unfair, i. e., treating him harshly or hardly. 

Aeneadasque, &c., . . . TAURUM (vss. 18— 21).— Compare 
Aristoph. Ares, 810: 

17 E 12^0. . . Ttntatov ovouti rrj TtoXfi 

d-ia&Ki Ti tifyic xiu xXfivov, fiTt< toi^ if-fot-s 
i^vQtu It f Tit tovro. 

Sacra dionaeae matri divisque ferebam (vs. \9)—(divae 
Venerij matri meae\ was sae^^ificing to my Dionaean mother, 
(divisque) that being my duty to heaven: was performing my 
duty to fiearen Ity sacrificing to my Dionaeafi mother. See 
Rem. on 8. 103. But why to his Dionaean mother on this 
occasion specially? Because he was buildinp; a city on the 
seashore (verse 16, littoue curvo moenia prima loco), and all 
seashores were sacred to Venus— comp. Epigr. Gaetulici, Anthol. 
Pal. 5. 17: 

.iyyuiXov ot}yun'o<; t7naxo7if, aoi T«df nfft/iut 

i''t<tOTit( xta A/t;/s (fwo« O^vfjjio).ct}s" 
uvoiov fovKiv yi((f f/ri nXuTv xvuti Tt^oqOb), 

o/nv&(ov ijutTfQijg xolnov b<; Eido*Hr)<,' 

UVOIO^' iO.K h7HXnU\jlOV hUbi XtU hObiH XtU 10110, 

$f 710T t Xt<t O^ttkuUU)!', A l'7t Ol , XICI t] ( O V bl I'. 

The association, therefore, of Venus witli Jupiter on this occa- 
sion, as "auspex coeptorum operum,'' was peculiarly proper. 

NiTENTEM (vs. 20 ). — Hcro not sleek, but shining white. See 
preceding Rem. 


It became a king to sacrifice a white bull to Jupiter, as it be- 
canio a quoon to sacrifice a white cow to Juno. See Julian, 
Ejji'st. to Libaiiiiis {^Episit, Miit. Or,): ttyvaa vio Jii (iaoiXixiog 

«-34 ANTANDRO— ArtRESTRS] fiOOK 111. 361 

ravQOv XevTLOv, Aen, 4. 60: 

*4psa tenens dextra pateram pulchcrrima Dido 
candeiiiis jaccae media inter cornua fundit.*' 

Seneca, Med, 56: 

^'ad regum thalainos numine prospero, 
qui caelum superi, quique regunt fretuni, 
adsint, cum popolis rite faventibus. 
primus sceptriferis cplla Tonantibus 
taurus celsa ferat i^rgore canduh. 
Lucinam nitei foetnina corporis 
intentata iugo placet.'* 

Compare also Horn. //. 2. 402: 

uvTaQ o fiovv tf^fivaft' ttyu'i -avditiap Ayautuvuiv 

mOVU 71tVTtUTI]O0V VntQfAtVti K^OVlbiVI. 

Juvenal, 8. 155: 

. . . ''dura lanatas, torvumque iiircnevm 
more Numae cj^dit lor is ante altaria." 

And above all, the petition of the white oxen to the emperor 
Marcus Aurelius, Ammian, 25. 4: oi kevxoi fioec: MaQvuo zo) 
Kaiaagi. uiv av nxijaijg, ijjuetcj ajcioXoue&a. 

Nymphas agrestes (vs. 34), the Hamadryads, who had the 
trees under their special protection; see Ovid, Met, 8, 741, et seqq.y 
where we have an account of a prodigy similar to that in the 
text The same story, scarcely even modernized, cuts a con- 
spicuous figure in Tasso's collection of stolen goods, canto 13, 
St. 41. 

362 AEKEIDEA r36 am-^usvAXxsf 



Rite secundarent visus omenque levarekt. — Theme and varia- 
tion: make the pheiiomenon propitious (i. e., to be of good 
omen) awd take away bad omefi (i. e., any bad omen there may 
have been in the phenomenon). The second clause is a varia- 
tion, not a repetition, of the first, because, like as the two 
thoughts are, they are not exactly the same, differ from each 
other in the whole extent in which taking away bad differs 
from conferring good. Inasmuch as the taking away of bad is, 
in the nature of things, always more urgent and necessary than 
— usually even an indispensable preliminary step towards — the 
conferring of good, the second clause would, in the natural, 
logical, prosaic order, have been placed first Our poet, how- 
ever, here, as so often elsewhere, has thought proper to invert 
tliat order, and to place the ultimate object first, the prelimi- 
nary step last, to the great embarrassment, if not to the total 
discomfiture, of his reader, unable to see before him in theCacus 
smoke (see 8. 259) in which he finds himself suddenly enveloped, 
without resource, except to cry out: "'vaieQov tiqoteqov, cart 
before horse!" for where are the Herculean arms to throw about 
Virgil's neck and throttle him on the spot, or who having such 
arms, would so use them? for who is the Hercules to leap on 
Virgil with arms and legs and squeeze him to death on the spot? 
or who, being the Hercules, would do so? 

Visus. — The sight y in the sense of apparition, manifestation, 
phenomenon, the or/'/c and the (paof^ia of the Greeks, as 
Herodot. 1. 38: rvQog tor n^v oifuv ictvcriv lov re yauov voi 
Toutov earcevait vmi e/il za ycaQaXauf^avo/jeva ov/. a7t07i:eu7ico. 
Aesch. Pers. 516 (ed. Schiitz), Atossa speaking: 

lOs xaoTtc uoi oui^oji tdt]).u)at<<; xuxtc. 

'16 nrri— LRVAREirrJ 


Kurip. Iph, hi AitL 1 584 fed. Fix): 

Semiis (**pru nsa ponit*'), Heyne (^S>stentum*'), Vohs (*'d!c 
schaii"), and Conington (''portent*'!, tire ri^ht; wtiili^ t^iidewi^ 
(**meine augen, dea blick"> is altogetlier wron^. CumpMn- 
3, 173: 

''taUbiis attonitos ritttM H rocc^ d^^orum : ' 

IL 271; 

*^nwic etuun liombUi pmm porttmta a^quuiilar; 

Lnom, 3. 3S: 

^'«et 4iiiii,' att, 'Taoi terremur im^ffoe mmttf*** 

Tufcit Hist, 4. 84: ^Iiigsa oumiois, eiiqb Pto)ofllAisM|iie runmt 
ingnientia mala, expciDit" And the '*dt rka noeundeiit" of 
Lnean, and the '^ut visa i^ecundent"" uf Siliui^^ quoted below, 
Seci'ndarevt = re<J<1* rt>nT s*>riindoH. Compare I^oiii^ 

1. 635; 

* . . *'di vif«a tttevrnkiii, 
d fibril «t ataOa fides." 

m. S. 124: ^tit visa mmnAni on csaelicirfAs/* 8iL B. 227: 
^nTmiiha. deciis genefia, . . . felix ubliitii m!Ciinde$.'' See K^m. 
on ^secunda/* L 160. 

* r*iiiildero^'u Ccmingtou '"ii^* i irj* n .va ipjiu f.nj ^'..tvjs^ 
Aeoen^ iiska to have it made leria*^). ICa|vpea ("^erlekfafvim'^) 
— the latter Aebmimg Serriiia, aad arguing at i^ 

a^nin^t the ^ite/kdert^ aeeriert, ahttmidtn, ahtmii^n /i ui; 
- Adversaria ViigiltaM*' aad -^Twdve Smr% V^$t^.*" NVttfaer. 
however, the ugtaaeaiB of Kappcsa n^jr the wm^ td autliMFit/ 
in his fiiTiiv— ezoept SifAe whms^ Ihitfte k, ari iar a* 1 keuiiTf 
no oae in nmm — hmwm aoAoad to lAMde^ tii the leavl. mf 
opinioo that Acseaa does w0i j^twj the giuda tu Aiake Ite 
ofoeo light €ir buU, ot evf to be borM; hot praya iImmh to ^rfw 
it awar, m wido It tA> do away with it m^liuif* In oo other 
doea die Tanatkio harraiaaiaft wtfh 1km therai'i to no oAer 

864 AENBIDEA [36 kite— levarent 

sonse does omkn lkvarext fill up and give body and colour to 
the general sketch or outline, rite secundarext visus; and in 
no other sense does the prayer agree in substance with the prayer 
usual on such occasions, which — inasmuch as no one who can 
help it compounds or compromises with ovil, but always gets 
rid of it if he can altogether -is never to make the ill omen 
or omened ill light or easy to be borne, but always to avert it 
totally. Compare veree 265: 

^^di ))ix)bibete minas; di taiem avertite casuui, 
et placidi servate pios," 

where we have, as in our text, only in the inverse order, tlie 

good prayed for and the bad prayed against, "placidi servate 

pios" corresponding to the rite secundarent visus of our text, 

and ''prohibete minas," "talem avertite casum," corresponding 

to the OMEK LEVARlcNT. Still Hiorc parallel—so parallel that 

words could not be more so — is Lucan, 1. 635: 

. "di visa secundent, 
et fibris sit nulla fides," 

where we have — in the identiciil order, too - the identical prayers 

of our text: make the mmtifestatioH propitious, and - wotdiviininh 

or make light the /jad omcn^ but tahe it aianj entirely , let there 

be no truth in it at all, ''nulla fides." 

Nor is this by any means an unusual sense of levare. It 

is its sense at (a), 2. 146: 

'*ipse viro primus manicas atque arcta terari 
vincla iubet Priamus," 

where that 'Mevari" is not to he eased or loosened, but to be 
taken off entirely, is placed beyond doubt by the innnediately 

"sustulit exiitas vinclis ad sidera jjuirnas ' 

(6), 10. 25: "nunquamne lerari obsidiono sines?" [relieved 
from siege, /. f., entirely freed and delivered from siegej. (c). 
Eel. 9. 65: ''ego hoc te fasce levabo" |I will relieve, /. f., free 
you entirely of this bnn(ile|. \d), Claud., -/. Co)ts. Honor, 60: 

^\m pater illc tuns iamiam ruituru subissct 
pondera, turbatamque rateni, cei*ta<|ue Iccassct 
naufragiujii commune manu" 

,4J6 RIT*. LtVAlfKNT^ 

BunR UK 


\ttot It^hteiUMi ur (iiminiMhetl shi|»\vnrk, h// lumlmtHl shipwreck]. 
\e). Hnr. f\fiotl. i:i. S: 

"Dunc et Achai^meoia 
j»eiiQi)di ijar<io mvat, et fide Cyllf^Lien 
//^r/fiT dins pcctora solidtudiDibus 

Irpliove the breast of dire anxieties, /. <?,, taku <ii]v nrixietirs 
entirely off the breast). (/K Seneca, 'l^^oruL 17 IL 

^'tum soissa vallis ap^rit imuiensos specas; 
et hintus Erebi pervium «*1 su|ier<«s iter 
lelliirt* tracta ]H'aobet, ac tmmiluni htul* 

[ttat eases ur makes light the tomb, imt does away with the tomb, 
renirtves the tomb smt ut the \vay|. Altfl. if/L llur, n^/. 1^, 

17. 27: 

"me triiiifus illapsu^ ceivbro 
sustulemt. nisi Faunus ictiim 
d extra //:• ivf,s-5f/ " 

fif/^*/ lightened or brnkr tlif Idnw, /;/// wnnlni nlT. |i!iiiieil tlie 

hi like manuer, rehen\ uiir English derivative from this vrry 
word, means not onJy to assuage, to make light ur tulera^de, but 
tit tiike away entirely; and ourKn£rlish aiM/fv generally means to 
make less, partieularly m tfie phrase '^abah' tlie miissaiiee/' L ^^, 
Ut take away thr nuisance entirely. 

( Km loj.— ^Whether *j>meu is to U* taken in a gowd ^ens(» or a 
bad being always to be determined by the eontext* and A<Mie;is 
here praying the gods *4evaro omkn/' them is no loom foi- doubt 
that OMEN' is here used in a bad stuise But thv dilricnlty snil 
remains, what bad omen is meant. Is it the partimdar sign, r)ie 
viHiis ali'eady speeitied, to wlneh the term omj:n' is iiert^ applied 
in the bad sense vf that word? No; it is nut [possible tliat Aeuojjs 
sbuuld in tlio words omkn lkv viiHNT pray the gods to take mwuv 
and remove the very thing which he has that moment, nay in 
the self snme bii^^ath, prayod them to render propitious ur of good 
augury. What, then? what other t^ign is there? wluit vise in 
to lie removed, if rujt the visi;s? Tbei'o is uc> utlier sign to be 
removed: there is only the possible bad impoit «»f that sign to 
be removed, Om:s expresses sueb possible bad import, anil so 

366 ABNEIDEA [37-46 skd— acutIb 

we haYe the prayer oken leyarent, remove omen, bad import, 
viz., from the visus. Omex is thus not the omen or particular 
definite bad sign, but wnen, bad import, in general. The two 
clauses of the sentence thus become not only perfectly consistent 
with each other, but each supplies and completes the other, the 
gods being prayed in the one to make the visus (a medium teorm 
as the grammarians call it, and capable of being either of good 
or bad import) good and lucky, and in the other to prevent the 
VISUS being of bad import, to take away from the visus whatever 
might be in it of sinister or unlucky. 



Sed contrasts what actually happens with what Aeneas has 
expected. He has prayed the gods to take away sinister import 
from the phenomenon of the bleeding branch, and to make that 
phenomenon lucky. Instead of the gods doing so by sending 
him a new sign of undoubtedly lucky import^ which according 
to the theomancy i^eofjavueia) of the times would determine in 
a favourable sense the previous doubtful sign (the visus) which 
has so much alarmed him, he has a new sign sent him, of the 
sinister import of which it is impossible to doubt. The force, 
therefore, of the objecting particle is: the gods, instead of 
doing that which he asked them to do, and (which he hoped 
and expected they would do) causing by means of a new 
sign their previous doubtful sign to have a happy import and 
to lose its threatening character, send a new sign which takes 
away whatever might have been favourably interpreted in the 
former, and establishes the former to be of most sinister augury. 
It is this persistence of the gods to present evil omens no less 
than the nature of the omens themselves which strikes him with 
the horror expressed at verses 47 and 48, tum vero, &c. 

-46 sEi^— Acuns] BOOK III. "^^^■" ggf 

Iam parce sepulto, — Compare Eurip. Frafim, Mffampjie^ 

Ti ffivg lh<yovft<s uvx tits rtUvr^xt^mt, 
xin Tit 'x/v'nrtn attkltytii; ulyti^aia; 

Externum (ts. 43) refers to pias; as if lie had suirl: ^^koow 
that thou, so full of tenderness and pity, art at this moment 
doing a most ungentle act, violating the tomb of a fellow- 
eountJTman and relative." The refereni'e in tJie pias of our 
text to the sacredness (in the eyes of Aeneas) of the myrtle 
mound as ll\e tomb nf Polydoriis is precisely of the same kind 
as the reference in the ^'pius" uf verse 75 to the sacredness (in 
the eye* of Apollo) of \\\v island of Uelos as his own (Apollo s) 
birth-place. See Rom. oo "pietate/* 1. 14. 

Man AT, Engh ooze, See verse 175 and Rem 

X\M POLYDORUS EGO.— Compare Phiutus Mostel. 2. 2, 65: 

'"'^ego traosmarinus hospes sum Diapontiiis; 
hie habito; haw niihi deditn est habitatio: 
nam me Acherimtem recipere Orcus oolm^t, 
quia praematare \ita careo, per fldem 
deceptus sum; kospes hie me necavit, isque ine 
defodit insepalhim clam ibidcim in liisce aedibus, 
sceleatus, auri causa,* nunc tu tiinc emigra 
8O0l«dtae hae sunt aedes, irnpia est habitatio. 

foge, obsecro hercle! 

. . . . » . . fugo atque open caput If 
qiuie hie moustra fiiiut. anno vix possam eloquLff 
at, 8t! cooLTojmit foris 

. guttam hiiud babes Bai]gamis.§ 
ita me di amabuot, mortuum ilium eredidi 
expoetularri, qnb pertmssissefj fore§,"|J 



§ HUlC ATRO t-igtrrj^TUR SAMiiUfXR CUTTAK., 



368 AENEIDSSA [47-48 tum— fiAisiT 

Hic coNPixuM, &c. . . . Acuns. — Compare Claudian, Cons, 

Honor. 134: 

. . . " praestringit aena 
lux oculos, nudique segcn Mavortia fetTt 
ingeniinat splendore diem." 

Id., Hystrix, 10 (of the porcupine): 

. . . '\stat cori)ore toto 
silva luiaax, iacith'nqxie rigens in praelia cre^eif 
picturata sejjesS' 

Laetantius, in his riddle, Ericius (Symp, 28): 

•' incolumi dorao teh's ronftxus acutis: 
sustinet arinatas seyetes habitator ineriiiis." 



TuM VERO.— The effect on Aeneas's raind is accurately propor- 
tioned to the cause — increases with the increase of the prodigy. 
The drops of blood fill him with liorror — 


but do not deter him from his purpose; on the contrary, excite 
his curiosity, make him desire to probe the matter further. Not 
so the warning voice; that produces the full effect— makes him 
not only desist from violating the tomb further, but makes him 
doubtful whether he ought not altogether to abandon his pro- 
ject of settling in Thrace. The emphatic words ttjm vero point 
to this complete effect. Compare Aen. 2. 228: 

•*tuni vero tremefacta novus per pectora ciinctis 
insinuat j)avor," 

where see Rem. See also Remm. on 2. 105; 4. 396, 449, 571. 

T^l— 1IAi»JT 

>ok: II f 

Ancihti. — ^^ Dupfici quod et sangfuiiunii viderut, vrl ancipiti 
FORMiDiN'K, una cjuori sepiilrrum laesenit, altera quiid nieliirro 
coeperat 1 . , . |la(\sum, a(, Irtuni] ipsuni/' Serv. (ed. Limi), 
"Von xwkfacher fuivlit, veranlasst dureh das gesehene bliit iirul 
die vemomnienen worte des Polydorus/' Ladowig, **ANnT*iTr, 
duplwi, nata et ex \i8o sanguine et ex auditis verbin Polyduri,*' 
Wagner UStil). I think noL There are nu two feai*s pressing 
Aeneas, There is but ane single fear pressing him, viii,, that uf 
the prodigy which at fii'st, viz., with the fii-st flow of blood frora 
be tree, makes his blood run cokl with tear (gei^iuus cot? foh- 
uuiMi SA><rDLs), sets him a-conjecturing (multa movkks animo) 
and invoking the local deities (>ymfhas vgmceabab AOEKarEu 


iTTM vERo)^ with the waniing voice from the tumulus makes 
his hair bristle, his voice stick in his throat, and overcomes and 
stupefies him, not as at fir^t with mere fear, FuiiMmiNe (which 
only deters), but with Axapm FORMiniNE, doubtful, distracting, 
perplexing fear^ /. «?., with fear mixed with doubt what to do, 
what course to take^ whether or not to obey the warning vuict* 
and give up his undertaking and leave tlie countiy. Ajccii'iti 
FuRinDLVE, then, is not double fear or two fear», one on each 
hand, but doubtful fear («. e., fe-ar and doubt), dhrtrocting fear 
Hail Aeneas be€»n oppressed only by double f»^an fear ocejiwoned 
on the one hand by the blood and on tlie otJier hand by tlie 
voi(^ he might have determined for himtwidf, need not have 
applies! to a eoundl for inslrut^jon^ what to do under the 
circumstances; but the fejir with which he waii oppf**K»tf^d being 
"anceps,'* ibmhiful, mixed with tlonht and emiM^mmnmenl^ the 
advice of a eoundl lie<*4iaje ne^^^e^ogiry to deti=!miine him, aoil 

f^jiTTvtiAJi FAVMi omk mjjQvir 
nsLKTOs rorru a» fiM-MMii tmemiwic% YkMonwm 



i'lw^ ->. >i ■> 

kMftiH Im^^ pottM. ifotui mbvrv J'eiMgi. 


370 AfiNfilDEA [4^-48 tum— kamt 

rupta quies: deus ancipitem lymphaverat urbem 
Mygdoniae Pan iussa fereus saevissima Matris. 

at Minyas auceps fixit i)avor: aegi'a vironim 
corda labant, nee quae regio, ant discrimina, cemunt; 
cur galeae clipeique miccnt, num peiTigil armis 
hostis, et exciti dent obvia praelia Colchi," 

where, as '^ancipitem urbem" — tliere bein/a: only one single 
city— cannot by any possibility be the tivo cities or the double 
dty, can only be the doubting, the distracted city, so ''anceps 
pavor" — there being only one fear, viz., the fear produced by 
the unexpected sight of the whole city in arms— cannot by any 
possibility be the two fears or the double fear, can only be the 
fear producing doubt, the distracting fear. [%\ Silius, 3. 557: 

''at Venus, ancipiti menteni labefacta timore, 
affatur genitorem, et rumpit niaesta querelas,' 

where — Venus having, as appeal's from the context, but one 
single fear, viz., for the safety of Rome— ^'ancipiti timore" can 
only be fear making her anceps, ntah'ng her not knotv wluit 
to do, which of serenil co arses to take, distracting fear. (S), 
Petron. cap. 89: 

"iani decuma maestos inter ancipites nietus 
Phrygas obsidebat messis, et vatis fides 
Calchantis atro dubia pendebat metu." 

And, (4), Claud. Rai)t, Pros, H. 6: 

'umctptfcs trepidi«[ue ruunt quae eausa (juietos 
excierit, tanto (juae res agitanda tumultu." 

Wot tliat ANCIPITI FORMiDiiNK might not in a different con- 
text be two different fears, one pressing on the one side, and 
the other on the other [just as, (1), Liv. 21. 28: ''^7M»^^ue 
terror circumstabat, et o navibus tanta vi armatorum in terram 
evadente, et ab tcrgo improvisa premente acie" (where '^anceps 
terror" is two different terrors, viz., om^ that of the enemy land- 
ing from the ships, the other that of the enemy attacking in the 
rearj. (2j, Livy, 42. 65: ^''Anceps Romanes tetrar circumsta- 
bat. Nam neque conferti pugnare, propter eos qui ascendere in 
tumulum lonabantur, poterant: et ubi ordines procursando sol- 

47-4B TUM— haesit] 

BOOK m^ 


vi«sent, pRtehaiif iai'iilis sagittisvr'' i where ^'aiirpps terrnr*' is 
iuH> differenl terrors^ viz,, that ounasionod by the eneiijy I'haj'ging 
up the hill and that Oi:fasi<*ninl by javdin«thnjwt!i>i and archei*!* 
iij the plain). <3i, Li v. 2S. :U: ''ad ijuoruni ilisreMHiim noij 
n?spiravit modu Miijbcu qiiuni terra tuancjne mtnpiti ittettt ur^prn- 
tur. sed etiani/' etc. i where '^ancijiiti lur'tir' is fifv ihablr fear 
viz., ono fear on the lan«l sifl<^ and tlie «ith*vr un th^- sid** i»f tlir 
st*« -with whicli Magu is urged). Ami, (ti, Aniiiuan. 2\S. 5: 
**ageDsque m oppido soUcilmUne didiieebatur (ttirii^ili, niiilUi 
tuini animo versaiis, ijua via (|iiihusve eoniinentis per »'xiiHUih 
caloiibus terras pruinis adsuetnni dineret niilitern, \v\ liuHtoni 
caperet discursatoreni et repentinuin, insidiisfpn* put ins i*lande*»- 
tiiiis tjuam praeliorum Htabilifiite nuitijsnnr' iwlieix' '^sulieitu- 
dine ancipiti" is turn fiiffne/ti stdiritialps, xmi- by what means the 
soldiers might be enabled tn bear iIm- W-wU t*» wbifli they wuuid 
be exposed an their niareh thnnt-rli the ilf^iTf, ihe either bnw the 
attacks cd' lite enemy might be battled i], tiiil IhAl Aenoas^'B 
fear i^ act^ording to the context only one and single, th»^ fmi\ 
viz., with which lie is striiek by tfie prodigy id" the bh)ud and 
j^an« and warning vuic*e, all opf'ratin^ in lli*' one dinH-tiun, 
viz.. to deter him tVom i^ettling in the (Country, and till liirn 
with doubt and anxiety whether he shunld or sihunid not im- 
mediately aof^pt the warning and d*^art. 

The correctness nf rhin analy*i>; in ?thown by the t$#i|ii«l, 
which informs ils tliat Aem^iH so mi}i\ m the firar hm laft hb 
bones— K)8TQi-iM PAVoM ^f^s unAwrt *refen* tb*^ matter to a 
eonnci] who resolve hi» doubt by an tmanimouM dee^iHion to wb% 
sail and leave the land which had m violated the lawa of hofipi* 

372 AENBIDEA [56 68 quid— cirmus 



Quid non mortalia i'Kctura cools, auri sacra fames? — The abrupt 
apostrophe and extraordinary strength of expression seera to 
justify the observation of Servius and F*omp. Sabinus, that 
these words liave a special reference to Dido's own experience, 
1. 353, &c. Dante, unaccountably mistaking the bitter re- 
prehension of avarice for an eulogy of thrift, thus paraphrases 
this passage (Ihirgat. 22, 40): 

'•a che non reggi tu, o sacra lame 
deir oro, 1' api)otito do' mortali ? " 

i. 0., why. sacred lore of gold, moderate^t thou not our 
appetite? or, in other words. Would that ue luid siwh a proper 
estimate of the value of money as might restrain the lari^ii 
expenditure afteudautou the indulgence of sensual and luxurious 
appetites; consequently — as tnight restrain the appetites them- 
selves. This gross misconception, not to say pej'version, of his favou- 
rite author^s meaning in one of his plainest and least mistakable 
passages— proving, as it does beyond all doubt, that Dante's, 
like our own Shakespean^'s, knowledge of the Latin language, and 
therefore of classical literature genei-ally, was wholly incommen- 
surate with his poetical genius— affords a striking exemplitication 
of the truth (so consolatory to the hiunble, and in these days so 
much despised, scholar aiidcritir) 'Mion omnia possumus omnes/' 
Metastasio a poet whom it is the fashion now-a-days to 
underrate as much as it is the fashion now-a-days to overrate 
Dante- has at least not been guilty of like error, Artas. 1. 3: 

"uh insami, o scellerata 
setc di regno I o qual pii.^ta, «|uai sail to 
vincolo di natura e iiiai bast^into 
a frcnar le tu<^ furieV" 

Monstra deum (vs. ")!)). I should like to known what Ad<U- 

6^-08 qimv— ciEMrs] 



son thought was the meaning of these words, or whether lie hud 
noticed tliese words at all when he wrote tlie criticism we find 
at page 316 of vol. ♦) ♦♦!' the qiiartu edition of his works: ''If 
there be any instance in the Aerieid liable to exreption upon 
tills account, it is iu t!je beginning of tlie third book, where 
Aeneas is represented ;is teaiin^ up the myrtlo tliat ilmpped 
blood. This circumstance seems to have tlie Jiiarvellous without 
the probable, because it is represented as proceeding from natu- 
ral causes without the interposition <if any ^^od, or rather super- 
natural puwer capable of prodm-iii^ it." 

IxsTAt'KAMus (VS. 62}.— ^'Keli;^ioso vorahulo, pro fmimti^,'* 
Heyna Doubly incorrect. In.staiirare is neither spet*ial!y a 
religious word, nor does it signify fa cere. It is nai specially 
a religions wttrd, for it is applied by Virgil liimself to courage, 
2. 45L "Iiistanrati animi;" tn huttles, 2. t>79, '*sinite instau- 
rata revisam praelia;" 10. 543, 'Mnstaurant ades;" and even 
to such barbarous atrocities as the mutilation of Deiphobus, 
ti. 529, '"di, lalia <traiis instaurate/' ^^T need I toll anyone 
who ha^ read either these or \m\ Htln'i < .\;unples uf its use 
whether by Virgil or other writer, tiiat it is not fat'cre. And 
I may add that the above ijuoted examples sh<»w otptully that 
ins tan rare is not sol en niter fncere, celeb rare, m^iaCuy; 
and that Voss's translation '*feier]ich ohren wir niai Polyrlorus 
leiehe'' is no mnirer the mark tluui Hey no's explaiiatiun. 

The question theu comes: what is instaurare? i^ it nston, 
restaurare? Pretty nearly, but far from exactly. The differ- 
ence in the particles show^s of itself that \\\v moaning, luAvever 
nearly allied, must still be diHeront. IMshjrt\ restaurare, is 
to put (mek into a formtr vuttditiijn, as, fur instance, a decayed 
building. Instauiare is io renew, to tjrtjin fk noro, renovare, 
uraviouv^ uvuMuvtZuv. The /*r of restaurare points back tu the 
former or original cooditiiUK thf ht of instaurare points to 
the present, to the newly infused life and vigour, tu the fresh 
strength, f^j the new creation. Therefore ''instaurare praelia," 
**instaurai'o acies/' not resio/r thr Imtfk tviz., to its former con- 
fiitioiU hut tM'ijitt tiw btdttr fk' uort* with new str**ngth and vij2:oiir 
and not merely with such strengtii utiil vigour us at first ireno- 

374 AENEIDEA [56^-68 quid— dEnus 

vare, irnnr) but, on account of the intensifying ///, with greater 
strength and vigour than ever, or as if tliere had been no fight- 
ing at all. Thei-efore 'Mnstaurati animi," neither restored 
cmiragey restaurati animi, nor even merely renewed courage, 
renovati animi, but with more courage than ever, mstaurati. 
How much more courage than ever appears from the imme- 
diately subjoined: 

. . . '-regis succurrere tectis 
auxilioquo levaro viros, vimquc addere victis." 

The sight of the extremity in which their friends were inspii-ed 
them with courage to attempt their rescue. It is no longer of 
dying bravely in arms they think ''pulchmmque mori succur- 
rit in armis;" ''moriamur et in media anna ruamus;" ^*iina 
salus victis nullam sperare sahitem." It is of relieving their 
sorely pressed friends. 

In like manner, we have also, (a), "instaurat diem donis," 
*' makes the day new with gifts;" not merely ''restores the day 
to what it had been," but "makes a new day of it" (viz., by giv- 
ing not such gifts as had been given previously, bnt far richer); 
''makes it a new day in the temple, so rich are her gifts," and 
in other words, "not content with the gifts she has already 
given, fearing they may have been insufficient, begins again de 
noro, as if she had given none at all, and gives twice as many 
as before." (ft), "instaurat choros,"' not "restores dancing and 
singing," but "makes it such as it had not been previously, in- 
fuses new, unwonted, previously unknown, life and spirit into 
it, regenerates it." (c), "talia Graiis instaurate," not, with 
Conington, "rependite,'' but "'rependite' with all the fresh- 
ness of a new beginning, a new institution," /. f\, not with the 
languor with which an old thing is restored or a debt repaid: 
the prayer t)ver-stepping the /ex talionis in the ratio in which 
instauration is always more than original institution, is the 
original institution with ninvjy infused life and vigour and the 
avoidance of whatever erroi^s were in the original, (rf), 7. 146, 
"certatim instaurant epulas," neither "celebrate the feast.," nor 
"repeat the feast," but ''re-institute the feast, begin the feast 
again from the beginning with new and increa.sed alacrity;" 

. M-*>8 griT*- 

BiniK TIT 


rith how i^^rontly itirnnst'ti ;il;(rnty brin;;; siiMwii liv '*lut'ti/* 

Pftiui still more by ''».'f'rt«arim/' and tin* ciinse of the so greatly 

iiiei^rised nlnerity being .set forth in '^omirie mugno/' And, 

( e), 5. 94 : 

"hoc iiiagis ineeptos j^onitrni iusitttiimt huutrres/' 

nut "institutes honours/' for th^^ hotioni> have been ali*eiuly 
iniNfitutiM (*'ineeptos''l, an<l hn has ahvady been libaHng both 
with milk ami wine, aiul si-^Utorirtg thiwers, hut ''re-institntes 
tioiiotirs, begins thetn aj^^aiti from the beginning and as if none 
had yet bt***n instituted;" that Is, ns we are told fiirtfier down, 
h^ not merely libates. f»nt saeritices sheep, pigs, and oxen, while 
his eompanions bring oxen and load the altars with ofterings; 
in other words, "instannn diem donis/' as Diilo (b»es in the 
foujth book. 

Accordingly, in our text. FXSTArkA^es polvdoru msm is 
neither cehbmtv the ohsetftiieH of hdydoms^ nor repeat the 
hsrtfiifrs of Pohfdmns, liut ffhr Po/yfionts netr ohsffpfics from 

ffhe tjeifiNnimj aud in regular forni, as, nmst correefly. fjat'erda: 
-Kenuvantur funeralia et de novo eonstitunntur. ut bene et ex 
ritu conrfatm* ijui male et tumultiiario opere ronditns fuerat/* 

^The ver-ses from et rsviExs to cjkmls intV»rm us how romplete tlie 
instanration was, how notliing was onutted which belonged to a 
tbrmal solemn funeral: neither tho great tiinnilus, nor the arak 
to the maues. nor the mourning "vittae/' nor the eyprei^ses, nor 
the lamentations of the Wiimen with dishevelled hair, nor the 
Utmtions of milk and blood, ntir thr lond and last farewi^lL 

How entirely instaurare is to tteght dv noro. ratfttting (til 
that had l/eett prerhthsh/ dour as tttdhhuf, appears from tli<" instan- 

jfation uf tlie Cir«*ensi's reeorded by Livy, 2. H6, and Maeroti. 
itnnt, I. IL Discovery having been made nu the lught of tlie 
tin^t day uf a certain celebrati*>n of tltose games that the cirtui^ 
had been polluted in the morning, the game« wei\* ''in8tat»rati/' 
commenced on another day. tlf ttovo, and as if no games had bet'n 
peifornied at all. The etieet uf eoume was that tho f'ircenses on 
rfiat ix^rasion wero longer by ono d*iy. tin* 'Nh'es instau rati tins/' 
timn they had ever been before, a length which, lo make amends 
4u and apfM^asw* insulted Jupiter, was made, by rlfH*r**e of s<*nate 

376 AENEIDBA [56-68 gun)— cieiius 

and law of people, the normal length of the games in future 
-—memorable example of that ancient collective piety, gravity, 
dignity, and wisdom, the reflex of which is so distinctly visible 
in the legislatures of the present day. 

Inoens A<iGERiTUR TUMULo TELLus. — Another instance of the 
ambiguity arising from the absence of the article in Ijatin. The 
grammatical structure aHows us to interpret equally: to the 
tnjnulusy or for a tumulus. Wunderlich and Kappes, making 
use of this liberty, intei-pret: for a tumulus, the latter observ- 
ing: '^Liesse sich nicht auch ein dativ des zweckes statt des 
ortes annehmen? Aeneas lasst eine vollstandige bestattungs- 
feier halten. Wird er dazu den durch die erechreckende wunder- 
erscheinung bezeichneten hiigel wieder verwendet haben? Wird 
er die ' hastae ' weggeraumt oder auf sie die erde aufgeschichtet 
zum hugel weitere erde beigeschafft haben?'' Servius, on the 
other hand, followed by Heyne, Wagner (1861), and Conington, 
intei-prets to the tumulus, '*ut ostenderet veriim tumulum, ne 
forte aliquis alius iilud errore violaret.'* I agree entirely 
with Servius. The new earth is heap.d up on the top of the 
old tumulus, myrtles and all. "ut ostenderetur verum esse 
tumulum." A second tumulus, a cenotaph, beside the old 
tumulus and body, had been indeed an absurdity. The struc- 
ture therefore is: j/AiKritur tuxMulo {nntiqno) ingens tellus 
— an inmiense ([uantity of earth is heaped up on the old 
tumulus, and so a new and complete tumulus raised over 
the body, which is then "conditum sepulcro'' with the usual 

Stant manihus, &c., . * . LACTK (w. 68-66). — In Africa 
''pultes. ot panis, et merum" were brought to the tombs of 
the martyrs even in the times of St. Augustiu and St. Ambrose. 
The custom was omitted by the latter. 'M[uia ilia quasi paren- 
talia superstitioni gentilium essent simillima." See St August. 
(hnfcJis. 6. 2. Throughout continontiU Kurope at the present 
clay, the making of wreaths and garlands for tombs gives em- 
ployment to a vast number of pei-sons, those wreaths and gar- 
lands being periodically renewed during a long series of years 
by the affection of relatives or friends, or even of strangers. 

70-93 IJ5N1S -tkrram] BOOK III. 877 

The fresh wreath still hangs on the ancient monument of 
Abelard and Heloise in the cemetery of P^re-la-Chaise at 

CmcuM (VS. 65), /. e., cmcuM aras. Compare Tacit Annal. 
4. 74: **Aram Clementiae, aram Amicitiae, effigiesque drviim 
Caesaris ac Seiani censuere." 



LKNis I MetL (Fogg.) HI Scivius; Ven. 1470; Aldus (1514); P. Manut. 
LKNK III Wakef. (cjr coni\. 

VAR. LECT, (vs. 7r,). 

• i\ARO CELSA MYCoxoQi'E 1 *'Anti«iui coUd. plcii<iue oninos,"' riorius. Ill N. 
Heins. (1670, 1671); Pott 

M^vONO CRLSA (iYARO(^uK 111 Lad.; Hau[)t. 

liYARO E CKLSO 111 N. Helns. (1.704i. 

MYCONE CKLSA GYAROQUK II yL • IH Bios*'.; P. Manut.; I). 1 loins.; Philip[>c. 

MYrONO KCELSA GYAROQUE 1 Pal. • .!/<?//. 



SiYCONO E CKLSA tJYAROQlK 11 j^.. HI WagllOl' I A,. V.\ Kihb. 



O Rom. 

LiTTORA coMi'LKXT, s(MZ. micibtis. -('«)n)paro ( 'i(^ Dirht. L HI: 

•^advenit. ot fera volivolautibus 
navibu complevit inanu' littora," 

378 AENEIDEA [70-93 lews— tebium 

Nkrkidum matri hTY xEinuNO AViOAKo- ''Acgaeiis appellatur, 
ut opiDor, Neptuniis, quod magna vcneratione Aegis, quod oppi- 
(lum est Euboeae. coleretur/' Turneb., who quotes Horn. IL 13. 20 
(of Neptune): 

JO df rfr(>«roi' ixtto ttxiAum 
,4 1 '/(<<;, tr&n^t oi xkvut &tot4ttTa fitv't-foi ki^rt^g 
/Qvattif u((Qimioorr((, TfTfr/artu, (iff ihrn uifi, 

l^njs AKCiTENENS. — Pivs, compossionate and affectionate to- 
wards the island on account of its having been his own birth- 
phice. See 1. 14 and Rem., and 8. 42 and Rem. 


Timiv; see Nep. in Conon, S. S. The particular form of the 
adoration (v.hich it will be observed is repeated on arriving at 
the temple itself, see vs. 84) is perhaps now not to l>e ascer- 

Rex anius, rex u)em hominum phoebique sacerdos. — Compare 
Prudent, praef. in Psychomach. : 

•'Dei sacerdos, rex et idem praejiotens, 
origo cuius, foute ineiiarrabili 
secreta, nullum prodit auctorem sui, 
Molchizedec, qua stirpe, queis maiorihus 
ignotus, uni cognitus tautum Deo." 

(lod only knows who Melchizedec was, God only knows who 
Anius was: eacli was a priest and a great king. The printer's 
devil, mocking and irrcvc^rent as usual, will have it they were 
one and the sanH\ 

Templa dki saxo nknkkahar sthv(ta vctusto. — ''Et quod 
vENERABAR alt, osteudlt se precatum," Servius. ''Vexerabar 
includit notionom vuc. precahar, orahatn,'^ Forbiger. '*The word 
has here the force of entreating, iis in Hor. Sat. 2. 6. 8, and 
older Latin, so that the prayer naturally follows without further 
introduction." Conington. But neither are prayers usually 
addressed to temples, nor on this occasion was the prayer ad- 
dressed to the temple, but to the god ida propriam, thymbraee, 
domum); and venerari, although sometimes meaning to pray 
or intreat, much more frequently means to }h)w doum before^ to 



nvrship, Gn 7ifocrxir€/i% as Nepos. Coimn, S, 3: *^Neces8e est 
tfyiVLU si in conspectuin veneris, teuemrf te re^em. quod tt^o- 
wr.vv€ii' illi vo€ant" And such prcM^isely is its meaning in the 
passage befoit? us. Acnieas oiade liis salaiiui to the temple; 
respeoi fully saluted it. by going down on one knee, bowing his 
hfwL Hud laying his hand on his breast, or by kissing bis han(! 
and turning round fn>m left to riglit (Plin, H. X. 2S. J; "In 
ndarftfido dexteram ad oseiiluni referinuis, tofumque corpus eir- 
euinagimus"f, or by thr* peiforniani»e of whatever other action 
or sign id' honour, ns Aph, 3. 7^: K<mKssi VKNKKvMrFi apoujxis 
URHEH [certainly not pvitfj to fhf riiff, but rcspfrifttfiy soffffr //, 
rtffHr/jTOt'itev\. (hid, HeroifL -/. .*// (nf the same Delos): 

^'|imtiuiis t'grt»si>ae supem, <]uibuH icisula fmcm est 
flava mlutafh thura nieimncjue dam us " 

(the *'salutatis'' of which passage corresponds precisely to the 
vETKERAMin^ of verse 71) an<l rho viineilvbar id our text). Aett, 
S. 697: "hissi nuniina magna loci venennniir^^ [im'fonn fht> 
disUmwry act of rr^fn tur futmnlsl Ant. 12. 219: 

'*«diuvat inee^isu la^jito jno^jassus, et arain 
suppliciter rttteraui^ demissu lumine Tiimas ; 
tab€ntes«iue genae, et iuvenali id iDorpore pallor" 

\pnffs kis retJerenee or rf^spectfuf sat h tat ion to thr altar, and 
observe without saying a word, ''incessu tacito'']. Venerari 
came to mean to hoir ftown Ijefore, to worship, in the same 
manner as it came to mtmn to prat/; tmwifnj dotrn t/efore and 
prat/ifHf to being i)nly two different jncans <d' exhibiting the 
feeling of reneration, 

Ati in Latin the word venerari passed from the feeling to 
the external act indiciUive of the feeling, so in Italian the word 
repertniza, and in English both the wm-ds reim^enee and courtesy, 
have followed a similar eoui'se, and, primnrily meaning the 
tbeling, are now in common use to signify the conventional 
act expressive of the feeling. How entirely nQomtwetr (like 
venerari) was applied to the extenial form of worship appears 
in a remarkiible manner from Plutaji-h, ne^i '/V-jji^*;, where speak- 

380 AEiNfilGiA [70-93 lknis— wbraIi 

ing of the elephant he says: Oox^^aeig uav&avei, tuxi x^^^^j 
xat TTQoavivvriaeig. No wonder Aeneas should make his re- 
verence before the re^ierable temple of the Delian Apollo; even 
the Epidaurian serpent saluted the temple it was leaving, Ovid, 
Met. 15. 685: 

"turn gradibus nitidis delabitur, oraque retro 
flectit, et antiquas abiturus respicit aras; 
assuetasque domos habitataque templa sahUat;'^ 

and he himself by-and-by (verse 849) embraces the gate of 
Buthrotus, whose only title to such honour was its resemblance 
to the Scaean gate. 

This word rightly understood, here and occasionally else- 
where, the narrative becomes not only more lively and graphic, 
but more conformable to oriental custom: genuflexions, bowings, 
prostrations (verse 93, submissi petlmx:s terram) becoming more 
and more usual the farther we advance from these stiff-necked, 
stiff-backed climes of ours eastward. At the present day God's 
temple and Christ's cross are the objects of an external re- 
verence which increases as you go eastward, and to withhold 
which and pass by with neck erect and covered head declares 
an amount of unbelief varying, according to the degree of ir- 
reverence shown, from English High-Churchism, Methodism, 
and Calvinism, through Arianisni, Socinianism, and Quakerism, 
up to total infidelity. 

Animis iLLABKRE xosTRis. — Tlic verv prayer of Saint Ambrose 
to the ''verus sol," Hi/vin. Matuf. (Grimm, Hymn, vcteris 
ecclesiae hiterprvtat. Theotiscay (lottingac. 1S;^0): 

*'venisque sol i Habere, 
micans nitore perpeti, 
iubarque Sancti Spiritus 
iufunde nostris sensibus.' 

Tremere . . . MOVERi ( vss. 90, 91). — **Quia opinio est sub 
adventu deorum moveri templa," Servius (cd. Lion). "Com- 
mune e/cKfaveiatg deorum," Heyne. To be sure, the gods sig- 
nified their advent or presence by knocking, shaking, and all 
kinds of noise, exactly as the spirits called on by the spiritualists 
of the present day. See ANtiquihj of Pholoyraphy. If all re- 

;?*>-95 LlOilS — tkuuamI 



niained still ft was evidenop in old times that the god did not 
I hear, would not eonie, as it h now in our tablf'-rappintr meet- 
fings and sot?ieties. Kay. noise and sliakiiig indtcated then, us 

now, even morp tlian iihtp presencp iind bparing; it indicated 
[assent, was the aye! avf! of the god, as it is n(»w of the spirit 
[of the table; whi!e dead silenre indicated not merely that he 

would not eome, but that he would not grant; exactly as it 

indicates now-a-days that the evoke^i spirit will not eoine. and 
iBays. no. no. See (hid, Mrf, 8. 803: 

, . . "■mnrit (japut aequoreus rox, 
•^nctissit4]ue «uis omnes rtsfteiMthufi undas." 

LniTNA DEI {vs, 91), corresponding to "foribns divae/' 
1, 509, the ftdf/fitm or sinine. See Rem. on K 509. Compai-e 
[aiso 3, 371 : "meque ad tiia liniina, Phoebe, . . . dueit/* where 

MuGiRE ADVTis coRTmA RKct.rsTs,— The slirine (the holy of 

holies) was tlirown open and tiie cortina (bp|l-shaped cover of 

tripod; Siee in tlie ^fffs(o Ihrboftico, 9^ 2(K painting found in 

I Pompeii) began to bellow i utter deep sounds like those of a 

bain, as Ovid. Met. 15, 635: 

. , . "oortinaque reddidit imo 
hanc adytfi voceni, pavefactaqtie ]>ectorii movit/' 

Let the cimouK about the oracular art genei*ally, and the 

\rortina in particular, read tJie account given by Animian, 29. 1, 

[of ti»e construction and use at Antioeli in the fioutli i*entury of a 

lifipoa or wenm/l/t imitating the roritna of Delphi. Vm myself, I 

I must own that, little faitli as I have ever had in uracles, whether 

(ancient or modern, it did not occur to me to identify them with 

tablc**riipping. until 1 had read this account of Ammian*s — an ae- 

[count, it will be observed, not only from a contemporary-, unpre- 

Ijudiced. impartial, and veracious pen. but bearing on its face the 

$tiimp of truth — intbrming ns that table-rapping was in so gi*eat 

vogue more than one thousand five hundred years ago as to be 

used as a means'^of determining during the life of Valens who 

was tu sueeeed him in the iiuperia.1 dignity, the table used on 

382 AENfilDEA tm-l36 hlsc— itJVENtofe 

this particular occasion being constructed on the model of the 
Delphic cortina. 


ancient Christian church, and^ no doubt, in the heathen temples^ 
on the model of which the Christian church was built^ there 
was a special locality in the beginning of tlie body of the church, 
a station, ifvaaig, for this ceremony or devotional act. In the 
plan in Potter's ed. of Eusebius this acaaig ziov r7ro7ii7€Toviiitp 
is delineated just inside ths (oqaiai /rvkai (through which you 
pass out of the ya^^iji*, where was the baptistery and the acaaig 
xtov vMirffov^ieviov, into the body of the church) before you 
arrive at the af.i[iiov or pulpit, and at the distance of the length 
of the nave from the ayiai ;rvhai leading from the body of the 
church through the cancelli into the i^r^ua or sacrarium. 



VAK. LECT. (vs. 127). 

coNciTA I Vat., Pal.,* Med. "Id codd. aliquot legi roxriTA rkmis . . . 
Red neque displicet terhis,' Pierius i whose silence concerning consita 
proves him to have been unaware of the existence of that reading). 
II J|; cod. Canon. (Butler). Ill Nonius; ^ary. ("ut concitatiora 
sint maria vicinitate terrarum'i; Isidor.; princ ; Ven. 1470, 1471, 
1472, 1475, 1486; Rom. 1473; Mod.; Mil. 1475, 1492; Bresc; R. Steph.; 
Heyn.; Bmnck; Wakef.; Pott; Dorph.; Wagn. (ed. Heyn., ed. 1861); 
Voss; Jacol) {(^taest. Ejf., ]». IGHi; J^d.; Haupt; Ribb.; Kappes 
I Progr. ). 

* Pottier's statemenl that the Palatine MS. reads ((•nsiia is incorrect; the reading of 
that M.S. is very plainly concita. 

Ill 1 36 HWr— TUVKNTUs] 



coHm.K II ^l, (viz., Muti. 52JI; Erlang, 859i. ITI Albinus; H. Steph.; 
P. Manul; D. Heins.; N. Heijis. U671, 1(176, 1704f; Pliil; Riiaeus; 
Burm.; Bask,; Jaeck; Weichert ('*Nescio an tion legeutiQUi eiit conjiita 
lit post CyclnHfis (i^xsigBPntur Sporados'*!; Peerlk.; rnjiingt. 

CoRVBA^JTUguE AERA.— Convpare Propert 4. 7. 61: 

"<jua immeroga fides, qoaque a/ra rotundii CyheheH, 
mitintisque s<jnant Lydia ploctra rhoris/' 

These round and sonurous '^Conbaiitia aenr' t^orresponded not 
to our modern gonp>, but to our moflern cvmbiils, because \W 
MUind was prodtif»»d not by t^trikin^ tlierii vvitb hummers, but, 
as appears from Ovid, Fast. 4, 183: 

'*ikint semimares, et inania tyrnfiaoa tund^iiJ; 
o^rrque tinnituR netr reptdttn dabunt^" 

by striking them against eat'lj otlier. 

MoDo luPTTEii AiisiT,— ''Aiit aei\ ac si dieeret: ^t^ntuni- 
modo sit ser^mim/ Ant revera lupiter, qui praecst insulae 
Cretae, Aut quia ventos prosperos lupiter praestat,'' Sorvius. 
"Quia is novam patriam ex fato assigfuavit Aeneae (ignotum 
illi adbuc^ quam?). I. 261, sqq.: qmuv non patitnr enm desi- 
dere Karthagine, libro quarto; et infni vei>;, 171: 'Dictaea 
ne^at tibi lupiter arva/" Wagner (1861J. Nut our of all these 
explanations porfectly satisfies niB, if it were only because not 
ane of them is appliciible to the same expression where it »is 
used by Livy, 8. 7: ^^'Aderunt [consiiles] in tempore,' Manlius 
ioqnit, -et cum illis aderif hrpifrr ipse, foederum a vobis Wola- 
torum testis, qui plus potest polletqiie/" The lUPrrER ADsrr 
of our text, the ''lupiter aderit'' uf IJvy, and the "lupiter 
hac Stat" of Virgil himself, 12. 565, are but expressions of the 
tuiiversal sentiment tliat the upfuobation of the Suprenn* Being, 
of him *'qiii plus potest polletqne,'' is necessary to the success 
of every enterprise, the ^^ine fftm ttan of all prosperity - a senti- 
ment which, even if it fmd not been his own^ oiu* author was 
under the necessity of every now luul then ascribing to his per- 

UKXIiy, AlC^lODJU, VOL. u. 27 

384 AUKHIDBA [111-136 Htiie^»Ytt«tt» 

sonages, firsts in order that those personages should hare Teri* 
similitude, and secondly in order that his poem should not have 
the fate of Lucretius' nobler, more dignified work, but be read 
and become popular, and its author himself after his death 
^'volitaret vivus per ora virum." From whichever point of view 
regarded, whether as necessary to the perfection or as necessary 
to the popularity of the poem, the sentiment could with as little 
propriety be absent from the programme of Anehie^ settmg 
out from Dolus as at this day it could with propriety be absent 
from a queen's speech to parliament^ a general's address to his 
soldiers, or even the humble newspaper advertisement of a prayer 
meeting. There is no passport like "Deo volente.'' If God 
is for us who can be against us? 

There is, of course, a peculiar propriety in the invocation of 
Jupiter on the present occasion, Jupiter being not only the 
weather god, but especially the god of fine clear weather and a 
fair wind, as Horn. Od. 5. 176: ayaXXouevm Jiog ovqco. Hymn. 
hi Apollin. 427 : ayaXXo^evt^ Jiog ovqw. Lucan, 10; 207: 

'•sub Tore temprries et nunquam hirbidus aer." 

Compare also Propert. 4. 6: 

''hinc Augusta ratis plenis Ion's o^nine velis" 

[the sails full of the omen of Jove, /. r., full of a wind so fair as 
to aftbrd the onion that Jupiter is with the vessel, that Jupiter 
is on the side of Augustus, that "lupiter hac staf'j. 
Tertia mix. — Compare //. .9. 362: 

lit Sb xtv hvn).oi.t]i' dtori xXutOs flrroaiyaiOi;, 

It is no little to the credit of those ancient, mariners tliat tiiey 
should be able to perform the voyage from Delos to Crete, oi: 
from Troy to Phthia, in almost as short a space of time as w© 
with all our appliances of chart, compass, and steam, and all 
our superior help from heaven, can perform it in, at the present 

HosTE VACARE DOMOs (vs. 123).— See Rem. on veree 132. 

8El)^>>QUE ASTAiiE RELiCTAS (vs. 123). —The structure is not 

1 1 1 - 1 3fi HT?f C— I W VENTV8 J 

BOOK 111. 


ASTARK RELicTAS. nor the meaning, the smU stand almn-^ 
^tkmed, but Che structure is sedes heuctas astahe, nuil tlie 
meaning, the .seats ahandoufd (sciz, by flit? enemy, as state^i in 
the preceding clause) '*eK/-stant/' stand ready for us — to m/r 
hamL The passage being thus iiiulerstnod, [a] th^^re is no taii- 
tobgy; [b] the two clauses perfectly oorre^pond, the infinitive 
being m each the emphatic word; and \c) its proper meaning 
to stand h^^ or ready, or at kand^ is preserved to the compound 
AStARE. Compare H. 194: ^^caenilens siupra c«put ft^fifit im- 
ber;" 2. 30R: ^^arrectis auribus tusto;'' Tohins, 12. 15: '*ego 
siwn Rafael^ iinus ex septem qui at^tamns ante EK^minuni.'' 

VmiDHMQUK DONCSAM, — Not gfecu with green raarblfs as 
Servius and T^a Cerda tliink, but green with vegetation— unless 
Pence and Melaenae were also green with green marble, Val. 

FlACC. 8. 292: 

. . . *^ostia donee 
Danubii piridemquQ vident ante ostia PcurtmS' 

Stet TfieO. 12. 619: 

"Icarii Celeicjue doimis, riridf^xk^ Melamme*' 

Co?«srrA. — Wagner says: ^^Apparet concita^ ut lectionena 
difficiliorem, esse retinendum: nee, si consita legas, comraode 
subiici vss. 128 et 129." I do not, how*ever, agree in this opinion. 
I think that the ^'difficitior lectio'* is, generally speaking, quite 
as ofben incorrect as the '^acilts'* and "^^ vulgaris," and that 
verses 128 und 129 not only agree with the residing consita, 
but (see below) go to confirm that i-eading, and agree much 
better witli it thnii with tlie reading concita, A better argu- 
ment for coKciTA is derivable from the almost f)verpowering 
weight of MS, authority in favoiu* of that reading. [See also 
Paulin. Epijtt. 33: '' prime ad urhcm acta Roman i portus 
Pharum vidit; deinde Campaiiiam longis tractibuei legit, rau* 
tatisque turbinibus in Africae littora transvolavit; atque ab 
ipais rursus abrepta Siciliam tnrnsciirrit, rii-c*a quani coneita et 
^rtieosa crebris (ut ferunt) insulis freta, ot pericnlosos etram 
s*ib gubernatore navibus cui-sus, inter ambages et obices insula- 
rum, tjun dirocto otiosus senex inofftnsoque navigio praeterivit, 

27 • 

886 AUNEIDEIA [111-136 hikc— imriofTts 

ut," &c.] Yet I venture here, as in one or two places dse- 
where, and especially in the case of "nee debita funera mater 
produxi," Aen, .9. 48^, and "limbo,'' Aeii, 2, 616, to go cooDter 
to the weight of MS. authority in order to obtain a much better 
sense. The idea (contained in the expression freta coNcrrA 
TERRis, the seas violently stirred up, greatly excite, put into vehe- 
me^it conwiotion (for such is the force of cox-cita) by the lands 
(the moveable and moving by the fixed), seems to me so highly 
incorrect that \ cannot persuade myself that the words are from 
the pen of Virgil; the more especially as in all the other in- 
stances in which Virgil uses this word, he applies it to the mov- 
ing, not to the risisting. power; exactly as we find it applied 
by Ovid, Heroid. 2. ii8: ^'concitn qui ventis aequora mulcet;" 
Trist, 1. 10, 11: "iniquis coneita ventis aequora/' and Ep, 19, 21: 

. . . "odioso coneita vento 
oorripio verbis aequora paene tuts;" 

with which compare Ovid, Ep, 7. 42: 

**aspioe nt eversas ffmrltet Eiirus aquas." 

Assuming, what I think no one will deny, that the Ovidian 
phrase last quoted is correct, I cannot bring myself to believe 
that its opposite is cori*ect also, and not rather a mere blunder 
of the scribes, confused between words sounding identically 
alike. On the contrary, the metaphor contained in the phrase 
cREBRfs coNSiTA TKRRis uot ouly is of the commouest {so com- 
mon as to be used even by the wholly illiterate Ida PfeiflFer, 
^^ Visit to the Holy I^and, Egypt, and Italy,'' ch. 2: "The 
Danube is now only broad for short distances at a time. It 
is, as it were, sown with islands''), but actually entere into the 
very name by which a considerable group of the islands spoken 
of was commonly known. Add to this that the words lboimxjs 
and ALLABiMUR imply an easy, skimming, unobstructed motion, 
and would not have been employed by Virgil to express the 
motion of the vessels over concita freta. The wind besides 
was fair, and Crete was reached, without difficulty or danger, on 
the third day. The picture which, I think, it has been Virgil's 

111—136 msr — lunsNTUs] 



intention tu place before tlie reader fias been thtis beautifully 
painted by Avienus, Desn\ Orb. Tenne, 710: 

*'liiDt' Sporades orebra prodiunmt cespite sese; 
(leoBa serenato eeu splendent sidera oaelo/' 

In answer to Heyne's objeetion ('•denitfue mm inteliigu, «nmiii 
poeticum hot^ sit, tarn acmutite Cycladas et Sporada:^ distinpuere, 
quod vix in ^engrapbieis libellis beri s<det'') 1 bejr to say, that 
no such distinction is intended by the poet* as dearly appeal's 
from tbe application of rlie term sparsas i characteristic of the 
Sporadei^: see tbe lexieographei*s, /// roe, *'Sporades/' and 
Mela, 2. 7) to the Cyelades, under whieb name are hei*e eoni- 
preheoded ail the islautls of the Aegean; pre*'iseiy for the 
purpose of showing whieb meaning (viz., that imt merely one 
group of islands is intended, but tbe whole of the islantls lyiu^^ 
scattered like seed over the fare of the Ae^j^ean) tlie supple- 
ing to tbe poet's usual manner, subjoined. Tbe poet is not 
singular in this gtnieral application of t!ie term Cyclades; for 
Suidas says: 2>rop«dec vriom^ u< ivtoi Kr/Mtda^ keyotmr, at tr 


elamoun> and exertions of the sailors on leaving port; "celeus- 
roa,'' Serv. Compare vss. 290, iiiu f where the exception proves 
the rulej; 4. 411: 5, 778, &c. VaL Fiacc, 2, 112: '^souat 
aequore clamor," Id. 1. 186: 

fUiulicuii, aiit blandus testudiue defuit Orphuus,' 

Rutil Num. Itin. I: 

**his mecum iJigii solabai: taedia veoti, 

dam rt\*fotHtf vaiiis vilfi peietuifna modiK/' 

These wordi?, therefore, afford nn argument in support itf the 
re-ading coNcrTA. and tbe opinion that the seas were rtnigh. Un 
the contrary, tbe very <[uietQess of tin* sea is assigned by ApolL 
BhofJ. 1. 1153 as a reason for greater Irustle among tlie erew, 
impare also Aeu, 7, 28: **in !ent<» luctnntur untrruniv tnnsae." 
The l**ft8 brisk th^ sea, the more brisk mnsi ho tbi* sailors. 

388 A£N£IDEA [111-196 mfio— nrrENTVB 

Neither are the, three lines nauticus . . . euntes in a wrong 
place, nor should they be removed in order to be placed after 
voLAMus. They are exactly where they were placed by Virgil, 
who follows on the train of thought suggested by linquimtjs, 
to tell you how they flew over the sea past Xaxos, Donysa, and 
the other islands mentioned, before he tells you the minute 
particulars of the setting out contained in the lines nauticus 
. . . EuxTES. According to his usual manner he gratifies the 
impatience and curiosity of his hearers first, and, this done, 
returns and particularizes at leisure. See Remm. on 1. 151; 
5. 704; 2. 480. The poet's train of thought is: LiNQumtJS 


TERRis, NAUTICUS . . . euntf:s, et TANDEM. The prosaic train 


and this is the train recommended for our adoption by Wagner 
— forgetful, as it would seem, that tlie verses which are to 
be set back will sin as much against the prosaic time-order 
when placed after volamus, as they do in the present position, 
and must, if we aspire to make tliem peifect prose, come in 
between j'ohtus and pelago; nay, must come in in the* middle 
of the clause ll\(^uimus portus itself, being, as they are, the 
description of the bustle of the sailors in the very act of leaving 

Prosequitur sur(jexs a puppi ventus euntes. — This line is 
rendered by Voss: 

"stcigoudcr wiud vom stcuer vcvfoUji die riistige meerfahrt." 

This is incorrect. Prosequitur is riQoneufcei^ ""heyleitet/^ e^cortHy 
(jovs aloHij icitli, not as of the party, but as an inferior goes along 
with a superior for the sake of protection, or honour, or some 
such purpose. Compare Acn. 6. 897 : 

"his ubi tiiin natum Anehises una<iue Sibyllam 
prosffiffi'fur dictis, portaque emittit eburna." 

Plant. CmfH. 4. 2, 3: 

'*nani novum niaritum ct iiovani nuptaiu volo 
rus prosequi (novi hominiini mores maleficos) 
ne (juis oam abripiat." 

1 n 1 36 mSC^l ITV KNTUS] 

BOOK m. 


Val. Fiacc. 2, 504: ^^prusequifur lateri assuitans/' Id, 4. 628: 

'MpBe viroK giradiens ad prlmi Uttoris undam 
ftroiteyttttiir Pbioeus." 

The thought, therefore, is an impruvement upon Homers, wliidi 
is that of mere companionship, Od IL 6: 

tx^trot^ «t'(iOj« /fi Tilijmmtot', tnl^Xm* n it toot'- 

No notice whatever has been taken of the word either by Can> 
or Drrden. most pr<»bably becauHe neither of them uiiderstouil 
it. Ruaeus, more valiant, btddly sets it down, pmpeUit. 

Optatae (vs. 132).— '^Unam ex iirbibus desertis (123) 
optat sive le^t, quam appeilat Pergamum, eamijue muris dn* 
git additque akcem/' Warner \Prmst,i But bow does it 
happen that the town had neither walle nor arx ready built V 
These were prime necessaries for a town in Crete as well as for 
towns elsewhere; and if the towns of Crete generally had sneli 
essential requisites, how does it happen that Aenea*^ pitihed 
upon, selected, one without them? No, ikk Aeneas went to 
ete because lie could get the ground for building and rhvell- 
Rng on without dispute, uot in onlor tu occupy like a pirate 
*»r bandit the deserted houses: and ''optata urbs" is the v\\\\ 
the promised, fated city, they so mneh longefl for, not tin: city 
►lected fn>m amongst others. Compare I. 17*k 

"egressi npfafu potiuotiir Troes arena/' 
a. 509: 

*'sternimur opintac gremio ielluris ad iindani," 

Aeneas and his Trojans woiihi have cut but a shabby figure, 
taking up their residence in an old (Mist off town, and the pur- 
port of HosiK VACAKK DOMos, vorsc 128. is not tliat the houses 
were without (HTUpieT*s and they might therefore go into tlieni 
and occupy th*'m, but that the dwellings are without an enemtj 
in them, ami they may tfierctiu-e safely and freely build in 

A HARE pocos {vs, 1 34 L — Not merely h iorr ihv (iomestic 
ihf but fo staff ehm hesid^' iL Compare Aeft, 5. i(i3, and 
am.; also **araatque ianua limen,'* Hon (unn. 25, 4, 

390 ABNEIDEA [111-136 hinc— .luvKtriis 

Arckm^ve attullkri: tectis. — "Arx attollatiir, quae prae- 

sidium sit tectis. Deforniant aliqiii loci huius interpretationem, 

cum poeta nihil aliud dicat quain: 'hortor, ut domos constru- 

ant, illisquo arcem superiniponant,' " La Cerda. That this 

criticism is entirely erroneous, and the modern interpretation ^ 

(''tectis, sexto casu, adtolh', eadem ratione dictum qua supra 

vers. 41) 'lACULis increscere/" Forbiger) correct, is placed 

beyond all doubt by Statius's exactly parallel expression, Achill. 

1, 428: 

'Mam natat oiiine nemus; caeduntur robora classi: 
silva minor romis: feiTum laxatur ad usus 
iuDumeros, quod rostra liget, quod muniat ai'ina, 
belligeros quod freuet equos, quod mille catenis 
S(iualentes neotat tunicas, quod sanguine fumet, 
vulnoraque alta bibat, (|Uod coiispiraute veneno 
impellat mortes; tenujintque humentia saxa 
attritu, et nigris addunt mucronibus ii-as. 
uec modus, aut arcus lentare, aut fundero glandes, 
aut torrere sudes, yalca^^que altollere corn's,'' 

where the meaning can be no other than increase the height of 
the helwets hij the addition of conea, pnt cones on the hehnets, 
manufacture helnuis with cones, i. e., the cone being always a 
part of the helmet, manufacture helmets. Accordingly, arcem 
A'lTOLLEiiE tectis Is to ruisc the arx with Iniitdings, in other 
words, l)uild their arx. A similar expression occurs at verse 
1S5 of the second book: 

*'hanc lamon immensam Cak;has attoUvrv raolein 
nthon'hits tejrtis caolociue educere iussit*' 

[erect this immense InitJx with carpentrt/, i. e., erect this immense 
hulk' of carpentry]. Compare Juvenal, 14. S^: 

**dum sic ergo habitat Cetrouius, imminuit rem, 
fregit opes, nee j^arva taiiion monbura reliotae 
partis crat: toiam lianc turbavit filius aniens 
duin nielioro novas atinUit uinrnforr rillas'' 

\l/uilds riita.s with or of tuarbtc, where ''marmore*' is the material 
of which the villas consist.] Attolleke tectis is, therefore, 
a poetical e(iuivalent for Ijuild up high, as ''aggredior <Jictia!' 

144-152 viiOTAii:~>Kra»T.] BOOK III. 391 

is for address, ^^expediain dietis'' for explain, &c. ; see Rem. on 
Am. 2. 199. 

Wagner {Praest,) has: "exaltare akcem aediiiciis, s. akckm, 
locuDi in urbe editum munitionibusque saeptum vel saepiendum, 
« quasi celsiorcm reddere inaediticamdo;'' and Voss: "and die 
burg aufthiirnien den hausern." 

Mr. Davies thinks the words akcem aitollere teotis certiiinly 
mean to raise a citadel {as a protection) for their houses. 

CoNNUBns Airv'isQUE Novis OPERATA luvENTus. — One of the 
numerous versos which Peerlkamp thinks should be expunged 
as unworthy of Virgil. That critic's argument on this occasion, 
if it does not edify, will at least surprise and amuse, the reader. 
See Rem. on 4. 551. 



VAE. LECT. (VS. 151). 

IN801IM8 III Bresc; Heyne; Wakef. 

I.N- S05INI8 UI Mod.; R Steph.; H. Steph.; P. Manut.; U C^rda; I). Heins.; 
N.Heins (1670); Phil.; Burm.; Bi-unck; Pott.; Jalm; Wagn. (ed. Heyn., 
ed. 1861); Lad.; Haupt; Ribb. 

IN STRATI8 has 1)660 proposod by Peerlkamp. 

VAR. LECT, (VS. 152). 

IN8KHTAS I Vat., PaL Med. II it HI Priiic ; 1). Hoins ; N. Ileins. (1670); 
PhiL; Hoyne; Brunck; Wakef.; I»ott.; Wagn. (ed. Heyn., ed. 1861); 
Lad.; Blaupt; Ribb. 


392 ABN£1D£A [144-162 v»fULM-«w»r. 

YicNiAMQUE PKECARC. — '^ Veniam erroris Anchisae qui oraoulum 
male interpretatus est," Serv. (ed. Lion). "Veniam erroris ex 
male intellecto oraculo," Wagner (1861). Not the meaning: 
venia, with Virgil at least, is always grace, favour ^ nerer 
fdrgivettess. Compare (1) 10. 903: 

. . . ''per, si qua est victis renia hostibus, oro: 
corpus humo padare tegi" 

(where it is not forgiveness which is asked, but tbe favour of 

burial). (ft\ 10. 625: 

. . . ^^sin altior istis 
sub precibus vetiia ulla latet, totumque nioveri 
mutarive putas bellum, spes pascis inanes" 

(where it is not forgiveness which is spoken of, but the favour 
that the whole course of the war might be changed). (8), 4.429: 

. . . ^^extremum hoc miserae det viunus amanti: 
exspectet facilemque fugam veutosque ferentes. 

tern pus inane peto, re((uiem spatiumqne furori; 
dum mea me victam dooeat fortuua dolere. 
oxtremam banc oro reniani " 

(where 'Mnunus'' and "veniam" explain each other, and the 
latter can be nothing else tlian grace, favour, indulgence, obli- 
gation). (4), 11. 101: 

"velati ramis oleae, rewmwque rogantes: 
corpora, per cam pes ferro quae fusa iaoebant. 
redderet ac tumulo sineret sucoedere teiTae** 

(where the "venia/' the favour, the obligation, asked is "corpora 
redderet ac tumulo sineret succcdere terrae"). (5), 11. 358: 

''ipsum obtesteniur, /Y'w?Viwque oremus ab ipso: 
cedat, ius proprium regi patriaoque remittat" 

(where the ''venia,'' the favour sought, is that expressed in the 
second line). And, compare (6), Stat. Theb. I. 205: 

. . . "nee protinus ausi 
caelicolae, leniam donee pater ipse sedendi 
tranquilla iubet esse manu;" 

144 -IM rrmuM^f tL%&rt 


pttx-isely so ID uur text, iho **reiiia" st»u;i:c^U is ma turgivt- 
for haviog lui^^taken tbe orade, or any other tbrg'iirtiaii^ 
^i>ut the favour of being told by A polio 



So much is this tlie case, so entirely is v»»nin grueiv favour, 
and su little forgiveness, that even svhere an error has been 
committed, and venia sought, as Oeonf. 4, 586: 

"nainc[iie dabuiit renium votis, fl*fts<jue reautttnit*' 

venia is not forgiveness, but the grare, tije favour, of which 
forgiveness is the eoiiset|uence and proof The error of l^iide- 
ng is exactly ludf that of Serving and Wagner Ktglilly 
nudei^tanding vekiam to be grace, not pardon, he bm yet not 
Lj»ercoived that the predse t venia" meant is specified hm 
C'tttiroly njibsed the connexion, vhniam: 

VLAM na^fQA KINKM ^AiVh pkrat; UN1ȣ lavokuu 

HiH words are: ''in der seuehe sahen sie eine .ntrafe dt**i PhoebuH 

ftir unwi>*4?entlich bogaiigenes uiireeht, daher tun gtiadf jkhen,^' 

Heyne. as little uudirstanding vkxiam an f»i titer Serviu** or 

Wagner, and perceiving nevertheless the connexion vickumi 

Li«iUAU FKssis, &e., mystities hiii reader if not hiinscdf with the 

pague: ''placaro deimi nt ille vere edi(!at, guAii kinkh,** A*', 

^Kappes has understood both the meaning of vkxum sLnd the 

eoDnexiuD^ and shows by numerous examples from other writerii 

uo less than from Virgil himself, that ifumk, f/ntce, favour, imd 

not pardati, ig the sease of the word- See Item, on 1. 522. 

ContiiTnatory of the interpretalioo that Krrj(itK» and i*ifav<at 
piiNATfis (v& 148» are spoken of the one object, viz.. the gods 
Penates, is that pas8age of Ovid (ex Prmio, 2. H, 57) when? the 
poet desiribe^ himself as worshipping the inipnntii of AugiiKtti« h 
family on coins sent to him from R'jme* and wliere there in a 
^stmilar bendiadys in the cane of thia Kamn term effigiei: 

"-kbcm tUi, qm noa nmoUcra^ nod iptcjn, 

qidqii« dmim oonun otirpori vmm ndmn. 
4tii«)d qi]<)iii«m oobit iavidit tootite fatom, 
fuo§ 4edii an votia ^/lj|MMM|iie oaloi'' 

394 AENEIDEA [144-152 venum— fenebt. 

Effigies sacrak divum phrygiique penates. It was not tbo 
material statues, the earthen, metal wooden, or ivory imaged 
of the ^'divi," which Aeneas dreamed he saw, but as rightly 
explained by Heyne, the " divi " themselves in propria persona. 
Compare Lucan, 7. 9: 

*^nam Pompeiani visus sibi sede theatri 
innuineram effigiem Ronianae ceraere plebis/' 

Culex, 205: 


^^ cuius ut intravit levior per corpora somuus 
effigies ad eum culicis devenit.*' 

In somnis. — Two difterent words are so frequently found 
written in the MS. as one word, and one word so frequently 
as two, that it is wholly impossible to determine from MS. 
authority the true reading in the case before us. I am decidedly 
in favour of in somnis by the strong resemblance to the other 
dreams of Aeneas, by the occurrence of the words "in somnis" 
in the narration of no less than two of those dreams (2. 270; 
4. 557), and by the words nec sopor illdd erat, verse 173, 
where see Rem. 

Iacentis in somnis, as "soinno iaeentem," Eel. 6. 24. 

MuLTo manifesti lumine (vs. 151), referring not to the light 
of the moon, but to supernatural light, as is placed beyond 
doubt by "manifesto in lumine,'' 4. 858, where there is no moon. 
The ancients laid especial stress on the clearness with which 
objects were seen in a vision. Compare Herod. 7. 47: Ei roi 
1] oifUi; €01 e\'V7Lriov jiti^ ivaQyt^g ovroj eifavri, ei/ec av vrjv 
aQXCticcv yvvmr^v, Aesch. Pers. 179: 

«//' or Ti Jiv) ro/oj'(J'' f-rttoyts t-idotiijV 

See also Horn. Od. 4. H41. It was this distinctness which con- 
stituted the difTerence between an ordinary dream and a vision. 
FenI'>>tras (vs. 152), not as.^r//. .9. .7.V7, the mere openings or 
holes in the side of a building for the admission of air and light, 
but as Hor. Cktrm. J. 25. 1: ''parcius iunctas (|uatiunt fenestras,*' 
the sashes, frames, or shuttei-s inserted into thos(i openings. 

144-16$ VKSUII-FIW15ST.] Book iil 


Insert A8, viz.^ r a rd i b i h u s. Ital tffwfjfwrate. Ixii^KitTAH 
KE>iKSTiui$, the wimhws [teifidoii':iashe,s or window- frames) 
iftmrted ihiinfj) on their himfe.s, the window-sashes^ in aufient 
times, and stdll in most parts of the c^rjntinent of Eump€»^ not 
ein^ fixed permanently in the walla like mir modern £ngH»h 
"windows, but hung upon hinges so as to elose and open like 
folding-ilooi's, and to be easily Lifted on iind off. In some parts 
of Italy it is still usual to remove the window-sashes by day 
and only put them back iu their phires — in set ere M^ardini- 
bus*— at night, 8ee Vocah, de ia Crnsm, in voce "ganghero**: 
"Mettere in gangheri vale aceomodare a' gangheri la eosa che 
va gangherata, e m di(*e aniM^a cosi tlegli arpioui delle imposte 
delle fenestre, e degli us(i. tjuatido si mettono in opera, rollu- 
cando nelle bandelle gli arpioni, Lat, (ardinihus inserere, 
immittne/* The picture represented in <>ur text is, therefore, 
That of the moon shining into Aeneas's chamber through tlie 
window-saKhes or frames, wliieh, having been removed during 
The day. were restored to tlieir plar*^ at night. We are left, and 
mu&t, I believe, ever remain, in ignoram^e whether these move- 
able window-sashes of Aeneas were glazed witli any tmnsparent 
material, or were mere sluitters with holes in them for the trans- 
mission of air and light. If, h^nvever, we ri^ard fkni-stras as 
openings simply, it will be p^issibW to take insertas fkkicstrar 
as meaning, not windows i/. e., openings) insertetl into some- 
ling iviJ!,, the wan>, Init windows or openings into whieh some- 
bing was inseited; and what sumetliingV speeularia no 
rioubt, or panes either of glass t)r of some more or less trans- 
parent substance, r.r, g/\, tah* or alaba^tei', sueh as are to he 
seen at the present day in eertain windows of the ehureh of 
San Miniato in Muivnte. and the mthodiats of Orvieto and 
Siena. Compare Flin. Ep, J. 17 \q^ eertain porticos in his 
Laui*entian villas): ''*egr6gium hoc adversum tempestates reeepta- 
culum, nam spcrufarihns, ae multo niiigis immineotibns tectis 
muniunlur,'' where see Pietro Marquez delle riUe di I^ii/tio. Rome, 
1796, pp.43 and 81; compare also Seneca, Episi. 90. The w^oi^ 
specularibus has been omitted by our author partly in order 
to avoid a particularization unsuitable to poetry, and partly as 

3dd AEEr&n>£4 [1*93-1^ use— 7An» 

iHineceasary, masmiicb as the inserted wiiHiow openiDgs Iteough 
which tiie moon shone coiild only be window openings inserted 
with specularia, specularia being not only the proper 
insertion for window openings, bat the only insertion which^ 
while it excKided the night air, permitted the entrance o£ the 

As msERTAS FENESTRAS, according to this latter interpretation, 
are windows which are not mere openings in the wall, but 
windows into which something is inserted, so "cavas fenestras" 
{Aen. 9. 534) are windows into which nothing has been inserted, 
mere openings in the wall, and through which, therefore, it wag 
easy for the Trojans to discharge their missiles. 



Nec sopor illud erat. — Nor was that sleep; i. e., that uhm nai 
the effect of sleep, a mere dream ^ fiction, or imagination in 
sleep. Compare Aeti. 8, 42: "ne vana putes haec fingero 
somnum." Also Stat. Theb, 5. 185: 

... "nudo stabat Venus ense; videri 
clara mi hi, somnosc^Q super'' 

fi. e., more clear and plain than mere sleep could present her 
to me]. Horn. Od. 19. 547: ovy, ovag akk' v/caQ ea&lov [^'non 
smnnium hoc est, inquit dea ad somniantem, sed res vera bona,^^ 
Damm, in voce ncaQ]. Stat. Theb. 10, 205: 

. . . "vanae noc monstra qutetis, 
nec somvo comperta loquor.'' 

And Sil. Ital. 3. 198: 

. . . "neque enim sopor ille, nec altae 
vis aderat noctis; virgaque fugante teuebras 
miscuerat lucem somoo deus/' 

See Rem. on "iacentis in somnis,'' verse 150. 

l?S-l«i IfEC-^PATM] 

sook: m. 


Stma^ that St. Jerome, in the rlescrfptioB which he has 
iven u» f>f his having beeii snatche<l up into heaven, and 
iere, before the* judgiiient seat of QoH. flogrgeil with stripes on 
account of his addiction to the vain literature of the ht^athen, 
should, at the very moment that he relates his solemn rennn- 
riation of that literature in the aetiial visible presence of the 
Almighty, not only nt^e this heathen argument of Aene»8, but 
even Aenea&'a very wunte, to prove that what he saw and heard 
on that occasion was not a mere idle dreiim. but a veritable 
heavenly vigion. The following is tlie passage, full of interest 
and instruction not only for those who do, but for those who do 
not, believe that it is inconsistent with the Cliri^tian character 
and profession to study with delight tho^ ancient heathen 
authors whose sayings and admonitionh; even St, Fan! himself 
did not disdain to mix up with his own in his Epistles to the 
Christian Churches: '* Interim parantur exequiae. efc vitalis 
anirnae ealor, toto frigescente iam t^orpore, in solo tantuni 
tepente pectusculo palpitabat: quuni subito, raptus in spiritu, 
ad tribunal ludicis perti-ahor . . , Interrogatus d© conditione, 
Cbristianum me esse respond!. Et ille qui praesidebat, ' Men- 
tms\ ait; -Ciceronianus es, non Christianus: iibi enim th^^aurus 
tuua, ibi cor tuuni', Illico obmutui, et inter verbera (nam 
oaedi me iusserat) conscientiae magis igne t^rqnebar , . . Clamare 
autem coepi, et eiulans dicere, * Miserere mei, Domine, miserere 
moi/ Haee vox inter flagella resonabat Tandem ad I^raeni- 
dfiutia genua provoluti qui astiterant, precabantur ut veniam 
tariteeret adolescentiae . . . exarturus deinde eruciatum, si gen- 
tiltum Utterarujii libros aiifjuaudo legissem. Ego, qui in tan to 
coQfltrictus articulo veil em etiam maiora promittere, deieraro 
coepi^ et nomen eius obtestans dicere, 'Domine, si unquam 
hat)itfii!a codices seculares, si legero, te negavi.^ In haee sacra- 
naenta verba diniissua, revertor ad superos; et^ mirantibus cunctis, 
oculos aperio, tanto lacrymariim imbre perfusos, ut etiam in» 
cfoduJUs fidem facerem ex dolore. Nee vero sopor ille fuerat, 
out tMMMi somnia, qtiil/tts snepe deludimur. Testis est tribunal 
tUnd, ante quod iacui; testis indicium triste quod tirniii; ibi 
mihi uunquum contingat in talem ineidere quaestionem ; livnnt<*H 

398 AENiUDEA [173-182 n«c— PA«d 

habuisse scapulas, pla£:as sensisse post somnum^ et tanto defainc 
studio divina legisse, quanto non autea mortalia legeram/' 
Hieron. Epist, IS (ml Eustochiuni i. 8eo concluding Rem. on 
Aen, 4, 

Manabat (vs. 175).— "Fluebat-' Servius. No; fluereis 
to flaw, to run as a liquid, manare is to flow out ofj to 
oone out of—*2L^ blood out of a wound (when it does not come 
in a jet) or as sweat out of the skin, or as a spring out of the 
ground ; and compare Quint Curt. 8. 86 : '' multa hedera vitisque 
toto gignitur monte; miiltae perennes aquae manant.'' Id. 
3. 11: "rivis, qui ex radicibus montium ma?iant.^^ See also 
above, verse 43. 


^'Pulchra est antithesis: de re vetere recens fuitAnchisae error,*' 
La Cerda, Voss. ''Novo. Solito more post retus omatus causa 
adiectum/' Hcyne, Wagner, the latter of whom adds ^nec 
desiderarentur talia magnopere, si abessent." ''Omatum in 
poeta lubens agnosco, sed non ineptum: pro novo scribamus 
.s7/o/' Peerlkanip. " Prae nimio studio profei-endi antitheti 
scripsit NOVO, nullo opinor scnsn; novo enim veterum respondet, 
sed nihil sententiae addit; imo puerilibUvS illam ingeniis quam 
virilibus aptioroni efficif Peaive, ad Longiu. de Snblim. "Novo 
seems best explained by Gossraii of the surprise of Anchises 
when informed of his mistake ... a mere verbal antithesis," 
Conington. Virgil's well -deserved reputation should have 
S(ireened him from the imputation. Virgil never makes mere 
verbal antitheses, never writes either nonsense or puerilitiesL 
Here, as so often elsewhere, it is the commentators who have 
mistaken Virgil's meaning, not Virgil who has not known how 
to write. 

Let us assign the right meaning first to novo and then to 
vETEituM, and we shall perceive at once that the antithesis novo 
VETERUM, so far from being a mere rhetorical flourish, conveys 
a most appropriate, nay, an almost necessary and indispensable 
sense. And first, with respect to novo: novo is not recenti, 
or new in point of time, but in soli to or new in point of 
frequency. Compare Propert. 1. 13. 33: 

l7S-ia-i NKc— rAtm] 

ROOK 111. 

nJ'ei'e; nou alb luiiuntj Uigous eras^ 
ijUiio tiLi nit Telix, rpioniam $wnts ior^idif r/7Vi/', 
ci (jnodoumjue voles, ima sit istn tiM'' 

(where we linvo, as in our text, buth **tniviis" nnd ^^error." and 
wheiv the meaning is: '^this, tor you, new and unnsiial ernin" 
via^ 0f falling seriously imd really and truly in love, not nnik- 
iiig an amour or piece of gallantry), (tporff. 4. H57: 

'^huir porcusaa nora tnontern formidiDti mater'* 

[•••a, for her, new and nniisnal iipprehenBion"]. Ovid, MrL 
3. 407: 

^^0[ utiimm a nustro secedere coipore posseuil 
votttm Id anmate iwvum; velleni quod amaaniR abess^ 

|*^a nt^w, h r,, strange and uniisnal, wish for a lover to make^'j. 
See Rt^nvni. «>n *'ni»va forma viri/' 3, 191; 'Miintr novus," 
5. 700: ^Miovus pavor/' 2. 228. 

Accordingly novo kkkork in our text means a new. /. r,, 
strsinge and unusual, error for Anchises to make. Compart' the 
not very dissimilar use made by the (5 reeks of nonntiK, llero- 
dot 5. 19: ej ^un, (Jxidov yc((3 air ai'tt/Mtoftivot aviut^tn rovg: 
Jioyovg, 01 1 ed&Xii;; €Uf t/.rrepif^ag Jiotuv it nutitQur* lyt't uv 
aev x^f^ui^ ^iifiEv veox.uioam xcrr* ard^tag rovTov^, Aiul see 
V^iilckn. ad Hemdot. 3H2: also Heindorf ad Plat. Proiruf,, 
p. 461. 

Novo so understood is the opposite of inveterate, aiui, 
idded to i':aiRi>RE, apcdogizes for the error in the same propur- 
tion as in Vetera to had aggravated it. It is as if Anehisos 
had said: *\vou will pardon an error surh as J have never been 
guilty of before^ my first mistiike." But why h this novo put 
into so immediate eonttict with vetkrum? Why the undeniable 
antithesis; novo Vetera? Plainly because the '^veteres loci," 
the places which were not new to Anchises, but conceiiiing which 
he had ijeard ami ttnuight much, should have been better under- 
f^tood by him. should not have been the subject of any mistake. 
Novo VETCTCM is, therefore, not a mei-e rhetorical antithesis, 
but, while an antithesi.s, is at the samo time an apology not less 


400 AMEIDEA [173-182 Ntx— fatis 

fit, proper, and becoming than required and even necessary for 
an error into which he, the Nestor of the expedition by whose 
advice and direction every step was taken (3. 9: 

''et pater Anrhisrs dare fatis vela iubebat.' 

8. 472 : 

•'interea classem velis aptare iubebat 

should least of all have fallen, and for which, lest this excuse 
should not be sufficient, the further excuse* is added that he was 
deceived by it — skquk novo veteri\m hkci-iptum kkrork locoru3i 
— an error such as he was not accustomed to make about 
places so familiar U> his mind, but which was so plausible it was 
hardly possible not to be deceived by it. How common among 
the Romans, even in (^veryday life, was the antithesis of novus 
to vetus appoai-s from Plant. Mercat, 5. 4. 15: '^ttovus ama- 
tor, refus puer.'' A?ffphftr. prol. 118: 

ii retrrcfft atqiio antiquarn roin itnrani ad vos proferain." 

Festus, in voce Meditrinalia: "Mos erat Latinis populis, quo 
die quis primum •i^ustaret niustuni, dicero ominis gratia: 'vetus 
ftonoH vinum bibo, rrferi noro niorbo medoor.'" Varro, ^^ L. L, 
G. 21 : ^*uoruni rrfffs vinum bibo, noro rcfrri vino morbo medeor." 
Sidon. Apoll. Cann. 2. S:i: 

. . . ••itur ill acMjUor 
niolibus, (3t rrfrrrs telhis nnni rontrahit unda.s." 

Am well might it be objected to any one of those examples of 
this so ftimiliar antithesis, or to Massinger's "A New Way to Pay 
Old Debts," or to Shakespeare's most touching passage in A7//// 
Lra?\ act 1, sc. 2.: 

••thus Kent, O priuces, bids you all adieu, 
he '11 shape his oid (^ourso in a (country .//<v/\" 

that it is absurd or puerile, aN to our author's staid, dignified 
and very much rerjuin^d 

I have to exj)ress my regret that my own former error 
("Twi^lve Years' Voyage") concerning the meaning of this 

Ilt5— 207 NOCTKM—lNStTltu/ 

no*>K lit. 


passage, and which I am son-y to say I cannot excuse as An- 
chises hag sa well excused his error t^onrernmg Crete, has bad 
the evil ronKetnifmce of leading Forbigfn*, and I am afraid 
others, into the dl-foimded helM that Anchises in the word 
NOVO acknowledge*^ his present error to liave been a seeond one. 

Novo UKCEPTUM EHiiORii, exactlv as '*pravo deciperentur 
errore," Aniinian^ 28, 2: 'MJui flexis pHplitibiis supplieabant, 
De Romani securitatis iniprovidi, ijiionini fortnnam sempitema 
fides caelo conti^iiani fecit, prnro (keiperentur errare^ pactisque 
ealcatis rem adorerentur iiidigaam." 

luACis EXERiTTE FATis. — The epithet EXERcrrE is here peeuli- 
ariy proper, Aeneas 's trouble.s an*! embarrassments having- just 
been twice unnecessarily increased by tw<j so considerable 
errorR of Auchise^s; see Remark on vei-se 18L Compare 
Anchises' application of the same term to Aeneas when he 
addresses him on die o<:casion of tiie uew jtmJ uueKpe*cted 
tn>nl»le of the bnrriin^^ of his shijis by the women, Aen. 5. 725. 



HiKMiNL hrnrtj rain. Compare Claud, in Kuirop. L 1: 

-oniiferos cartas, metuendatiue pignora matrj, 
moeiiibus in mefiiis nuditum noeto laporuitt 
rnavinur, et attauita pecudea pastore iocutas, 
et lajminm diaun kieme^^' 

\skowers of sto/tes]. 


quoting Lucretius, 2. 214: 

**DUDC heic, nunc WVw, nhntpf* rmhibiis igoes 

and observes: ''Abkupti, sciz, sr ahrtfmpentrs, exquisitius mnltis 
vicibus est et doctius.'' 1 hold this criticism to be erronet)Us, 

402' AEJTEIDEA [19i>-207 NocTFai— wsu*>. 

and adhere to the received reading— (1), because numerous 
exomples, some of them cited even by Wakefield himself, show 
that the pictiu'e iuten<led to be presonted is not that of the 
lightnings *^8e abrump(»ntos," bi^aking from the clouds or out 
of the clouds, but of the ligiitnings comin«>- from the offside 
of the clouds, from the sky above and beyond the clouds, which 
are. broken to let them through. Compare Sil. Ital. 1. 135: 

"•■" . ... •' /v//)/o« jue yWo mioat ipneus aether." 

Id. S.m\: 

'• congeininnt .soiiitus nfjtfi violentia raefi, 
imhrifera»n|ue hiomem ]iermixta jrrandine torquot." 

Id. 6. ()()6 : 

•'contr)rsit dextra fulnien, 4110 totn reluxit 
Maeonidiuii telliis, atMimr|ue per aethora volvons 
ahntpto fregit oneUt super a^inina nu))em. " 

IA.8. ()58n 

... ^' nipiifs(i\\e tVjigore 
horrisono jMfhfs\ et vultus ])atuere Tonantis.* 

Id. 17. 252: 

•"bine ntjtfi rcltoaro />o//. nt(|ue bin*' » robrn mii-aro 

Hor. Ofl. 1. 34: 

. . "iianiquo ])ie^|)itor. 

i^ni c<)rus(M) Huhihi fliridins, 
plorunu[UP i>or puriini sonantcs 
egit oqiios relorornquo ciirrnni: ' 

and Stat. Tltrh. 1. .7.7. V.- 

. . ••jibrupta trciiiiscurit 
liilgura; ot attritus siibita fare mnqtihn- mfhrr,' 

when' the disruption of the aether, broken by the li^htninirs as 
they tiavoi'se it, is deseribed as plainly as woi-ds can d(»scribe 
anything. i2i. herause in that vi^y passage of Lucretius which 
Wakefield relies on as |)r»»of that we should read AniM'iTr, not 
AHHiPTis, in oui" text, Maei'ohius read AiuniTis, not las Wake- 
field and Lachniann choose to read) ahritti. Ami iJii. 
because the greatly prep(»n(leratin.i>- weight (»f MS. authority is 
in favour of abklctis. 

lft6-207 NCKTKM— LNsi RG.] BOOK III. 403 

FuMUM fvs. 20H), the smoke of tlic habitations. Compare 
Horn. Orf. /. 58: 

ami lOff/. 10. mt: 

x('.;it'tn' if (ttuv ooo)tit-r /iVorOj,- tttaoofJtt. 

Vu.x CADUNT. — ''Demittiintur/' Heyno. Voss, Peerlkamp, 
Thiel, Jal ( 17/7/. Xnnt,. p. 379). This is not the moaning.. 
Cadere is here used of the sails in the stMise in which it is iiaed 
of the winds, as Ovid. Mrf. s. 2: 

, . . rtulit Kui-us. ot huinida suvjrunt 

Liv. 2^). 39: "Vonti vis omnis wcidUy Virg. Ueo^y. 1. H54: 
"Quo signo rtuhrvnl austri." The sails aie no longer in action, 
but collapse r'detiimetiunt,*' l)e la Kue), viz., for want of wind, 
the wind ceasing to blow as the ships near the shoiv. That this 
is the meiming is |)i5ieed beyouil doul)t by th<» e.xat^tly corre- 
sponding passage of Ovid, lutsl. //. /7«S'J; 

•*v«'la ctnhnit juiiin), rt .luhi.1 libTaiilnr jiI« aura, 
•liiulito roinijj^io,' navit^i dixit, * aquas." 
• Iiirmiup parant toi-to suIkIuchi'o «'arbasii lino. 
lieiNMititur rapidn |»ii])pis adunca Not^i," 

where the sails first "ea<liint;' then flap, and then, being. not 
only useless but dangerous, are taken in by the 8ailui>}. A« in 
the Ovidian parallel, the boatman, on the sails> Iwngio^ liuc 
load ere) in the calm, calls out "tindit*.* i-emigio aqttas/'i sorbin 
the words of Aen<?as the Trojans on the sam<? occurrence rise to 
their oars, lit^Mis iNsrH<iiMrs. 

The expression vkla cadi.nt rightly understood, the opposii> 
tion betwf.^en the two short and pithy clauses, vela cunuNT and 
UKMis ixsLKOi.Mis, couics iuto view. 

402^ AENEIDEA [195-207 ncittkm— wsuno. 

and adhere to the received reading— (1), because numerous 
examples, some of them cited even by Wakefield himself, show 
that the pictui*e intended to be presented is not tliat of the 
lightnings "so abrumpoutf^s," bi-eaking trom the clouds or out 
of the clouds, but of the lightnings coming from the offside 
of the clouds, from the sky above and beyond the clouds, which 
are. broken to let them through. Comj)are 8il. Ital. 1. IHfK 

■•' ... '*ntpfo(\\ie jKtIo micat ipneus aether."' 

M. 3. tfM>: 

"congeiiiinat soiiitus /•//;>// violontia raefi. 
imhrifcraiiH|U« hieinein |»eniiixta p-andine torqnet." 

Id. f). H06: 

'*oontorsit dextm fulnien, <iuo tota leluxit 
Maponidiuii tellus, atranuiue per aethern volvens 
qhrftptn fregit m^h super ajri»ina nubeDi.' 

Id S. lioH:, 

... ... " rtfptffsqne fragovo 

hoiTisono yx;///.v. et vultus patuere Tonantis. " 

Id. 17. 252: 

•*hinr.' ntpfi rohoaro />"//. at«|ne him- < n'bra niifnic 

Hor. Of/. 1. S4: 

. . •"iiamque Uiespitor. 

h^ni (torusr.'n mihilii diridiHs, 
plenimque per puruni souantcs 
egit equos relenMiiqiu* curniin : 

and Stat. Thrh. L .7.-7 .7.- 

. . "abrupta rreiiiis<'iiiit 
fulgura; ♦>t ;^ttritu^ suMta fa<'t' nnnji/'fttr orfhrr," 

when' thr disruption of tlic actlirr. broken hv tlir li«rhtninirs as 
they traverse it, is (lescrii)e(l as plainly as words can dfscribe 
anything. i2i. because in that very passa«ie of Lucretius which 
Wakefield n'lies on as pr<M»f that we sliould »ead viuiui^ri, not 
AHKiPTis, in our text, .Macrohius read aukiptin, not (as Wake- 
field and Laclnnann clioosc t«> leadi vhRreri. Aii<l iJii, 
because the -greatly prep(»nderatin^ weight of MS. authority is 
in favour of a ma' ens. 

1S5-207 noct>:m— iNsumi.] BOOK III. 403 

FvMUM fvs. 20()), the smoke of the habitations. Compare 
Horn. Orf. 1, 58: 

and ////>/. in. yU: 

Vyilx i.'ADL'NT. — " Deuiittiuitur," Heyno. Voss, Peerlkamp. 

Thiel, Jal ( Vin/. .\>////., p. :^7fh. This is not the meaning.. 

Cadcre is here used of tlie sails in the sense in which it is used 
of the winds, as Ovid, Mrf, s. 2 .- 

. . fftffif Kiii-us. «*t huinida sur}runt 
imltiln. ' 

Liv. 2tj. :i9: "Veiiti vis omnis rrffdif.'' ^ Ji'^- Ueory. 1. H54: 
"Quo s\\pM) (uiflrrvHt austri." The sails are no longer in action, 
but collapse ("d<'tnmetiiint/' l)e la Kue), viz., for want of wind, 
the wind cejisin^^ tn blow as tlir ships near tht' shoir. That tills 
is tlie meaning is plar^jci beyond doubt by the f»xactly corre- 
sponding- passa«ri' of Ovid, Fasl. ,}. /iSo: 

"\i'\n. ctfiitftif iiiiino, ft •lubiii lil»raiit,ur al» aura. 
•lindito ivmigio." navit^i dixit, *a»jiiiLs/ 
'him^in' parant. ttn-to sul»ducero «'arhasii lino. . - ' ^ 

pHnntitur ia[»iiln puppis adurn-a Noto." 

where the sails first -N-adunt," then flap, and then, beiiig.not 
only useless but clan^^eroiis, are taken in by the siiJiUoi't}. Afi in 
the Ovidian parallel, the boatman, on the saiils' faaangiog iiur 
(cadcrei in rho calm, calls out '^tindite romigio aquft^/r sann 
the w«>rds of At'n<.*as the Trojans on the same iiccurrenc^' irise to 
their oai-s. \ihysus ixsriioiMis. 

Tlie expiession vkla iaim nt rightly understood, the opposi- 
titm betw<;en the twn short and pithy clauses, vela cadunt and 
HKMis LNsiK(HMis, couics into view. 

401 ABNEIDEA [220-241 larta— volucrbk 



Laeta iJoiM . . . PKK iiKKHAS (w. 220-221). Compare \a\\\ 
24. H: ^'Liicus ibi, froquenti silva ot procoris abietis arboribus 
septus, laeta in medio j)aseua liabiiit ubi omnis generis saeriun 
dea(^ [Fjaciniae lunoni seiz.j pascebatiir peeus sine uUo pastore: 
separatimque egiessi euiusqne generis gi*eges noete remeabant 
ad stabiila, nunquam insidiis ferarum, nun tVaiide violati homi- 
num." Suet. Jtff, Cctc.s. Si: "Proximis diebus equorum greges, 
quos in traiiciendo Rubieone fhimine conseorarat ae vagos et sine 
ciistode dimistu-iit, oomperit pertinacissime pabulo abstinere iiber- 
timqiie tlere.*' Animals tiuis emani'ipated from work and never 
to be touched by butcher's knife because they were sacred, wei^e 
called Lv)(( mpera, as Synes. Episi, 57: /mi ellon' uer^ ayaO^wr tou' 
fhcidctr, wayiEQ er ifooj .itQi^ioXv) ret /.ooik'K ^ioor affeioy, 
ctreiuevoy, evyj^ /mi ^ii-f/ut /mi ^^h^Qa uequijv cor ;Uov. 

At subitak horhifk-o lapsu de montiiu:s adsunt hak- 
rviAK, i^c. — Compare Lc Bruyn. Voijaijc an Lcvaitt, 167 L 
vol. 1, p. 581: "Xous y demeurames fa Damiette] trois ou 
(juatre joui's; nous allious ordinairement aprrs le repas nous 
jiss(H)ir sur le haut de la niaisun, ou nous y promener, car elles 
sont toutos plattes, <*t nous prenions plaisir a jettor devant nous 
quclques restes de notre repas que nous avions apportez, et que 
nous voyions incontinent enlcvcr par les faucons dont il y a 
grande <juaMtite. Je n'ay jamais vu d'oiseaux si hardis, puis 
qu'ils venoient fondre au milieu de nous avec leurs serres. et 
s'envoloicnt ensuite avet' IcHir proye sur la maison voisine oil ils 
alloient manger a I(Mir aise ce c|u'ils avoicnt pris, et (M^^ (ju'ils 
Tavoient devo'v ils rrvenoient voir s'il n'y avoit plus rien a 

In sKCKssi i,oN(io (VS. 229). — See Rem. on these words, 
1. 103. 

-241 LAirr*— vol I r:i»ii*1 BOOK III 


FV)EDARE (VS. _*41 1,- •'Fafoiidiiiii ubi tie foerlis voliirribuH 
iigitur, panim a<:ruinnnHlamni vidwi vnreni," Heyne. *VFok- 
iJARE, putii sanguine, cjiilhI ruliifitnr iiitei'diim, i^itur cruuntiire, 
<Kid, Mf't, 7. 845: 'foedmiUmi sanguine vpstes,"" Wagn. (ed. 
Heyir). Warner's observatlun is erroiUMJiis, fur if fot^dart* 
^sufficiently expnsserl fydare sau^^uhie, whv did Uvid fiiiak 
it nwessary to add tlie '^sati^niine''? No, no; t'oedare is 
general, expresses only o/fenn^. sfm/limf, therefore has the instru- 
ment of utt'fnre a<lfiiHl: in the Ovidian nxaiople. ^'sanLTUine/* in 
the V'irgilian, fkkjco. spoiM with hhmi, spoilt d trtth the su'onL 
exactly as 12. U9, -^foedare in pulvem/' Kpo/hd iff \l a intk) 
Jiist; 4. UTH, ''uugnihus foedan^/' s^ioikd with Ihv naih; ibid, 
^pugnis foedims/' spttiittf trith lit* fixh; 2, b'M}, "foedasti fu- 
neix?/' itpt/iie^i imurallyj tri/h tl/r tltaflt. i. e. siwrhai or tijl't'itdi'd 
trith the death, Pmiii tile Hceideotal rirr lUJistinu*' that the instru- 
ment which foedat is tVeLjiiently id' n tiltfiy naturt*, the niistake 
hjis ari*ien that th<* topdave itself !> pi u perl y to om/,*' filfhf/, to 
make ditft/ ^'poUoere, inqnioare/' ^iesneri^ and that wfiere tlie 
wurd ifci applied aj> in tin* present iustanut* tii an instrument which 
vat doess not dirty, it in soapplietl because the instrinnLnit produces 
sometliing intcrniedijite (in the [>resent instance, blood) whicli 
dirtie:^. Fioni tliis, as it M»enis to mv. false view of the strict 
and propi-r meaning of thr leim, has arisen not merely Wagner's 
hungliu^ jyjloss, *'koeuvri!:, puta sauiicuine*' (tljtnigh our autliur 
uxpre-^sly infnrms us that tbe fokuahk was witli KKinto), but 
Heyne*s "paruni arcMnuiKMlatjoii vich*ri MM'em/' a pn'sumptiun 
which ba.s dmwn duun upon him rln- sraj-cely in this case too 
i*evere castigatiou nf nnmerciful Voss: **Wie kanu ein bescbei- 
dener sich ein s«dcljes urtlipil in einer fmmil^o sprache erlauben? 
und fiber Vir;;il!" Cumpare further, 2, 55: *'terro Ar|]^olicas 
fncdare latebras:** 4. 19.*): ''doa t<*eda*' |nnt difitf ur fiHhij, but 
nfjttf, both pljysically i'^niunstjiini horrendtjm in^eos cui/' &c.) 
and morally (^'infecta canelMit'')]: and Plant. Amphitr, 00 

(hI. By the): 

^' ftmknit et ia"ott:?ruiit huatiani copias 
iui*© iniustas, ' 

4^06 AKNKIDEA [260-275 alvii'Ite^apollo 



VAli. LECT. (vs. 250). 

I pnnct.] EKGO AXiMis • ATQUE I Metl. (Foggini). Ill P. Manut. : La Oerda ; 
Brunck; Wakefield. 

[punct.\ EHOO • ANJMis ATQUK HI N. Heins. (1670); Heyne. 

\punct.] KRuo ANiMis ATQUE 111 D. Heins.; Wagner (ed. Heyn., ed. 1861); 
Voss; Ladewig; Ribbeck. 

VAIi. LECT, (vs. 268). 

irwiMis 1 Pal. FUOmUS iKibbeck); Med. i Foggini). HI P. Manut.; 
D. lleius.; N. Heins. (1670); La Cerda: V(>ss; I^dowig; Wagner led. 
Heyn.. ed. 1861); Ribbeck. 

FKiuMUR IH Heyne; Brunck; Wakefield; '^fortasse inolius,' Ribbeck. 

1 prefer the reading fkrimuk. First, in order to avoid the cacophony — mus— 
HIS — nis. Secondly, because njiiiMrs is less dignified than fkrimlr. 
Thirdly, because the speed is sufficiently I'Xprcssed by the context with- 
out the help of FuinMis. Fourthly, because iLiiLMrs may very easily 
have been borrowed bv a scribe from kfki:(.lmls, verso 272. 

Ammis belongs, not to fkiItk, bnt to AaiiMTK; first, on account 
of the better cadence: seeondly, on aeeount of tiie parallel, 
5. :^04: 

"(icciptfr hap(; (nu'ifiis, laotas<iu<' advcrtite mcntes.* 

Xkc lv.m ami'LUs armis SKI) v<rris I'Kixnu .><,jrK luiiK.M kx- 
rosiKKK rACKM. — "Akmis f/ffdrrrrf tackm; hoe qnaerrrr repetis 
ex verbo kxposckhk," Wagner ( /V</r.s7. ). 

. . . '"nirht liinger mit kriegswehr. 
ii»Mn, luit. Helm uud ;:;elul»d ei"i))ahnen sie IVieden /.u lodorn.'' (Voss. - 

''Th(^ 'pax' which they sought by arms was liberty to feed 
nnnii^lested: that which they seek i)y j>rayer is freedom from 
further annoyantM- if the Harpies are nuTely monsters; deliver- 
ance from divine vengeance if they are goddesses," Conington, 

286-21)7 AKKE-MARTTO] BOOK 111. 407 

This is certainly Dot the meaning. The alternatives are not 
peace obtained by fighting and peace obtained by vows and 
prayers, but the alternative is, war or peace. On the one hand 
stands nec iam amplius armis; on the other, tacem kxposchie 
voTis FRECiBus<^un AuMis is entirely independent not only of 
KXPOSCERE but of any verb suggested by kxposcere, and depends 
altogether on its own verb understood, viz.. coittemlere, dimicare, 
or some such verb. 

PROHJiiETE MrxAS (VS. 265), theme; talem avfjitite casum, 

Aperitur (VS. 275), /.v vxposed to vietr, viz., on the fleet's 
rounding the promontory whicb^ had hid it. We have tiie con- 
verse exposure to view, viz., that of the approaching fleet, in 
Liv. 22. 19: "nondum aperientibus classcm promontoriis.'' 



The WMK CAVO, &(•.. of vv. 286-288 is tit-for-tat for the 

ilKu^ /.(Hftor. ic.vtc. loi^ xtilt' /J./.«(ff{ 

of Aesch. A(j(nn. J 7 7 ithe herald speaking). 

Cavo. — It appears from the following passage of Ammian 
(24.6) that shields wer<» sumotinu^s so hollowed out, /. r., adapted 
til protet't th<^ body not only in fn ►nt but on the sides, that 
they could on an emorgency be used somewhat in the manner 
of boats: ** Kt miratur historia Rhodaiuim arnui et loricam reti- 
nonte Sertorio transnatatimi : rum eo momento turbati quidani 
milites, veriti(|ue ne remanerent post signum ertn'tum, srfftis, 
({itae pafftia sunt ct imiirnt, proni tirmius adhaerentes, eaque 
licet imperite rcgendo, per voraginosum aninem velocitatem 
c'omitati sunt navium." 

410 AENEIDBA [^05-318 ct gem.— rkvtsit 

or(ff It itoi ft^if^ nrxirov f-nog, orit xhv tctn 

€itv .iQoaoinhrfi(t(; ri, rocr' am ^cQoy^EiQor e/orai vHUitq vJie^- 
viarjiia r^i^ Ar/ti^t;- where vicerAr/Mvua t/^c h\n^^; (English, in- 
cetfiire to ijrief) corresponds exactly to Virgil's cavsam lackymis. 
(•onipare also 8oneea, Troadcs, 77: 

*-ut. nulla dies moerore ciuet, 
sed nova fletus c«iusa ministrat. ' 

Ovid, Med Far. •;<S\- 

••et veniet rufft's altera causa (lolor' 

\grief which, as well as affp, ocrasioffs irrinhfes]. Sil. 3. 330 
(cd. Ruperti): 

"ne<.* vitiini sine Marte })ati: ^uippe omuis in arniis 
itfCfs f-aaaa ^ita, et damnatum vivere paci " 

\r(i(u^Oii for livhtij, reason trh/f fhvtj should firv\* 

Vous MNTii's (VS. 310). — Compare Horn. //. 22, 488: 

irr^rrftoc ir/'/€'lo<:. 

Kakis TUKHATi s vm( luus fiisro. — (.'uHipare Dante. Parad. 

.V. eVJ; 

. . . •• <;oiiiiuciai 
«|UAsi iruni* uom «.Mji troppa voglia smajra." 

Nk i>rinT\, NAM vKK'A viDKs (VS. 31()i: "1 am a real per- 
son, not i\n imairinod appearance." Compare Dante, Parnd, 

:i. 2U: 

•*\>'n' sustan/.ic son ^-Vn j.ho tu vrdi." 

(Jiis TK < Asrs. iVc— Aeneas has lieard and believes, l)ut is 
not yet perfectly sni-e i\s. 2iMi. that Andromache, after her 
tcMTibie reverse, has IijhI the i^ond tnrtiiiH' to hec(mie the wife of 

■"'' Ta«;it. ///.s/. •/. ///.• •* Intunuior*' statiin ^upcihia tV'rofia«iuo, ot pivtiiun 
itincris. douativuin. duplex >tipondiuni, iiug«'ri ('ijuinnn iiuinorum. promissa 
sine a Vitfllio. p^)^tulal^aIlt. iion ut a>N<M|uereiitur, sf.»(i rnnsam sftitfidni" 
\r.icifsr fi/r sr(litl(ni is iiJOH' paialhd than the passajiros cited in the remark. 
inasinu«'li as " seditiniii." like r.A<inN?i>, is in the dative ca.^e, Compare also 
l^r'w. Annul. 2. fit : " Kiiiinvero audita niutationo priricipi.s, immittoro latrn- 
nuni ;ilol)Os. exs<Miidere <'astelhi, rimsfiti lnlln" \iu-nr(H'(ifir*\>i fn trar]. 

aiV. aia . . ..KM.— RKVlSllJ BOOK HI. 


her dcreased hiishand's brotlif*r, nuw kiriir of Cbatuiin; and on 
his meetinir Aiidromaeho inquii-es of hcisoU" is the ^ood news 
tmf*. Afraid, however, tliat it ini/rht not hv true, and awai'e 
tfmt t«Mi warm rons:mtidatii>ns wtiultl in case it were nut true, 
only vvuund Ainlmrnarhc, he coninienees witli sympathy for 
Androiiniche's misf«>rtunes— nt:r! i^iis n: casus deiectam confume 
tanto Excrprr^ — bnt proreeds inmied lately to refer to rJae report 
Umt slie was no lonjeer tlip wife of ryrrhii^. bnt Helenus's 
i^nt^n: t^VAV. svtts oioxa fhrtuna kevish? "Is it true that yoii 
have at la^t met a return nf o^ood fortune?'' The sepai^ate 
rjuestioiis contained in th*- two distinct clanstt^s are thus re- 
ducible to the singi*' one: "In what conditicm. whether bad or 
pjood, <lo I tin<l Hector's Andromache? "—tin* bad conditirm 
alluded to being that of bein^' still as slie had been at tirst 
IvASVH EXCU'iT DEIECTAM) tlie roncubiTie of Pyrrhus; the good 
c^ndirion alhided to whusa fqutusa i^evisiti being her present 
Condition uis he had heard) of queen to Helenas. The single 
question tlois substantially contained in the two separated 
J clauses is then repeated in tho tlirec words, i^vuttntx' conxubja 
i^lsiEHVAS? the answer to which would t(^ll whether her }>resent 
^■condition was om^ of ;j:ood nr bad fortune. The answer is wliat 
^■Aeneas hoped and expected — '^ my present fortune is as p)od 
^■as the fortune of om* wlio was once the wife of He<-tor can 
^^be: Pyrrhus i^ drad. and f am the wifo of llf^rtio's lu'other, 
^^H the kin^ of this country/' 

^m Hkc is i^ntindy retrospr<'tivt\ refers f^enorally tn the cnnimon 
minfortxine *4' AcncxTs and Andri»rnatdn\ viz., tn their hiss *>f and 
xpnision from their country, and particularly tn Andromache's 
ilo«s of Hector (oeieitam conuoe tamo), not at all oither U) 
ndroniache's pi*esent circnnistanct's, or to the chances (casus, 
irruNA) which befel her sinco she Irft Tnty, and of which, 
laving as yet only heard rumours, Acricas now iiujuircs the 
Te, thus coming hrfure its vcib, is emphatic; places the in- 
fptiry wJiich Aeneas maki*s rcspectin^^ the condition of Andro- 
mache in opposition tn the jiupiiry which Andromache has made 
tcspet'tin^ Aeneas. Andronuiche havinof inquired uf Aeneas 

412 AENEIDEA [318-319 rkvisit— skrVas 

whether it was really himself she saw, or only his spectre, 
Aeneas first answers her question, and then asks her about 
l)orself: "It is really Aeneas, unfortunate Aeneas, you see 
before you; tell me now of yourself [te] wliat has been or is 
now your fate? " 

CoxiuGE TANTO refers back directly to Andromache's question 
about Hector: hector ubi est? Had Andromache not mentioned 
Hector by name Aeneas would no doubt have used some 
different form of expression. 

The so nearly reflated persons and so similar fates, not to 
speak of the general resemblance between the two passages, 
and the commencement of each with the self-same word, may 
well justify a conjecture that Virgil may iiave been here think- 
ing of Euripides' Hecuim, 55: 

r/fr. 0} ui]Tfo, ijTi^' fx rvotivvtXMv Souutv 
^ov).tiov rjuttn f/(ffsV ois' jtoanohi^ xtiXM^, 
oaov7if-n n' hot'' ((I'jiarjxMaiCs &f at 





ANDROMACHF. 1 f7(/.,* Poi., Mpfi.* II jVj! . HI PHscian [Inst. Gram. 16. 12)\ 
od. piinc; Von. 1470, 1471, 1V72, 1475: Mil. 1475, 1492; Bresc: 
P. Mamit.; D. Tleins.; N. Heins. il676); Phil.; Bask.: Heyno; Bninck; 
Wakef.; Pott.; Wagn. led. Heyn., Lfct. Vinj.. ed. 18G1); Haupt; 

AN'imoMACiiKN II ,.'',.. Ill Lid.: ('<jningt. 


There arc dots after kevisit and androaiachk in Vat. and Med. 

llii-ini' IlKVnSlT— SF.UV V:?] 




9\/m»ei.] nw-niRis am»homa< hk i'\i<hh]>' [or pyhkhinI tTiNsrritA skwvas"? Ill 
i'teriiLs: P. Marjut;* D, Heins.;* N, Reins. iKJTOj;* Hpynn;* Hrujirk;* 
Hiiupt; Wagner fed, Hf^yn.,* \at\ /^-r/,, n«d eiL 1H61l^ 

||/«/lW.] ilKCTORIS, ANPUOJIACHE. I'\ RRHTS" roXXimA SKTiV^-^V lit Baskf^'ViUo 1 

A Ijieri. 


^ Watef. 

^■[/ifirt^/J KKVIHITt m-^TOWlh AXimoM\ntE? t'\T»RHIN ^O^fUBIA fiKRVAfi? Ill Ribb. 

^■[pfi^fr/.^ Bm^isrr iikckiiitj^ AxnitfiMACurj^? i*ytirhin roNNunu bkrvak 111 
^m '^TwpIvp Yem***' VayAgo: ' liidewig: Coninfrton. 

^^""Si ANDKOMACHE. sequentlbus itmge: si anj)Rom\chkn\ supcriori- 

bus/* 8orvius, 0\' course^ if we read androma^ hkx. we an* to 

join ANDHOMACHEN witli the pnx'edin|2^ ukmsit. But we mv nut 

tU l^fld AXDRUMArHKX bllt ANUKOMA(HK, ANURnMACKK l^ein^ tlie 

rparling nf all the first-elnss M8S,» and a great majority of tlie 
fiecoud: and this andeomache is to be joined, not with what 

Hows, but witli what preredes: first, because it is usual when 
a person is adrlresse<l by name, that the name should have its 

lace somewhere in the first sentenee nf the addrt^ss: and 

iondly, bcnrause there is on the present occasion a special 

m why the name should not be timitted in the first sentence 

in order to be plaeed iu the serond, viz., because on the present 

occa&ioih so placed, it brinp^ Androomclie's tirst hnshancl, whose 

lame forms part of tlie title by which she is addressod (hkc- 

Kis a.MibomacueK anrl Andromaclie's tirst and mnst huppy 

marriage into pniuted and invidinus contrast with lier second 

linsband and second most unliappy luairiage. the sole \md entire 

ubjeot of the second sentence. It is impossible such sharp and 
intentional contrap*isition should not luive *>fFended Audro- 
inatdie, whom yet rt is »[uite [dain it was the intention of 
-Aeneas not to offend, but to sympathize witli and conciliate, 

Pbe same objections apply, and even more stronj^ly, to that 

* The oditoiii and editioiif> umrked with * read ukvihit? 

414 ABlNEiD^A [318-^319 Rn^isrr— 8Kr\'a« 

arrangement of the passage by which hectoris is made to 
depend not on andromache but on connubia, viz., hectoris. 
ANDROMACHE, pyrrhin' CONNUBIA SERVAS ? the arrangement of the 
Baskerville, followed, according to his invariable custom, by 
Alfieri, who thus translates "Di Ettore ancora, o di Pirro, sei 
tu?'' a question itself amounting to: *'To which of the two, 
He(^tor whom 1 know to be dead, or Pyrrhus who I have 
heai*d is dead, do you belong?'' ''I belong neither to the 
one nor the otiier, but to a third." The passage therefore 
should stand thus: 


an arrangement according to which the mention of Andromache's 
lamented first husband not only is not placed in jarring collision 
with the mention of her hated second, but is placed exactly 
where it is needed to complete and explain the reference to 
that lamented first husband which is contained in the words 
(■ONircjE TAXTo and dkjna satis fortx'na. In other words. Hec- 
tor's name, as part of tlie first sentence, informs us according 
to Virgil's usual manner, of something hitherto imiitted, and 
yet necessary for the information of the reader, viz., who was 
the so great spouse just spoken of, and what the high fortune 
from which Andromache had fallen, while, as part of the se- 
cond sentence, its sole effect is to jar offensively with the name 
of Pyrrhus. Still further, the tenderness of the relationship 
between Hector and Andromache, expressed by the terms 
iiKCTOHis ANDKOMACiii: ("Hcctor's owu Andromachc") — so much 
more endearing an expression than coitinj: Hectori.s Andro- 
niadie — is as appropriate in connexion with the sentence in 
which AndroniacheV happiness as Hector's spouse, and Andro- 
mache's irreparable loss in Hector's death, is dwelt on, as it 
is out of place and improper in connexion with the name of 
the man who, having sacked Tioy and slain with his own 
hand Hector's aged father. Andromache's kind friend, protector, 
and sovereign, possessed the bereaved widow by the sole 
right of con(juest. And further still. {\w words hkctoris an- 

:i2 1-332 FKT.IX— ARASj 

BOOK lit. 


DROMACHE, regarded as belon/f^hig; to the first sentence, have 
that strong emphasis which belongs to words which at the same 
time conclude a sontt^m^e and commence a line, an emphasis 
wholly wantioj^ to them when regarded as at one and the same 
time the beginning of the line anrl the beginrung nf the sentence. 
Hoc* Rem. on 2. 246, and compare, only eight lines previously : 


Also, 1. 330: 

'^nulln timrum Audita mihi neqtio visa sororinn, 
0, quam te moinorem? virgo." 

Servas,— '^In Pyrrhi, et hostis et multo ileterions viri, 
intitrim<»nium venisti!'' Wagner. On the contrary, I think the 
question is, conformably to the peculiar force of tlie word ser- 
vare* ^'art thou still the wife of Pyrrhus?"' Aeneas harl lieanl, 
and it was generally believed, that Andromucho had biHronie 
PVrrhus's e^meubine, and wliat ho asks is not wliotlier she has 
hccumo Pyrrhua's, but whether she continues to be Pyrrhus's, 
he expecting the answer which bo receives, viz., that the news 
hetu'd is ti*ue, and that she is now the wife of Helenns. 


— I'YRRm not being emphatic, and nk belonging in t!ie sense 
not to the word to which it is appended, but to the verb 
SKRVAS, exactly as 2. 738: '-fatone erepta Crensa substitit?" 
and 10. 668: **tanton' me crimine dignum duxisti?** in both 
which places tlie inten*ogative particle belongs not to the word 
to which it is appended, but to the verb. 



FELIX, &c. . . . crKn.E (vv, 321-324).— Exactly as the same 
Andromache says of the same Polyxena, Eunp, Troad, 03! : 

Jwoijv ;■' okmXn' 1 1' r v)^i a It ijut /loiwoj* 
\ BSntT^ AiKElIiRA, TOLt IT. 29 

416 AENEIDEA [321-332 o tELiic— Aftiifi 

and exactly as the same Andromache, Seneca, Troad. 980, of 

•'Cassandra felix. quam furor sorte eximit 


happiest of all the daughters of Priam!'' 

VicTORis HOI TETKiiT CAPTivA (XBiLE. — Compare Anthol. Pal. 
(ed. Dtibner), 9. 70: 

lussA 310RI.- Compare Tacit. Aimal. 12. 14: ''Atque ille 
non propinqinim, neque Arsacis de gente, sod alionigenam et 
Romanum increpans, auribus decisis rircre iuhrf, ostentiii ele- 
mentiae suae, et in nos deiionestamento." 

Stirpis AcmLLEAE (VS. 326), ''/. r. gentis Aehilleae, nempe 
Myrmidonum: nam repetitio tarn inhonesta politissimo ingenio 
prorsus indigna est. Haesit Servius, qui suggerit, 4dem bis 
dixit,'" Wakefield, Silr. Critic. On the contrary, there is no 
repetition, and the passage is according to our author's usual 
manner. Stirpis aciiillrae is e(|uivalont to "filii Achillis," 
and the whole senten(*e tantamount to "fastus illius iuvenis 
superbi, filii Achillis.'' Sthmms achilleak at the beginning of 
the vei-se is emphatic (see Rem. on 2. 247), tJtc breed of Aehille^, 
and is rendered more emphatic by the aggravating words at the 
ond of the verso, iivknemquk siiperhum. In Englisli we wouhl 
of course revei"se the order, and say. ''that j)roud youth,' the 
breed of Achilles." To understand sthums achu^leae of the 
Myrmidons, and only iuvknkm supkrbum of Pyrrhus, is to make 
the ill-treatment Andromache received from Pyrrhus secondary 
to and of no moment in comparison with that received from 
the Myrmid(ms, which is absurd. Compare 7. 50: 

^^filiiis hide fato diviiui pro/cjit^tu riri/t's 
nulla fuit." 
(). 628: 

"hie ihalamuvi invasit natae, rctitosf/ue Injmnincos.''^ 

Servitio ENix ae ( VS. 327). — '* Enixa, s u b i u g a t a ; Virg. 
Aen. lib. 3: servitio exixae tulimus," Nonius, who in 
another place thus repeats the gloss: 'Knixas non in partu 

321-332 FKLIX— ARAS] 

BOOK 111. 


solum pnssiiiiius rJieere, sed otiam omni lahom exercitas, auctore 
Vir^. Arf/. lib. tertio: 


Icnow not which of the two facts most amaxes me: that Nonius 
su interpreted the passage^ or that lieorgo Fabricius, J. H. Voss, 
and Jahn aeeepted the interpretation. Yet so it is: Nonius so 
inteipreted the passage not merely unce, bnt twice, and thos<? 
three eminent scholars unhesibitiiigly accepted the interpreta- 
timi, the ineviUible etTe'ct of such interpretation being to dislo- 
cate Andromache's answer to Aeneas in the ver\" middle, and 
to render nos , . . stiri'is vcnn^LKAE fastds iuvenemque super- 
hum sia«vrrro knixae iTiiMLTS utterly unfit to follow as apodosis 
the protasis u FELrx iussa mori quae soRTrms xon i'ektiljt 
nu.os KKc vicTORis UERi TKTiGrT CAPTrvA cuiULE. The protasis, 
Uappy I^lyxendf saved % firaff/ [row sfarrrff ojul roffrtt- 
hinnffe! rofjuirts at h^ast thr a]M(do?;is, Miserahle itH\ tvho harv 
lived to he holh slmr ft it f I eoiicttlune! The inter-prctation of 
Nonius— alt^jgether exrluiling concubinage from the apndosis — 
must tlier^foro give way tn that of 4Servius (ed. Lion): '^Skk- 
vmo ENiXAK Ti'tjMrs, hoc cst, 'pertulin)us, iJorvee in servitio 
positae enitereniur/" which not only supplies the indispensable 
(u»neuhir)iige, but tenfuld aggravates its misery by the biith of 
u slave child frompaie Tacit Ahiufl, 1, 5!): ''Arminiuni, supc*r 
iiisitiun violentiam, lapta uxoi*, su hi reins serrlUo uxor is tUeriLH^ 
vecordcm iigebant , , , Neqiie probris tcniporjibat: M^^gregiiim 
pwtniui! magnum imperatoreni ! fortem exereitnrn! c|uorum tnt 
nianus unani muHen'uhuii avexerint. Sibi tres legiones, tottdem 
legatos, prorubuisse. Non eniin se proditione, neque adveisus 
fe^nifHUs yruvidits, sod pal am ad versus armatos bellum tracfare/^* 
IbiiL h 57: ^^Inerant fcminae nodules, inter qnas uxor Arminii, 
eailemque filia Hegestis, maiiti magis quani parentis animn, 
nci|ue victa in lacrymas^ neque voro supplex, compressis intra 
ainitni manibus, (irarifhim tt tenon intuens^'J. The objection that 
KNTXAK requires an object expressed hm not a foot to staad im 
in face of Tacitns, A/iftat, 5, I: "'Ex in Caesar eupidine fornnie 
uufert [Livinni Diusinam) niarito, incertum an invitam, adeu 


418 AtlNHlDEA [321-332 o raux— aUAS 

properus, lit ne spatio (]iiidem ad emtenditm date penatibus 8iii» 
gravidam induxerit." 

Mk famulo famulamque hm.eno TKANSMisn' iiABKNDAM.— Accord- 
ing to ancient mannei-s the master hnd absolute authority over 
his slave. It was, therefoi-e, no slur on the moral character 
of Andromache, that she, who had been formerly the wife of 
Hector, and afterwards the slave and concubine of Pyrrhus, was 
now the wife of Helenus. Andromache could no more resist, 
except by suicide, the maniage witli Helenus commanded to 
her by Pyn-hus, than she could resist being made slave and 
concubine by l\rrhus. It had been a different case if, cast off 
and left to her own government by Pyrrhus, she had then of 
her own choice married Helenus. It might then be said with 
truth that the wife of Hector, enslaved and made a concubine 
by Pyrrhus, should, when cast off by Pyrrhus, have lived single 
for the remainder of her life. But being given, handed over 
(transmlsit HAnENDAM), by Pyrrhus, she had no choice but to 
obey. A remarkable parallel in Roman married life, and sin- 
gularly demonstrative how nearly equal to the authority of a 
juiuster over his slave was the authority of the Roman husband 
over his wife, is afforded by the **transmisit habendam'' by the 
second Cato to Hortensius of his innocent and blameless wife 
Marcia. Hear th(^ unhappy woman's own account of the trans- 
action, as given by Lucan, and compare it with the account in 
our text of tiie treatment of Andromaciu^ by PyiThus. After 
the death of Hortensius, and having had several children by 
him, Marcia thus supplicates her lord and mjister to take her 
back even nominally, that it might be inscribed on her tomb 
that she died the wife of Cato, and that posterity might not 
confound her temporary tradition C'tradita," almost the ver\' 
won! of Andromache) with divorce (Lucan, 2. 838): 
"dum sanguis inerat, duni vis iiiaterna, peregi 

iiissa, Cato, et geininos oxcopi fueta iiiaritos. 

viscoribus lassis, partuquo oxhausta, revortoi" 

iam nulli tradenda viro. da foedera prisci 

illibata tori; da tantum uomen inane 

connubii; liceat tuniulo scripsisse *Catuuis 

Marcia:* nee diibium longo <iuacratur in aovo, 

nmtarim prinias expulsa an tradita tiodas.'" 

1—332 FUJX— ABAi^l 

BOOK 111. 


Famulo FAMiXAMQiE, — A ratlior roundabout way of exprpssitip 
thij ctnuplex iflea wliich is su brioily yet so fully pxprosised 
by the Greek awdotloQr Kurip. Aiidrom, 65. 

TuANSMisrr i]Afi>:NDAM, as ^Hmnsmittit habei*e," Stat SUi\ S. 
H. 76; 

"pniecipuos sed euiiii oierito subrexjt iu actus 
nouduni stelligeruui senior deniissus io axem 
Claudiusi, et longij irani*mHtit habere oepoti.'* 

Hod ^'doiiat habere," Aen, 5. 26H, 

AsT ILIXM, kc. \Ti\^ (vv. :SH0-332), — ^Two caiisf^s, operating 

toother, impel t)restes t** kill Pyrrhiis, First, he is in a suitable 
irame of niind, in coiiseipionre of the effeet prodiiccd on bim 
by liis previous murder of \m niotlier (s^kkkrum furus ahitatls); 
and next, he is speciall\ (inivokr^d to the art by the carrying 
off by Pyrrlnis uf l)is beloved spuuso iKif^nAK maonu 
ATUS AAioRE ooMUois), That tfiis is the precise meaning is 
leclared by Aiisonius, Kitllaph, flerottm, 9: 

'*i»niiius ftuto wnm 4uem fratide peretjut Orostet*. 
*imd mirumV caesA mni genetrice fiirens." 

Fij'Rflii (vs. 331 L nut the pvraaJts, Ua Ffdifs, but (as 1. 45: 
''furias Aiaeis (Jilei'* \thv tnwl*it\'is of Ajnx\\ It). 6N: ''Caissan- 
drae inipiilsus furiis" |////' mmiNvss af VassaH*lfu\\ s. 494; 
"furiis surrexit Ktrnria instis" [tt just i fad mtftiff(\ss\y the furious, 
raffiuij or uuid state of Orestes's tn/utt: tirst, boeause such sense 
is mon* in conformity with the depressed, hunnliated, nuexcited 
tone in whicli Andromache speaks; secondly, because sckleruaj 
harmonizes better with kikiis undei>^tood to mean tNadn f'.s,s, 
than with Fuuns understoed tu mean ttw persoruf^ ihr Furfe.s; 
and tliirdly, because Ansonins, in his nianift^st refeixnice tu the 
passjige (see above), not only makes no nicntiun of the Furiosi 
but very explicitly mentions the nnidness: 

*'e^iiid miniiM? iMeiMi lam genetrice fureiis.*' 

Fuiuib AoiTATiis, as Stat. Siir. .7, .7. fif^ (yf Cali^'ula): 

. , , '* iiL'c iPioxuiiiis heres* 
mnnitis 4uain|imiii <4 fnrfh fitjitutus^ abegit/' 

if he had said, the savage, luad Qiliyula. 

420 AENEIDEA [339 364 sui'ekat—repoct. 

ScELrauM FURiis, the madness arising from his murder of his 

Incauttm (vs. 832), sciz., because he was patrias ad aras, in 
other words, in penetralibns suis, or more simply domi suae, at 
home. Compare Sallust, CatfL 28: ''Domi suae imparatum 
confodere" (Ciceronem sciz.]. So Aen. 1. 353, "ante aras," 
/. e., vMv' e^oxfjv, ante aras patruis, in pe?i€tralibus, where also 
'ineautum' is applied in the same manner, and for the same 
reason, as in our text. 



VAR. LKCT. (vs. 340). 

QiKM I Vol., MciL* II I ; Piorius (whose silence concerning quak shows 
that ho was unaware of the existence of that reading) III Venice, 1470; 
Aldus (l.ol4): P. Manut. ; D. llcius.; N. llcins. (1670); Heyne; Bruuck; 
\yakcf.; Lad. i enclosing the words from miEM . . . parentis between 
brackets): Claudius Sacerdos, proleg., p. 211. 

QUAE III Wagn. (ed. Heyn., Lecf. Vtrg., ed. 18G1); Haupt; Ribbeck. 

VAR. LECr. (VS. 341). 

ECQi A TAMEN I IT//. II Piorius ('* Codd. nonnulli veteres legunt et qtae 
lAM. In nonnullis etiani pervetustis scriptum obsorvavi ecqua tamen"). 
Ill N. Heins. (1670); Heyne: Wakef. ; AVagn. (od. Hcyn., 7^(7. Virg., 
and Pracst.)\ Voss; I^'id. : Haupt; Ribbeck. 

et qua tamen I Med. II \ (Vat, 1570 1. HI Brunck. 

ECQUAE lAM III p. Manut.: D. Heins.; Phihppc. 

ET QUAM TAMEN II \ I Vienna, 115!. 

ECQUAE NAM III Vcnico, 1470 (in which od. this vci>;e precedes the vei'se 



Ribbegk's statement th;it the Mcdicean reads miAK is incorrect. 

33il 'M^ srTr'FTrVT-I?FT'nKl,| BQUX 111. 


SurKlMl>K Kl VRSCITUK AURA ?— VKSCtTIR VUHA, HOt h'eat/tf, but 

itce the h'fjht. 8ce Rem* on 1. 550, Hero, as m the story of 
Polydorug, in '^iiec cedit h<jnori,'' and in the uponing of the 
fourth book, Virgil hm Kuripitles before hk eyes {HccuIk UH4): 

*r fci)' , . 


the Sophoclean {Tynrhin, 54): 

uttltnttt (f' uj'jitu i-txitg, YlAut^ ^t rtttrtio^ 
vt^m iw' mmv jov xttlm^ nauannp doxnp; 

^jij^ested this vei-se? the siihje».»t of the Sophocleim passiige 
beinp^ Ibfllns the son t>f HeR'uIes ;ind Dejanira. and the subjeet 
of the Virgilian, Kus snn of Aeneas and Creiisai; and Aeneas 
being modelled, rnntaim mfitandts (see Hem. <m ''atlire labores^'* 
1. Ub) after Hen-ules. 

IUJ>S P0RTR1BU8 HEX ACClPlKflAT IN AMPIXS (Vi^. t^53), /. f'., 

hospitio ACCfPiEBAT, Ur. eieiytaot, as lloni. //. :J. 207: 

Compare ids* l^h^nt. Ampkitr, }2!f jod. liitthe), Mere, speaking: 

^'ego |Kii te istiis tuis i^^ro diLtis et uialefactifif furetfer. 
aecipiam! ruodo sis voni hue: invonies infoi'tuniutn 

Jmtl rvreivv tjon^ h e., eittfrfai/f tfott, ftmt ifou]^ and veise 111), 
where i5osia says: 

*^ceito adveDieijtGiii hie iih^ lutspifw imgueij tir^^tpttfaus est/' 

PttAEl'frms OMINA PICNKAK (VS. MX). — (iuerv . is jirarpcs tfie 
Ureck %htiQiog, Aesclu Atjitm, J Off: 

Oil Ms A)(Hiitn* 4ii^iiijitfm* xotau^. EllmSos r/^rtt; 

SvutftiorH ttr/ttv, 

Ji^pitti fji'p do(** jifia /t(j| 7tf)H it ftt^ii •>oi'(ii»i4' i*l*^ii 

Kki'^stas (VS. 864k — ^'Longe pDsitas, remotas," 8ervius, 
Heyne, Conington. I think not. A thing may be repostnm 

422 AENBIDEA [339-364 superat— rbpost. 

which is not far off. Reponere is merely to put aside, pvtauyiy, 
/mt upj and generally, though not always, with a view to future 
use. It bears the same relation to removerc as abdere bears 
to condere. Compare 1. 30: "manet alta mente repostum" 
[laid up in her mind]. 6. 655: ''tellure repostos" [laid up in 
the earth]. 11. 594: 

. . . "corpus et arma 
inspoliata feram tumulo, i>atriaque repotiam.'' 

Sil. 12. 23: 

"ac no nocto quidem clii)eive erisesve reposti'^ 

[not even by night laid by or aside]. So also in Italian, Metast 
La Strada delta Gloria: 

''alia voce, alia vista un gel mi 8coi"se 

dal capo al pie le piu riposte vene" 

[not the most remote veins, but the most inmost, the most diffi- 
cult to get at]. Petrarc. Son, 239: 

*'ne giammai vidi valle aver si spessi 
luoghi da sospirar riposti, e fidi" 

\H()t remote, bftt secret, hidden, out of the public gangway |. 


is the theme, and terras tentare repostas the variation, Italy 
being the ^^terrae repostae'' or land laid up in store for future 
use. A thing may be at one and the same time repostum 
and remutum, both put by fur future use and I'emote. To 
Aeneas leaving Troy, Italy was so; but this remoteness is by 
no means expressed by repostas in our text. When it is 
intended to express this remoteness some adjunct is necessary, 
as (). 59: 

**tot niaria iutravi, dace te. penifi(^(\u.e r(po.sfa.s 
Massyhim gontes." 

371-376 LDilNA— AFSPJ 



LiMLSA^ the adytufu, ur shrine. Compare 3, 91: 'Mimina taii- 
nisquc dei/' where see Rom.: und 1, 509; '^foribus divae/' 
where also see Reai. 

SuspENsuji ^vs. 372 K ift JHHspt'fise, Compmv Plin. Epist, 7. 27: 
**licet etiam utraratiut' in partem, ut ^o\es, disputes: ex alteru 
tamen fortius, ne me stLspffmum inrertiuiifiue dlmittas, rum 
mihi fonsulendi cansa fiierit, \\t dubitare desinerem." It is a 
metaphor taken from thu balanced position of an iibject which 
hangs by its own weight, which hangs suspended (suspensum) 
and is swayed by the slightest impulse either forw^ard or back- 
ward. This and nothing else is the moral suspensus of the 
Romans, as this and nothing else is the mural Husprnsf: nf the 
English, As the two directions, the two "airts^ between which 
the thing physically suspended fsuspensns) sways to and fro 
ar-e right and left, north and south, or east and west, so the two 
directions between which the nnnd is morally suspended isus- 
pensus) are hope and fear, t!ie expectation of good and the 
expectation of evil Aeneas is *'suspensus** (/// suspense) between 
hope of good and t'ear of evil; he is ^'suspensns numine/' being 
in the presence of a divine will and pleasure abinit to announcx^ 
to him definitively either the one or the other; and ho is ''sus- 
pen^us AirLTo ntmine,'' because (see belnw) the divine will and 
pleasure, in the presence uf which he feels liimself, is of no 
common kind, is that ot the vaticinating god par excfileNce, 
While in this state of suspense, the priest tidtes him by the hand, 
leads him on, and utters the nratde. Nothing can be more appro- 
priate than the action thus addetl to the w(*rds, the action re- 
solving and putting an end lo the physieal suspense of Aeneas, 
to his hesitation to approach nearer to the aw^ful presence, while 
the words put an end to his moral suspense, liis uncertainty 

424 AENBIDEA [371-375 umina— atop. 

whether he was to fear from the god a confirmation of the cTil 
with which he had been threatened by Celaeno: 


i'roi)1gh:m camt kt tristks dkntntiat ihas 
onscoenamque kamem, 

or a ratification of the encouragement he had received from 
other no less inspired sources to proceed fearlessly in search of 
the promised land: 


That Servius wholly misunderstood the term is proved not 
indeed by his gloss ^'sollicitum et attentum," because, as I have 
frequently had occasion to observe already, Servius's glosses 
are seldom so correctly couched as accurately to express his 
intended meaning, and nothing is more usual for him than, in 
common with all illogic^il writers, to use the corollary instead 
of the thesis, but by his hesitation between suspensus and 
suspexsum: "si suspexsus, ipse titontnis jAvhus; si suspexsum, 
me soUicituvi et atteitttim.'' Had he understood the term, he 
could not but have perceived that it was not Helonus the seer 
who was about to answer the questions to clear up the doubts, 
but the inquirer who had put the questions, and was awaiting 
the answer, who was ''suspensus/' Heyne. Wagner, and 
Forbiger always expressing themselves with precision, there can 
be no doubt cjf their misapprehension of the term, and that 
they have really understood the si spexsum of our text to mean 
precisely as they say: ^'perturbatum, percussum, turbatuni 
horrore" (''plenum honoris nati ex efHcacissima vi (multo 
xumixe) praesentis dei." Praesf.) — a meaning as little warranted 
by the etymology of the word as by the use made of it, 
whether by Virgil himself elsewhere or by other writers. Com- 
pare (re), 2. 114: 

'' it/ispoifsi EurypyhiMi scitatuiii onicula Plioebi 

where the same word is applied to inquirers, not struck with 

.171 375 (.1M5VA — \V»V,] 



horror, but meroly In suspense about tlu^ rruNUiin^L!; of tho [trodi^^y, 
jtnil who are struck witli liorrur only when their soi^pt^nsr is 
turned into horror by the answer they recjeive: 

, . , ^'vulgi «]uae vox ut venit ad aures, 
o*»stu|iuoro animi, gelidusque per iinn eucunit 
osisa tremor/' 

So also ihl 4. !): 

^juae me su^ipett^am insomuia terrentK' 

[not harritiod, iml in suspent>e; hung between hopu and tear. 
and therefore applying to her sister for advice]. <c), 2, 728: 

*-nuni! oiimes terreDt aurae, souus excitat umnlA 
siispertiiHm A pariter eomititjue oneriqut? timeutein" 

[in suspense, lum*< between hope and fear, and funsequently 
ira'8olutc whether to pj m to stop, (d), ClatuL Rttpf. Proserp, 
S. 2fW: 

'*]iacrct adliuc snapntsa Ceres, ot singula demous 
ceu noudum transat^a unwt; iiiox lunihia kirquouu 
ultro in (raeli<:ola,s ruriitto pec tore ferri'* 

(Where the stute of snspenscr is eontmsted with that of iT^rtiunty), 
i \e\ Propert. 4, 1 : 

'*tiulU cura fait ertemos quaerere divos 

cum tremerot patrio pemin/a tnrha ^acro" 

(hanpu^ on the rite, and anxiously awaiting the ftttto/tanftt, 
uncertain vvhether it woidd be favourable or unfavourable]. 
And siniilar ti> the hist example — {/). Aett, L 79. 'pcffiief- 
que iteriim narrantis ab ore'' [hangs from his lips (^^on his 
lips,*' tts we say) awaiting tlie d*'HOt)meni, anxious, and attend- 
ing to nothing else, and swayed riy every worrl lie utters|. 
The active participle is used in th<* active phase of the same 
sense by Suetonius. Tib, 25: *'preeantem senatnm, et procuni- 
bentem sibi ad genua, ambiguis responsis et eallida cnnctatione 
sat^pvitiUtis^^ I keeping them in suspense, suspending then), 
between liope and fear, between yea and nay]. See Remni. on 
2. 114, and 729: 4. 9. 

NuHLVK (VS. 372j.— ^*Nnnien, raaiestas, vis manifesta dei 

426 AENEIDBA [371-376 liiiina— adsp. 

quae horrorcm ac reverentiam fadt," Heyne. ''Numixe, dei 
praesentis maiestate et potentia," Gossrau. Than these glosses 
there could be no better example of the inveterate confounding 
by commentators of the distinct and independent attribute 
numen with the distinct and independent attribute niaiestas. 
See Rem. on '^numine laeso/' 1. 12. Aeneas is struck with no 
horror, bowed down with no reverence, but — led by the hand 
by the high priest himself into the temple, and about to hear 
from the high priest's own lips the ''numen'' or voluntas of 
the god — hangs uncertain (suspensum) between hope and fear. 
Still more unfortunate, if possible, is the commentator's intensi- 
fication of ''suspensus" by multum: ''iam multo numixe si^- 
pcfisfi^s valebit: multum, i. e. vehemeuter, xumine suspensuSy'' 
Wagner (1832). On the contrary, Aeneas is "suspensus," 
merely "suspensus," hangs in suspense, on account of the 
"multum mmien" of the god, who is no other than Apollo 
himself, the vaticinating god, ''augur Apollo," "vates ApoUo.'* 
Compare the ^'multo numine'' of Statins, Theb, 10. 672: 

*^sic ait [dea VirtusJ, ct magna cuiictaiitis [MeDoeoci] pcctora dexti-a 
pormulsit tacite, sese^ue in corde veli<iuit. 
fahninis htiud citius radiis al'flata cuprossus 
(.'ombibit infestas et stirpe ot vertice tlainnias, 
ijuam iuvenis muUo possessus nionlne j)Octus 
ercxit sensus, leticjue invasit arnorcm/' 

where the meaning is not: ''his breast much possessed by the 
will and pleasure of the goddess,'' but: '^his breast possessed 
by the great will and pleasure of the goddess." 

Maiorihus auspiciis (vss. .-^74-5). — "Quam vulgo hominibus 
<'ontingerc solent; sunt sinipliciter magna, //. e.., magnarum 
reriim et eventoruni; adeoque raa^na fata," Heyne. No, no; 
there was a difterenco in kind, certain auspicia being techni- 
cally called maiora, and others minora. Sec Cicei*o, (k 
Kepuhl. 2. /^; "idenicjuo Pompilius, et utfspict'fs mafonbua 
inventis, ad prist! nuni numeruin duos augnres addidit." Aul. 
(Jell. 18. If): "patricioiiini ausjnria in duas sunt potestates 
(livisa; nuLrinui sunt consuluni, praetoruin, censorum . . . reli- 
quonnn magistratuum miuora sunt auspicia." Liv. 4. 2: 

77-380 QucH-Tn«o] 

BOOK m. 


'colhivionein ^entiuni, pertiirbationein tmspiciornm puMicorum 
friratommffHc iifterrc, ne (juiii siiicDii, ue quid incontaniinati 
it*' Valer. Maxim. 2. 1: "apiid aiitiquos non solatn pftUirr 
ri etiam pn'raiim nihil gerebnfur nisi aui^pieio priiis siumptn/' 
Ls there wert^ both great auspices aud su)all auspin% su alsn 
bere were great fates and suiall fates, as Lufan, (I. 004; 

^Mmpia vulgatae laetatur nonune famae 
Thessalid, et contrft: ^si f&ta mitiora moveres, 
proiium erat, o iavenis, qao® velles/ ii^quit, 'in actus 
invi^os praeb^re deos, Coacedittir arti, 
uimiii ciini radiifi pressemnt sidera niortoai, 
iiiseriuss?o moras; et, cjiiaaivis feceril onuiis 
Stella seneni, medios herbis &bnimpimns antins. 
Af s'iniul a pniiia deecendit origme Tniindi 
causaruni si?ri«^s, atque ofiuiia fatJi labomtit: 
*?i 4uidf|uam mntare vt'lis^ luioijuo sub k-tii 
Stat genus Imniarmni. tunc Tliossala turba Tatoinur, 
plus fortutia potest.'" 




\pimrt,] scTRK • ttELiwrit FARTQUF If I S^srvius ; La Cerda; Heyne; Bruock; 

f.J RciRE aicLKNUM • FAJUf^rE III P. MaEut : D. lleins.; N, Hoins. 

\inei:\ saR£ loaEVUii fabique III Wagner (183i and 1B61J; Ladewig; 

428 AENfilDfiA [3'?7-380 quo— imw 


crux of commentators. "Vicina/' says Servius, ''nihil enim 
nobis hospitio esse vicinins constat," than which never, perhaps, 
more remote, less-to-be-expected meaning, or more retnote, less- 
to-be-expected justification of little-to-be-expected meaning, fell 
to the lot of any word, at the hands of any commentator. To 
this (no less than to Heyne's 'Mnaria navigantibus amica, quae 
navigantes tutos ac salvos transmittant," and to Voss's "in 
gegensatz des unsichem ('inhospitae') wegs um Unter-Italien "} 
Peerlkamp — substituting as usual not only his own thought, 
but his own word, for Virgil's — thus replies: *'Hospita pro 
ncina vix dici possunt nisi particula Heleno vicina. Aeneae 
nullum ex omnibus aequoribus erat hospitum. Quare pro 
HOSPITA scribendum censeo aspera." Next, and if possible still 
more opposed than Peerlkamp's both to Servius's and Heyne's 
comes the opinion of Gossrau (adopted by Wagner, 1861): 
'' HOSPITA AKQUOHA suut iguota, fremdc mccre.'^ And last, the 
opinion expressed by myself (^'Twelve Years' Voyage," 1853), 
and approved by Conington (1868), viz., that however hospi- 
tus may, as placed beyond doubt by its opposite inliospitus, 
sometimes be liospitablc (Heyno's "amicus," and perhaps Ser- 
vius's '' vicinus''), and at other times *'ignotus" (Gossrau's 
frcvHl). yet both those merely secondary and iiu'idental mean- 
ings are unsuitable here, and no meaning suitiible except the 
strict, original, and j)roper meaning of the term, viz., ro/teinvg 
as a rrsidoit rcnrircs a sfrant/cr or traveller — the (juestion 
whether well or ill receives being wholly untouched. The seas 
spoken of, whether they receive Aeneas well or ill, are still 
HOSPITA, because they receive Aeneas on his passage to Italy, 
because Aeneas during his passage to Italy stands to those seas 
in the relation of hospes ((/twsf), as Propert. 8. 21. 17: 

**<wgo ego nunc riidis xVdriaci voliar ae^iuoiis hospes, 
cogar ol undisonos nunc proco adiro decs?" 

and those seas to Aeneas in the relation of hospes (hosf), as 

Stat. Silr. r>. 1. 252: 

. . . "vohit ille [OharonJ inoivntcs 
proteiius, et inauos placidos local liospitv [frioudlyj ripa, " 

-380 QI'O- lITio] 

Stat. Theh. 9. 228: 

BOOK in. 


. , . **atuj>et hospitn belli 
uuUa vtros, claraqne wmaniin incenditiir utiibm " 

|tlio walor whieli stands to rhc war in tlio rr*lati<>n uf [»nstj. 
iCouipnrt' also Ht)^ Aeu. 3, 53fJ: ''bellum, o torni hospifa, por- 

Uis'' |"0 host-laiul {i. f',, hoste! !aii<lk tliou briii^est \var"|. (ft), 
iovid, Tiist. 4. 4, 55: 

'^frigida Die oohit>fiut Euxiai littora Potiti. 

dictus lib ftQtiijui.s Axeous illp fuit: 
iia«i iieqiii' iactantuT modeiatis aoijuora veotis, 

ner [jladdos portus his pita navis liabet* 
>uiit ciroa gentes 'juap praedaiii aanguiae qiiaenitit, 

nee minus inMa terra timetur a»iiia" 

|^ur»st-slM|K ship wlurh ytaiirts Xu the sea in tlio relation of 
^nifst|. \ei Si I. i:i 277: 

"af^dilnjs in mcdiis <^nnf^tir<i;^iis illro miilfa 
extriiitur roi,'us, htHpititftn i'ninmuije pfromiiMs " 

Iroirution ret'(«pt«H*lo|. \di Dant<\ Pfaij, fi, 7(i: 

''abi, so rva. Italia, di doluro mtrlh*y^ 
\ei Colt^riilf^e: 

*' I thoijglit of timnR whon pain would lie tliy r/w*.«/, 
lord of ttjy house and hospitolit>', 
and gtiof, uneasy lover, no^^er rest 

unless tie sate within Oio toiiclj of fhoe/' 

And, (/), tiio recent applieatinn in liehniiitiiolo^^y of the 
term hosf ihospifr, hospft\ hastf\ host) to the pei'son in wliorii 
that very iinweh:onie and troublesome ^uest, tho taenia, is 

CoNsmra^!': nmrr*— CoN-siDERE, not mei-ely withVoss "^ruhen,'' 
but srttk' finafiff mid emnplricly. Compare Val. Flacc. 1. 4 
(tif the Argo): **llamniiten) tandem eonsedit Olympu/' 


sATTitNU TDNO. — '^tjuomodo VKTAT FUNO dicore Ki lata SUIEE 
nnltiis eniiii vetatur ioqui quod nesdt?" says 

430 AEIJEIDEA [377-380 quo— luKo 

Servius, and, anxious to defend his author against the charge of 
absurdity, informs us that it is not Helenus but Aeneas whom 
the fates PRomBENT scire, and that the comma should therefore 
be placed not after but before helenum. so as completely to 
separate that word from scms and throw it to farique vetat— 
an ingenious evasion, but in so bad taste, so entirely destruc- 
tive both of the cadence and symmetry- of the verse, as to be 
no less generally than deservedly rejected by editors. Wagner, 
with more prudence than Servius, leaves the pausation, and 
with the pausation the cadence and symmetry of the verse, 
as he found it; but no less unwilling than Servius that a veto 
should be put on Helenus's disclosing a secret which Helenus 
himself does not know, insists that it is not on Helenus but 
on the Parcae themselves the veto is put: ''vetat Parcas ea fan 
Heleno" (1861); and so with an ingenuity second only to 
Servius's relieves his author of his embaiTassment at the cost 
of the Parcae whoni — represented not only by all Greek and 
Roman writers but uniformly by his author himself elsewhere 
as the supremo arbitei-s of affairs |Claud. liapt. Pros. H. 410 
(Ceres complaining): 

. . . ''sic numiua fatis 
volvinmr, ct nullo Tiachesis discrimine sacvit" 

Ac?i. J. 22: "si qua fata sinant.'' Aoi. 1. 26: "sic volveit; 
Parcas." Aen. o. 798 (Venus to Neptune): 

"si conceSvSa peto, si dant ea Dioenia Parcae." 

Aen. 12. 147 (Juno herself to Juturna): 

"qua visa est Fortuna pati Parcaequc siuebant 
cedere res Latio, Tiirnum et tua moonia texi"] 

and as such regarded with reverential awe not by Juno alone 
but all the deities of heaven — he takes upon him to repre- 
sent as Juno's most obedient humble servants, and so subverts 
and overturns from its foundation not alone the whole theolo- 
gical structure of the Aeneid, but the whole system of Greek 
and Roman theology. 

Jy?-3^ .;n o^TiNnt 



How, tiien. in what uthoi way, is tlie [mtetit ioct>njy:ruity to 

be got rid t»f? I I'eply, by paying Jess attentiou to tJie ^raiii- 

lar — to cone^inl , government. nn*l e*>nnech*ng particles — niul 

more attention to the sense required and made necessary by 

Die context. The verbU furm, iudeed, is: tl*e fates forbid to 

^knou\ and Jmto, to fell; but is tliig verbal tjunn to be titken 

Uiwam'f IwS the nieaniog which suggests itself' to the pai-sing 

L*hoolboy tJie meaning in the mind of the author before lie 

be^ns to construct his sentence? his sentence, do I say? nay— 

E?u times more dittieult to * -oust r act than any mere senteni*e — 

lis vorae. The meaning in the niiiid of the author, before tie 

begins his constmctiou, is: / dont hww mul rant tell {neither 

hfoir nor raft tonkf l:ftono{ {(hid. Met, 18. 671: 

perdidorint [jotui mn^ mi nujir direre posHiin." 

-iiv. Ihaef: '*nee satis scio: nee, si sciani, dicero ausim/* 
Lescli. Affftrn. 247 tad Davies), Chorus speaking: 

^f'l neither saw what ensued nor rohite'']), hut language su 
phiin, so little ornamentetl, had been ill I'ah'ulat^'d h> inspire 
respect either tor the rafrs or the god. Iti ordej' t(> impress with 
sufficient awe either Aeneas or the reader, the simple thought 
tlon't know, cmt't tdi, must be amplified so as to till more chiiises 
than one, at the very legist two i-lauses, each of wluL-h shall have 

I Its actor, verb of action, and object; or^ if separate object Ire Ui*t 
possible, share at least of object counuon to both. First and 
foreumst of all actoi-s are the supi'eme, unchangeable, everlast- 
ing ^unqm, but file fiioii^m never act immediately and directly, 
always through an instrument; and what higher instrument 
tlian the queeu of heaven herself? The ^loiom, therefoi'e, are 
^|ti)e actors in tlie first clause, anxl their infe;trument or agent, 
Brtjyal Juno, the actor in the sec(ui<l; the actions of boili (PHom- 
HKNT, vKrrvT! being idcnticnl (see beli>vv), and the objeits of the 
ctions of botli (sciuf*:, FAruk if not absolutely idenrical, at least 
nearly itlentital as versilication ami pi*ctry (whirli has n 


432 AENBIDEA [377-380 quo— mw) 

horror of identity, and even of monotony) allow (see below); 
and 80, precisely, Horn. //. 18. 117: 

oi;dV y«o nv6f fStrj JJouxXr]o^ 7';'* xr]oa 

(0.)m ^ tioifj fS(cu(conf X€U uttyalf-oc: /o).og I/orji;' 

Fate and angry Juno, as, in our text the Parcae and (angry J 

If this diving into the secret heart of the poet has not been 
entirely unsuccessful and in vain, the second clause farique 
VETAT SATURNiA lUNO is to bc regarded as a mere variety of the 


meaning that Juno forbids Helenas to tell the secret which he 
himself does not know as "subiectisque urere tlanmiis" (2. 37) 
means that Capys exhorts the Trojans to burn the wooden horse 
besides throwing it into the sea; or as "primaque oriens erepta 
iuventa est'' (7. 51) means that the male offspring of Latinus, 
just declared to have been none at all {;' nulla fuif), died 
young; or as in the inmiediately preceding verse "filius pro- 
lesque virilis" means both a son and male offspring, /. r., male 
offspring besides a son. Compare, (riK further on in this ver}' 
address of Helenus: 


where Apollo is the instrument or agent, at least the interpreter, 
of the fates, as here Juno. Also. ib). s. 833: 

'MiK? pulsuin patria pclagiiiuc extivma siMiuentom 
Fortuiui omuipotens et inoluctabile fdtutn 
his posuere locis, matrisciue ogoiv treinpuda 
Caniiontis nymphae mouita et deus auctor Apollo,'- 

whore not only ^'fatiim" but even '' Fortuna '' has its agents 
and interpreters, one of whom is the same Apollo, (r), 1. 301: 

*'haec ait, et AWiia (ji'iiitinn demittit ab alto, 
ut terrae, utqiii' novae patcant Carthagiiiis arces 
hospitio Touciis. no fati noscia Dido 
finibus aroorot," 

'Ml dm QUO— ruNo] Book III 

whf^re Jupiter liimself, having dechiivd fhe fates- 

. . , 'Tabor onun, qnando haec te (mm reiiiurdet., 
loTipus, et volveiihi fatoritin arcmm inovebo" — 

and so beooine himself their jn-imary instiuni(*nt nr agent, ^iieiKls 
down his under-agent. Mercury, from heuven f<>r the side pur- 
pose of more immediately and effectually carrying out their 
decree, id), 8. 498 : 

. , . ^'retinet longaevus fuini»per, 
fata cfinens: 'n Maeoaiat^ deleftn luvoatus, 

nuUi fas Italo tantam siibiungere gentcni; 

©xternfis o)»tati? duces 

Turn Et rosea res^^dit 

hoc acies campo, moDitis exterrita divum/ * 

where the ugod '' haruspex '* announces the prohibition of the 
fates which has lieen comnmnicated to him by some god not 
jmiticularized, exactly as in our text Helenas anmnjnres the 
prohibition of the tates, tunveyed tu him by Juno. {e\, W, l\'i\: 

, . . ''animao, fiuibiis altera fato 
corpora debentiir, Lethaei ad tlumiiiis undain 
seouros latices et longa obhvia potant. 

has omnes ubi raillo rotanv volvere per annos, 
T^thaoum ad fluvium dru^ evocat agininfl magnu, 
scihuet ijiiiiieiDorps supura ut nonvexa reviiiant 
rorstts, et incipiaiit in cot'p*»ra voile reverti/' 

where again the decreeing fate and ministering god, no doubt 
Mercury, (/), 2. Til: 

, . . '*cui faia pareut, quem posoat ApoHo.'^> again the decreeing fates and the instrumental, executing 

gtid, (ff)y 4. 438: 

. , , '^8ed nullis ille movetur 
tletibttB, aiit voces ullas trautabihs audit. 
f€Ua obstaut, pkcidasque viri fleus obstruit aures/' 

again the will of the fates, and a god giving effect Uy that will, 
the god being, no doubt, the same whom we have seen (1. 301) 


434 ABNEIDEA [377-380 quo— itno 

giving effect to the will of the same supreme, impassive, inex- 
orable, irresponsible authority, ihl 7. 81: 

••at rex sollicitus inonsti*is. oraoula Fauni, 
fntidt'ci geuitoris, adit, lucosquo suh alta 
('onsulit Albunea," 

again the ordinary fates, and tlie expounding, ministering god. 

(i), 7. 110: 

. . . ''sic IttjHfrr ille moiiebat. 

continuo; salve faii^ mihi debita tell us, 

geuitor mihi tolia (iiaiiKiue 

nunc repetoi Anchises falnnim aroana reliquit," 

again the ordinary fates, and ministering god. {J\ 9. 188: 

. . . ''nil me faialia teiTent, 
si qua l^hiygt's prae se iaotant rvsponsa (Irontw,' 

iigain the ordinary fates, and the answering, interpi-eting, 
announcing gods, {k), 10. ()7: 

•• fafis potiit auctoribus: esto: 
Cassaiidrae iinpulsus furiis. Num liiiqiuTe castra 
hortiti sumiis, aiit vitani (.;omniittpro ventisV 

ijuis fh'n,s in fraudom, quao dura potontia nostri 
cgit? ubi hi«' IfOifK deniissav«' nuhibus Iris'f" 

•'By the authtuity of the fates he sought Italy? Aye, but who 
was the expounder to him of the fates' will? Mad Cassandnu 
forsooth! Where is the ix^H] by wliom the fates dechuvd them- 
selves? AVas it 1 they sent to him, or did I send Iris? The 
ftites (hin't announce themselves (weept tlu'ough a medium. 
Here there was ncme, unless you rail mad Cassandra a medium." 
{lU 8. 887: 

■*s«^d tilii 4ui 'Ur^uin rrufi, <|ua(' fffftf dodeiv. 
aut (juisnani i^Miarum iiostris t/r/ts appulit orisV" 

where we have not (»nly the ordinary fates and the minister- 
ing or instruuK^tal god, hut even the subministering winds. 
ini), 8. 87;"): 


sonriTirw, vulvit'^ik viik.s. is vkhtitik oui«o. 

377-SW QUO- iDT»o| 



whnv rhi< siinie Heltinis, just betore he presents uh m oin t^xr 
with Juno pnttin<:; into Mf>en\tion the dei-ree of the fiitt^s in the 
paFtieular ingtanc*? before us, bus aU'eady pri>;ented us with 
Jupiter himself arranging, disytributing, and disposiug of the 
decrees of this niysterions, irresponsible, invisible, unapproach- 
able, self-eonstituted, court of couiti4. sole source of all law and 
equity, all right and wrong, alt revolutions no le^s than all 
constitutions, all power i^diether human ur divine, yet in itself 
and of itself, and without an agent, absolutely helpless and 
unubje to effect any thing, au ♦*mpty (I without head, heart, 
feet or hands, (n), 4. :^40: 

*^iDe si fata mm patereutiu* ducere vitam 
aaspiciis, et :>|K3rite mea cijmpoamtj ouras, 
urbern Tniiimain pniiuim <iul«'e?>4u»* lULMfruin 
j-eliijuias cole rem, Priarai tet-ta altii munereiiU 
nt recidiva manu |K>suis,sem Pergama victis« 
;9od niia»' Italian) nio^am <tryii/iea:) A^mffn, 
ItAliaiH Lyciao ta^Kere i-apebfteri; gorteii,' 

where we liave again the ordaining **fata,'' and Apollo and his 
Lycittu "surtes"' carrying out the ordinances, lo), 4. tiol: 

**dvilc€S exuviae, duin fftift //^ii^^tie siuehaot/ 

The fates who bad ortlained, and the gt»d who had made known 
and ♦-arried into clfe<:t their ordinances. \pu ti. 45: 

'^reutum erat ad liineii, ^uutn virjsti ^post^ere fatu 
tcinpas,' ait: ^drtiH, e«.N:t\ fleu^y 

tile fates (/. c, tfie nnlinances of fh*- fmiqaiU und the gtHJ who 
18 tu reveal them, (q\^ t>. 69: 

*Muui Phoebfi »'t Thvijie solidf) \r nmrajoie tutuplH 
inatituauj, fe^tos<jue dieH de iiomiiiu Phuebi, 
te <|QO<jue rna^ia inanent regais pen(>trtdia tiostrt)*, 
hit! ego uaun|U« tuas 6ort4?>4, arratunpiu fatu 
dirta mea<* geuti, jKiiiauu Je* tua^jue Hatialjo^ 
fi/wfj, viros/' 

temple in which sludl b<- deposited, and f'aitH who .shall explain 
the ordinant^es of the lim^m <'oncerning the house of Aenoaa 

436 AENBIDEA [377-380 quo— iuno 

"ostemlent terrLs hunc tfmtum fata, noque ultra 
esse sinent. Nimiuni vobis Romana propago 
visa potcns, sitjyen) propria hacc si doua fuissout,'* 

again the fates and the gods, the former to ordain, the latter 
to execute. («), 7. 254: 

. . . ^'vetoris Fauni volvit sub ]>ectore sorlem: 
hune ilium fatis extenia ab sode profectuin 

portendi generum 

est inihi uata viro gentis quam iungerc nostrae 
non patrio ex adyto sortes^ non pluiiuia cacio 

monslra sinunt 

hunc ilium poscere fata 

et reor, et, si quid veri mens augurat, opto,' 

ordinances of the fates, declared out of the ^'adytum'' of Faunus 
by '^sortes," out of heaven by prodigies. (t\ 8. 398: 

^•nec pater omni potcns Troiam uec fata vetabant 
stare, decomcjue alios Priamum superesse per annos," 

again the ordaining fates, their minister, the — how ill-named!— 
father omnipotent, (w), 10. 417: 

^'fatn canens silvis genitor colarat Halacsum; 
ut senior leto oanentia lumina solvit, 
imocere nianum Parcac, telis«jue sacraruut 

The father of Halaesus, having learned that it was the ordinance 
of th(^ fates that his son should perish in the war, takes the pre- 
caution to hide him. But the ordinance of the fates is never to 
be evaded; so, no sooner has the father died, and the son corae 
out of his place of concealment, than the fates pounce on him 
and devote him to the weapons of Evander -''iniecere manum" 
being as little to be taken literally, or as signifying that the 
fates actually laid hands on him themselves, and not through a 
medium or instrument, ns "telisque sacrarunt Evandri " is to 
be taken literally, or as signifying '' devoted him," or as "telis 
Kvandri'' is to be taken literally, or as signifying weapons of 
Evander, and not weapons of Pallas, u*), S. 511: 

. . . *'tu riiius et annis 
ot goneri fata indulgent, '|ucni tiut)nna poscunt,'' 

1 377-380 Qco— ruNo] 



whose a^e ariH liiiotiirc the fates tavniir, anri wlicmi the mids, 
ministers ami iiitorprctors of tlie fates, denianrl in tlio name of 
|thc3 fates, declare to he the ehoseii niair. iw\. 7, 572: 

"at V08, o an fieri, et divuiu tii uiaxiiin^ rector 
Iftpifer, Ar<^ftdii, i)uaeso, jnu?eros<nte regis, 
ht prttrias au4it^3 ju'eces: m unmimi vestra 
iiKroluniein Pallanta aiihi. ai fata i^ftservaut,'* 

diere thi* gotls, \\\x\\ Jupiter at their head, being of an 
exorabh* nature, and having m executive of the fates mm-h in 

itlieir power (eonip. 3. .H75: sir fata deum rex hORTmrH, vouviTyii'; 

fvicKs), are pmyed to and implored; the fateii, who are in- 

lexorable antl iramiitable, and tu pray to wh^im had been a www 
wayte of breath, are not athhesj^eil i\t all, only spoken of in tlie 

[third pei-son. \x), 4. 94: 

"0 tjituirii, ijihi (akt s^m^a'^ aut 4uid [jetis istis? 
mortaline manu factae immortale oaiioae 
fas habeant^ nei-tiis^ue inceita [►eiifiila lustret 
Aeneas? cni tanta deo [mrmissa pntestaa?' 

'You asdc me in my eapaeity of agent and minister of the fiites, 
exercise an undue, unallowable influenc*e on their decrees; 
Idwrees to be carried out not, perliaps, to the very letter, but 
lilt least in their spint. Tlie nature oi things as decreed by the 
l&tes is not tu be ebanged by me or any other god^ minister 

of the fates, only to be modified in unessential paitieulars, *. e., 

adapted tu time, plare, and eiri-utustanee/* [y)^ 9: 133: "'nil 
fatal ia terrent , , . tr.spoNsa tieornm ,'' the answei*s or 

i»racles of the gutls revealing (as tliit^ «4* Helenus*s in the temple 

of Apollo) the will uf the fates, (zl 10. :U: 

. . . "<nn' Duno hta nui^t(uaiii 
visrtere itt.H^a |jf»t©8tV aiit -*ur tmrfi (jonfiere /ataJ 

* reverse your eummainls, aod so, your commands being but the 
^^xpression or muncintion of the fates, niiike new fates/' (rt-), 
10, 112: 

■rex Itipder ijinnibus idem. 

fatff \nun invenient' 

The fates shall have it all their own wav, " In seeiiiL^ their 

438 AENBIDEA [377-380 quo— rrifo 

decrees carried out, I will not exercise any of that influence which 
as their minister I am privileged to exercise." (6-\ 10. 436: 

. . . "ipsos concurrerc passus 
haud tamen inter se mayni rcynator Olympt. 
mox illos sua fata manent maiore sub hoste." 

The ruler of Olympus did not allow them to meet because as 
chief minister of the fates he knew it was appointed that each 
should die by a greater hand, (c-), 10. 464: 

*'audiit Alcides iuveneui, magnumque sub imo 
cordo preuiit gemitum, laciyniastiue efFundit inancs. 
tuin (jfCfu'tar uatura dictis alfatur amicis: 
^stat sua cuique dies; breve et irreparabile tcmpus 
omnibus est vitae; sed famam extendere factis, 
hoc virtutis opus. Troiae sub moenibus altis 
tot nati cecidoro deum; quin occidit una 
Saq)cdon, moa progenies. Etiam sua Turnuni 
fata vocant, metasque dati perveuit ad aevi,'" 

where we have again the despotic, commanding, inexorable 
fates, and the two gods their ministers powerless to add a single 
day, the one to the life ot the only sun of the man to whom 
he owed a debt of gratitude, the other to the life of his own 
son: an omnipotence of the fates and a good-for-nothingness 
of the gods returned to and treated of not only with more 
power and more pathos, but with more truth, in the episode 
of Marcellus in the sixth book. The question whence our 
author drew the lore, whether from Homer (more especially 
//. lf>. 433y Jupiter speaking: 

0) uot f-yow oit not 2,'(io7it)dot((, tfUTaTov (cv^otor, 
uotn rno ffarnny./.oio Aff-roiTKc^ao 6'((ftt]t'(u\ 

ov iVom Lucretius, or from Augustus and his courtieix or from 
all those sourres together, let us leave where we found it, viz., 
among the hoh lif/Ncts. id-), 10. 740: 

. . . •• *tO <|U(H|U(' /'((f(( 

prospiM'tant paiia. at«|ii«' pa«loin iuo\ arva tonebis.' 

ad tunMu suhriilens mixta M(^z»'ntius ira: 

•nunc mororo. ast de me illiuDt pdfrr rt(f/fw hontinuin rex 

viderit." " 

' qm — ivm] 

BOOK in. 


'•1 loa-c my fnfo in thr hniuls of the jxn^at I'Xt^Lnifor .«t" the 
lieci-ees of the fates." (e-i, 12. 67t): 

*'mm inni /W/r^ soror, superaat; absiste ruoruri: 
quo fieuH et quo dura voaat Fnrtmm se<iuamiir.*' 

wlioTG apun tfje fates (and therefore FurtvinH, the ^i^nl or btwl 
luck ur foituno onhiined by the fates), and the ministering god. 
(/^i, 12. 725: 

''''lupikT ip8<3 duas aei^uato exaiuiup laatres 
austinet, et fain ini[)onit diversa duorum: 
qtioiii damnet l&lmr, et qun vergat poudcre letum/' 

\v^m the S4inie o^dainin^^ le^cii^bitinp i-ourt, and Jii[)ilc_T, woigh- 
ing its deiTcos respeeting the t\v<* eontendin^ rivals?, in ordt*r tu 
siH) whieh of the two it was his duty, a^ its first miDister, tu 
favour (ff^X 5. 70(k 

, . , "vel i|aae j^orteudoret ira 
magaa tienm, vol rjuao fafuntm (►ost-orct ordo/' 

The godt^. altliou^h nlinj^lLn'S and exeeuturs of tfu" 5!.ii|]iemo 
coiiit of tJie fates, nii|j:ht aet— as what ministers of any authority 
may not?— within eortain limits, an'ordin^r to their Mwn frfd- 
io«:s and impiilse^?; such liberty of aetion bein;^; inseparable 
from tbo very nntion not merely of a god but of a b*'ing 
^ibject to feeling and impulse, and not a mere puppet. (A^), 

4. 223: 

•"vade age, oate, voca zephyroa H label o peuriw, 
Pardaiiiumqac ducom Tyria Cartha^itic 4111 iiunu 
exs(H>ctat, /ii/f^quo datau iiori roi*pif;it uj kw^ 
alloquere, ot eetores dofer moa lln-f*] dirta per aunw, * 

Again the app<jintiug, ordaining fates, ioid Jupitir their v\mf 
min]8tor employing his sub-agent Mereiiry U> .-arry their nmi- 
mimds into effect. (i*|, 5. 784: 

'^oec loci^t iai|t0rio fatm\{w iaftai^ta quiOMiii 

keeps f|ntet, having hi*r spirit lo'iiken l»y tln^ overruling of Jove, 
prime agent nf Oh foi^s. {J-^ <», H5; 

. . , tuqae, O kiAHetisHiltia rah^, 
pmesda veatah, da, aoa iadebiia \mHCo 
regna meis faiitif Latio rumKhtt^ Tf^qr^roi*,*' 

440 AENEIDEA [377-380 Quo-nrNO 

again the ordaining fates, and the foreseeing, foretelling, and 
thereby ministering prophetess, (fc^), 12. 794 (Jupiter to Juno): 

"indigetem Aenean scis ipsa, et soii-o fateris, 
deberi caelo, fatimiwe ad sidcra tolli," 

again the ordaining fates and ministering god. (P\ 5. 796: 

. . . *'oro liceat dare tuta per iiudas 
vela tibi [Xephttw]; liceat l^urentein attingero Tybrini; 
si conoessa peto, si dant ea moenia Parcae.'' 

And, finally (m"^j, Hor. Od. 4, 2, 37: 

'V|uo nihil maius meliusve terris 
fata donavere bonique diviy' 

the fates, through their ministers the gods. 

Scire, fari. — In the ultimate analysis one and the same 
thing, exactly as in English we say indifferently: "I don't 
know" and "I can't tell." 

Prohibent and vetat in the ultimate analysis mean alike, 
and except for the necessities of the verse might, mutatis mutan- 
dis, have occupied each the position of the other. Have we not 
elsewhere, even in Virgil himself and witliout going beyond the 
sacred precincts, both dii prohihentes (8. 265) and fata retafttia 
(1. 48; 8. 398j? nay, have wo not elsewhere in Virgil himself, 
and without going beyond the sacred precincts, prohibere and 
rrtare actually convertible with each othcT (1. 544: 

. . . "'hospitio pr(>hihp)nur arenas, 
bolla oient prinia<|Uo rrtmit oonsistoiT' torra"), 

and that, too, in a passage formed so entirely on the model of 
our text as not merely to consist of ten words answering to the 
eleven of our text, but often words so placed as to occupy, like 
the «4r»ven of our text, the latter half of one verse and the whole 
of the next and so arrau'j^ed as to present to the ear, with only 
one single exception, viz. (in the half verse) the same alternate 
succession of dactyl and spondee?, and in the whole verse even 
the same caesiirae? Compare Liv. 30. 31: 'Sim P^>rtunae re- 
pfffffj et omnia (luaecunciue agimus subiecta esse mille casibus 
.vr/o," wh<'re the second clause is but a rep(?tition of the sonti- 

nV ^^ onn — n SOj 




iiKHit t»\pivssni in thr first, ntlds nu purtiole vvlnitevor to the 
s*'nse; and whcrv in puiiit nf eleganre ^'scio'' itlie very sciitB 
of our text) is but an ont'nuibrwn*^, und wen? better absent 
iilto^ether, thus: **vini Fortunae reputu, et nnmiu quaee-unque 
jigimus siibieeta esse niille rasihuh;/* exactly as in our toxr siirk, 
necessary only for the mensure, had better, so far as tlie sen^e 
gi>es, have been absent, thus: nam ccteiia faki ytn^ENCM ruoHnjKNT 


PvHi'AK, SATLTiiVNiv u \o. — In the ultimate analysis, nut two 
diflen^nt aetoi's, hut tme, exaetJy as tSih 1. 137; 

, , . *'veQientia fata 
si'iro ultiui vetuit furw, fibraeqi:*: repcnte 

where the *'tibrae" are tfie nu^re instrnineut of Jtirio, as in our 
text Junu is the mere instrument of thr Parcao, Xor is it only 
in cases in wbirfi the fates prt>hibit that a repeatin^^ eontinn- 
ing, emphasizing^ fonmila is used; a double formida* not very 
dissimilar, is used with a simitar effect even in eases in which 
they consent, as 5. 798: 

•Si ooocessa peto, si dent ea moenia Parcao/' 

Having thus laid before my reader as fairly as 1 eould the al- 
ternatives—irrational meaning correctly expressed, and rationd 
meaning expressed incorrectly for the sake of rhetorical effect 
and to meet the exigencies of the verse — I leave him to choose 
for himself; leave him, too, t(> pity the poet, with one propor- 
tion of heaven s blessed rain should his choice agi'ee with mine, 
with two, should it not. What? not content to let me go yet? 
Uh! I understand. You want to know the reason of this re- 
ticence of Juno and the Parcae, wliy they allow llelenus to tell 
only the fauca, and keep conceated the vast cetera till Cumae. 
WTell, tiiough 1 rio not pretend that either the Taivae or Juno 
have let me into The secret one bit more than they let Helenus 
and Aeneas, I liave an opinion of my own on the subject which 
you are perfectly welcome to. The cauca could not bo deferred, 
Aeneas and his companions, albeit Iieri>es, nay, mainly boe^iuse 
licroes, and tiieref*>re of ex<juisite sensibility in respect of every 

442 AENEIDEA [377 380 quo— iuno 

phenomenon beyond the limits of the most i-iivumscribed phy- 
sical knowledge, had been terrified almost out of their very 
wits by the Harpies, and could only recover equanimity by a 
counter demonstration of heaven in their favour. Buthrotus 
was the first place at which they arrived from the Strophades, 
and the old family soothsayer is conveniently on the spot, and 
exercising as of old his vocation. He reassures them; the city 
they were in search of, the Sion of their aspirations, though 
still far off, is before them, and though they shall have to eat 
their very tables, they need not despair, a way will be found of 
managing even that, and they may rely upon it, his god will 
not desert them: 


This is one part, which could not be deferred, of the pauca; the 
other part, no less pressing, and as little to be put off until 
Cumae, is instruction as to the route from Buthrotus, not alone 
to the terra incognita of their hopes, but to the remotest fate- 
appointed shore of that terra incognita. Now on the one hand 
there wore no marine charts in those days, and on the other 
hand j^ods no longer guided in pei-son; fur although his mother 
Venus had, nut very lung previously, taken Aeneas by the hand 
and led him safe thruugh fire and swurd for the length of a 
street or twu in Truy. gods liad su lung ceased to subject them- 
selves to personal trouble and inconvenience, not to say danger, 
even for tlie most favoured juurtals, tiiat all (mlistnient of one of 
them in the service of Aejieas, similar to that uf Minerva in the 
service uf Teleniachus - still mure, all engagement uf one of them 
fur a journey not unlikely to last fur yeai-s — was uut uf the <[uc^- 
tiun. Wurse still, Aeneas had nut even had the thuughtfulness 
i)i .lasun, had nut su nnich as bruught with him frum Truy a 
special suuthsayer for himself; and, the days oi vueal ships hav- 
ing passed by, no less than thusu uf rairt gods, was at the mercy 
oi the tirst terrur chance shuuld throw in his way. No luck, 
therefure, cuuld be greater, no salvatiun mure unexj)ected, than 
that o\ falling in with the uld, familiar, tried pruphet, just at 
the moment he had reached the extreme limit oi the unly wurld 
uf which he knew anything, and was un the puint of launching 

384 j^NTE— uyuA] 

BOOK m. 


into the vast unknown. Never, jwrhaps, were the pavca, iiow- 
ever pfutm, of a prophet, uwre seasonable, more indispensable. 
Nevertheless, they shuulrl srill hi^ PArrv. On the i»ne hand, 
Aent^s's meninrv should nnt he buithened with iiifi>miation 
of no U8e till afrei- Ciiniae, and on the «>ther Iiund, neither was 
Buthi-otuii a place of so iiuieh importance, nur Heleuus n prophet 
of so high catste, as to be allowed, like a second Patmos and & 
second Ji>hn, to monopolize the divine revelations; a fair slitire 
should be kept forCiimae and the Sibyl, the Eiibuean rave should 
have wherewith tu bellow thron^h its hundred doors. To the 
Euboean cave and tiie Sibyl, therefore, Helenus refers the 
inqniR^r for the oniii^A which lie himself was not allowed to 
tell or even s<> much as to know. Not even, however, in the 
Euboean cave or from tlie SibyT^s mouth is the whole of the 
m much desired coteka tu be had. There still remains the 
'Mimne genus tuum, et quae dentur moenia/' only to be leamed 
in Hadeij, and to Hades the indehitigable inquirer, led and 
jieeonipanied by the 8ihyl herself, gnes in ijuest of it 

Fob pKoumKNT pakcae we may compare Hor. O^/. 2. H: 'Miiidi^ 
n ParftM protiiln'ut iniquae/* Kere (vs. 381) is not merely 
think, hut tu'f f'frfai/f. set fhurff //.v sftrf <tu<l tittdtuthtiiL 



LENTAXors, ^^tlertendus/' SeiTius, Heyne. No; m lent us ik 
not flertm, but f^tfoil fhrfi poffsf, h(i I en tare is nttt /ifHrtr, but 
rrfMe/T ihrihihnK Ym us hillnw the two words in their sf'V<'nd 
UHOg: 'Mentum virneii/' (8. :^1) the pliable withe, the withe which 
i« not stiff or brittle, but yields or bends; 'iento argentu*' 
<7, 634), pliable, /. r, duclih', silver; ''lentu marmore" (7. 2H)^ 

444 AENEIDEA f384 ante— uIida 

the pliable, i. c, dull, languid, inert (pigrum), sea, the sea in 
a calm, the sea which has no action in itself, therefore does not 
help the ship on — therefore ^^bictantur tonsae;" "lentus in 
umbra'' {Ed. 1. 4), pliable in the shade, /. e., lounging in the 
shade; "lentus spectator'' (Hor. Ep, 2, 1. 17 8\ the pliable, 
?'. c, listless, inattentive, dull, languid, looker-on — the opposite 
of gespannt; ''lentos remos'' (Catull. Epith. Pel, et Thet. 183\ 
the pliant oars, /. e., which are not stiff and brittle, do not break 
when they are tugged, but bend. From this root comes, (1) len- 
tescere, to grow pliant, as "picis in morem lentescit habendo" 
{Gearg, 2. 250)] and, (2), 1 en tare, to make pliant, as "confri- 
CAti oleo, lentati" (Enn. quoted by Serv.), rubbed with oil and 
so made pliant, /. e., supple: "arcus lentare" (Stat. AchilL 
1, 436; Theh. 3. 587\ not by any means, with the lexico- 
graphers, flectore a re us, but supple the hows, render them 
pliant and fit for nse, either (a) by frequently bending ("lunan- 
do," Ovid, Amor, 1, 1. 23) and discharging the bow in its own 
proper direction (shooting at a mark), or [b) by frequently 
bending it backward, /. e., in that contrary direction in which 
ancient Ims-rdiefs and statues so often represent Cupid and other 
personages as bending it — see Mu.s. Capitolin. 3. 4; also Clarac, 
Musee de Sculpture, torn. 3 tabb. 281, 282. In order to perform 
this act, the bow (previously unstrung) is held firmly in the left 
hand by the middle, with the convexity toward the person; one 
horn of the bow is then caught with the right hand and drawn 
forcibly backwards towards the person; the bow having been 
thus rendered nearly straight, the right hand is gradually 
relaxed and the bow allowed to return to its bowed condition. 
By the frequent repetition of this manoeuvre the bow lenta- 
tur, is made supple, and fit for nse. Lenta re arcum and 
flee tore arcum, therefore, so far from being, as supposed by 
the commentators and lexicographoi*s, synonymous terms, or 
both expressive of the act of bending the bow, are terms dia- 
metrically opposed to each other; fleet ere arcum being to 
strain the how in the direetiou of its currf\, to shoot unth the how; 
1 e n t a r e arcum, to strain the how in the opposite direetiou, i. e., 
against its curve, and then allow it to rriurn by its natural spring 

ANTif— rjctuj 

BOOK ni- 


win ife Itent position: tbe effeet of the frequent iTpetirion of such 
manoeuvre being to supple tbe bow. But nothing makes m 
pliant, m tit tor use, as actual use, and atu\>rdingly I en tare 
ar(nini comes still further tu oieau to make nntph use oflhf 
how, practise f/tr hou\ phf iht itoti\ as Stat, Theh. J. 703: 

''tela tibi, longeqne fero« tentamhtjt m hostcs 

By a similar process of thought liMitare re mum — primarily 
to supple the oar, omkr tkr oar piiattt — conies secontlarily to 
signify makf autrh ns* af ihr oar, prmiist fhr oar, pit^ fhr oar. 
TRiNAcmA REMis LKNTANors IN LtNDA IS, tliei-efore, neither '\vour 
oar is to he bent in the Trinacrian wave," uor yet '\vour oar is 
to be suppU'd in the Trinaerian wave," but simply^ *'your oar is 
to he iirartisi'ii. mucli used, much and frequently pullefl in tho 
Trinaeriau wave/' t)ur eorresponding English word ///// we ii»e 
nut only in the same manner ias Dryden ; 

''tJio woiirieil Trojans phj fheir shattpn^d oars,"} 

but with a much wider ext'-nsion (as Hakliiyt, Vo/prqrs, vol. 1, 
foL 2Tt) (efl. Stevoni: *'when we wore u seaboord the barre 
wind scented upon us, ami was at east south south-east, inso- 
luch that we stopped the ebbes, and plfpYl all the floods to the 
^ windewanles^ and nunJc our way east north-enst.'' Milton, 
Par, Loaf, 2. H40: 

. . , '* tlioy on th<j trading tlood 
though tlie wide Kthiopian to the t'ape 
plt/y stemniiiig nij^lstly t4»ward the jiole") 

of any act - sueh use of any instrument as at least has ttie effect 
of rendering the hami of the poiformer suppio, and the act easy. 
If it be said that it is little matter whether we understiind i,en- 
TAxnrs in our text to mean to be piled (i-o., Hsedu or to tie bent, 
the oar being always bent when it is used, I reply tfmt there is 
this essential ditferenee; *\vonr oar is to be bent in rfio Trina- 
crian waves" would signifv a single aetion, aucl woidil he 
oqualJy applicable to a voyage across a feny or a strait; wbiTeas 
^•your oar is to he ptiett in the Trinacrian waves'* means that 


the act is to be repeated over and over again, and is equivalent 
to saying: "you have a long voyage before you round all 
Sicily/' Compare MaU. Theod. 42: 

"ac velut exportus lentmuHs navita ions in 
praeficitur lateri custos. " 

884 {ab'fer*). 

Lentaxdus. — "Ant Imfe fibi noviganduvi est, nam totam Si- 
ciliam circuraiit; aut lentandus tibi kemus est, i. e., ftectendus 
est,^^ Servius. "Quoniam lenta quae sunt facile flecti possunt, 
hinc lentus pro fkxilis, et 1 en tare, fhx^tere,'' Heyne. On 
the contrary, neither is lentus flexilis, nor 1 en tare fleetere, 
Lentus is pcissive, tJiat has no action of its own, hut tnles thr 
direction impressed on it. Compare, (1), 8. 81: 

'^rui*sus et altorius lenttmi convcllere vimen 

[to pull up with all ray might the passive withe, the withe 

which, not being stiff' or hard, opposed only resistance of its 

toughness to my effbrtsl, (2), 7. ()84: 

"aut loves ocreas leuto dueurit argon to"' 

["draw the grcavos out of the heavy, dull, inelastic silver, 
which allowed itself to bo boatcMi or di-awn out," therefore duc- 
tile — the ductility or dull yielding of the metal being expressed 
by the slow spondaic movement of the verse: ''lento ducunt 
argento"J. (3), 11. 650: 

"et uunc lenla manu spargens liastilia deuset" 

\no1, sure! fly tle\ibl(\ pliant. Javelins, hnt tough javelins, jav(^ 
lins which do not easilv bend or break, and to make which the 

* AVlieri diiTeront interpiotations (►( the same word ur i»assa«:o appear in 
tills work the roador will uiidorstarid that Dr. Henry eifliei* douhted whioh 
was the true one, or else did not record in writing his fhial opinion — J. F. I). 



book: m. 


tuii^li*.'st kinds nt wikhIs were chosec^ — ^ftsh, coniL*l, iiiyrtlu, ^<\.\ 

\(4l 12. 77:>: 

. . . *'^hiu' impetus ilium 
dotiilernt, iixum ot //?w/fr in radice tenebflt" 

(the dull root, the root which held the spear not by an at-tive, 
elastic gripe, but as it would be held by a dead s^ubstanee, or 
with a vis inertiae^ as, for instance, the foot would stiek in piteh, 
wax, or any inelastic substance?]. (5), Oearg, 4. 170: 

**aij veluti lent is Cyclopes fuljnina niaasis 
cum properant, olii tauriBis foUibus auras 
accipititit mdduntqae, iilii slTideofia Hngunt 
aera lacu; geuiit impositis incudibiis Aetna; 
illi ittter sese magna vi brachia tollunt 
in Dtimenim, versantfiue tenaci forcipe fernirn*" 

ntln* inert niass€*s of metal, the masses of metal to overcome 
whoso dead inertia (1 en tor) all the manipulations enumerated 
in tlio five ft)lh>wing lines art* nrressary[. \i%], 7- 2X: 

. , , '*ot in hfdo luetantnr niarrnoro tonsae" 

[the dull, listless, inert s£*a |8enef% Af/mn. If} I: ^'nuiria pigro 
lixa langnore*'): therefore the oal^i ''luctantur," struggle in it, 
labour in it, get thrtmgh it with difficulty). (7), U. 828: 

. 'tarn frigida toto 
paallatirn exa^ilvit se corpore, /r«/f«jae oolla 
et captuoi leto posail cafuit" 

ftfic passive neck^ the neck wliieh allowed the liead to fall back- 
ward or forward, or to either side, according to its gravity]. 
And so, we have, (8), CatulL Epith, Pel et Thet. 183: ''lentoH 
incurvaiis gurgite remos,'* not the plinnt or femhle oars, hut the 
iough oars — not pliancy or tlexibility, but touglmess, Uhu^ tfie 
fittest property of an oai*; and hence **|fntos incurvanM,'' paU- 
ing the oars so hard aj< to make them bend although ''irntog,^- 
or not easily t/fat, 

A.S lent us is gifldiag si(Hrltj attd with diffimitg, IcntcHrero 
U to heeonte, lent us, to affaire fhr proprrtg tjf gitldiny ntowltj 

HumT, ArancrDKA, vol, it. %\ 

i48 AENBIDEA [384 ante— uSpa 

and with difficidty, to heecmi^ yXtoxQOi;, sticky (as we say), like 
wax or pitch or glue, as (ieorg. 2. 248: 

'•pingviis item quae sit tellus hoc deuique pacto 
(iisciniiLs: hand unquam manibus iacteta fatiscit, 
sed piris in iiiorem ad digitos Irntesrif habendo." 

From this primary signification of lent us flows its nearly 
rehited signification of slo?(\ dull, frith a slow, dull, langind 
nwtiou, as if momu/ ayaiust oue's will, as Ovid, ^1;*^ Amat. 1. 67: 

"U\ modo Pompeia levtu.*i spatiaro sub umbra 
cum sol Heroulei terga leonis adit." 

1(1. Awnr. 1. 7.7. HU : 

"at si quern mauibus Cophalum com]dexa tenores, 
damares, ^Lentc (^rrito. noctis equi." 

And from lent us in this sense, 1 en tare (//) to vtahe slow, to 
dully to diuiiuish the speed or velocity with ichich auythiuy is 
moving, as Sil. 8. 11 (of Fabius Cunctator): 

. . ''l('nU(nf/(/ fcrvida bello 
dictator, cum multa adeo, turn miles egcnus 
cunctarum ut rorum Tyrius forot, ai'to soderidi 

Trob. Pollio, Dirus (laudius, fi: ^Mit videantur fata Romana 
boni principis occupatione letttnta'^ And [h), by means of a 
slow, regulated, gradual exertion to inab a resistiny object yield 
slowly and yradnally, i. (\, fo jjull or draw slowly and forcibly 
to tag, as Stat. Achill. 1. 436: 

"nee modus, aut arcus lentare, aut fundere glandes, 
aut torrere sudes, galeasque attollere couis." 

Stat. Theb. 1. 703: 

"tela tibi, longcque feros fmfafifhts in hostes 

in both which passages 1 en tare is not fo bend or curve, but to 
draw forcibly and slowly, and so as gradually to overcome the 
resistance offered by the toughness of the wood, to pull the boiv, 
the bending being the accidental consequence and not at all 

384 ANTE— tJKDA] bOOK III. 449 

entering into the notion of the word. And so, finally, IcMitaro 
romum, not io bend the oar, but to pull, straitty or ///// the 
tKir, as Claud, de Cons. Mali. Thmd. 42: 

*'ac velut expertus lentatiditt navita hnt^sis 
praeficitur lateri custos.*' 

Senoe. Agatu. 437 : 

^'properat inventus omnis adductos f.inml 
lentare remos: adiuvat ventos manu. 
et valida nisu braohia alterno movot." 

And the lentandlvs rkmus of our text is not "your oar is to 
be bent^"' but "your oar is to be ttuifjed;'" and such, pcHiaps, is 
the meaning assigned to it in Servius's second intf^rpretation, 
''fleetendus est,'' Servius not intending those words to b(^ under- 
stood strictly and literally, but in the looser sense of /W//// usrd^ 
viz., as oare are commonly used, in which common use oars am 
naturally and as a matter of coui-se more or htss bent. Such, 
liowever, is the inaccuracy of Servius's expressions, here as so 
often elsewhere, it is impossible now \u know whether Ik? may 
not have partaken of the common error, viz., that lkntwodh 
is equivalent to flectendus. which, as I think I have hutis- 
factorily shown, it is not in any way or degref;. 

From physical tougfmess, or difficulty of being moved or 
bent, the transition is natural to monil or mental toughneHM, or 
diffieult\' of being bent, moMA, or excited, /. r., apathy. There- 
fore, we have Hor. A/z/x/. 2, L 17H: 

**exanimat UnttM syvHAViV, ^A\\\\\n iritlAl * 

[the aipathetie spe^-tatorj. Vjrg. Eel. 1. 4: "tu, Tityre, IvNhtu 
in umbra" [not with .^erviij-. -otjomm, kjve AfiwrwA*' but 
apathetic, not intended or con'-enied ifi what i-. happefijnpr \tt 
your less fortunate ne^L'h^''''l^^| AfN. 12, 2 fit}, 

[apathetic, unmove^l by th'- *\HUirt'i to v/l.ieh we .wt' TurfMrn 
exposed]. OvW, Arnor. /A 0, !fif : 

450 AENEIDEA [393-402 is— Mirfto 

**ille habet et silices, et vivum in pectore ferrum, 
qui tenero laciymas lentiis in ore videt ' 

[without being moved, without pfrowing soft, without re-lentiitg], 
Ovid, Amor, 2, 19, 51: 

" lenfus es, et pateris niilli patieuda marito " 

(where the sense is the same). Rime di Petrarca, part 1, son- 

etto 97: 

. . . "'e per lenfar' i sensi. 
gli uinani affetti non son nieno intensi," 

"and notwithstanding^ the senses are dulled (/. r., rendered less 
lively, loss easy to be moved) the feelings are not less intense" 
— where Tassoni: ^^ let f fare per alien tarsi, come mHovere per;w?/o- 
rrrsi, e romperr per romprrsi, e canijiar per can (/tarsi, ed altri 
tali ehe usa il poeta/' 



Is Lorrs uRHis KiuT. — Tho oracle appoints the place where the 
white sow is found as the site of Aeneas's new city (viz., liis 
second Troy), bfvause the Latin word Iroia (Ital. froja, Fr. ttnie) 
signified a sotr. See Cynth. (.'enet. ad 1. 153: "sod quae arma 
posuit Antenor? Me^ssala sic scribit ad Valerianura: 'Antenor 
sic; fixit in templo arma, quae erant scrofa, quae in Latio froi/i 
appollatur.'" Compare also, Aett. 7, 112, et sec/cj., the similarly 
ti'ivial solution of the oracle referred to in the very next words 
of llelenus: nkc tl', A:c. |0n such puerilities turned, and — 
alas, that 1 should have to say it! — still turn oracles.J Hence 
an explanation of the historical fact tiiat a sow was in later 
times the emblem, or, if 1 may so say, the armorial bearing of 
the Koman empire, Euseb. Chronic, lib. 1: ''Rebus ludaeorum 
p(Mutus oppnssis, Aelia condita, et in tVonte eius portae, qua a 

393-402 IS— MUKo] BOOK Ul, 4ft 1 

Bethlehem egredimur, s/^v scalptus in niarnioiv proininons, si^- 
nificans Romanae potestati subiacere ludaeos." 

ViAM (vs. 895), '•/. r., rationom; ot non dicit ((uunu ((uia 
etiam profiitura est fames," Servius. "Rationem ot oxitum 
ordculi," Heyne. "Rationem expediendi illiiis oraouli," Wa^^- 
ner (1861). "Rationem aliquam, (jiia exitimi hahoat, iiivoniat 
oraciilum," Forbiger. This is not the moanin^^ Tho moaning 
is: the fates will find a way, not for the sohition of tho 
oracle, but for their own fulfilment; the fates shall not hr 
obstructed. Helenus had just been expounding the fates (viz., 
the Trojan fates) to Aeneas, these fates being that ho should 
after certain gyrations reach Italy (ti'ta iuukm rowroNKUK tickha), 
and, settling definitively on the banks of the Tiber, thorn build 
his city — 

IS LCK'Us i:knrs kkit, wk<^i;iks ka rKrrr.\ i.AWnns\. 

In the middle of this narration, remf;mbffring what was upper- 
most and freshest in Aeneas's mind, 

PKODiriirM •AMT, Kl rUl-^iyM I;KSr:NMAI Ut\^ 
OltSCOKNAMQIK FA.MKM — OVAV. VHtMA I'Kirl'-t 1.4 VltriV 
VniiVK >Kof KV' TAMO- |'0.--IM ^l I'KfiAlO I.Alf iffK^f V 

he stops short and inter|;<M.'<< Hi*- parentlM'HJH %k< n , \t'fii,\^t 
^*^nor let the Harpy -j proph^'-y alarm you: th«? fnU^ lU'o not to 
be stopped in their roursf;. and A|h;IIo \ft\mt'nt% not th<< hUm\ 
will be propitiou**/* ^'ompare. '/i.. 10 ||;j, 'Aho^' lUt^rc i«« no 
oracle to be r^jsolve^j. and wh^rp- Jupit^'r put^ an *^w\ t/» tiM' 
altercation betwwm Jiin'» .md V^'Ouh with ttM-w^' v<'rv word^. 
•*fata viani inTeni«'n^" th' fat/r- will tirid a v/mv vi/ to «/' 
complLsh thdr p'jrjyp-*:, a,!, Uwi <i a/i. f't Ui*'n fnlldrrMtnt 
In both pla«**r> th^ A/rd* -ir^' >/<»* ♦>»" "noo''Mti//n '/f Umt tinyfm 
which lies at the ti'Vor/* /f 0»'' ^/h'/J<t p#i^^o ^oii* f^tru/tuMi 
what is iate^J. n'f^tl:./ au ;/;' y^^»* ^of/ip/»f' /d<o ^/z, l/O'^^r^f 
1. 33: 

■{'i(^/: '. ■.<-r. 4. .4«v. *r * . 

• , ////// ' 

• .*'.? 

inr^i'^f* "<«//' >«/' V ,/ 

■•. »/ ^■•.- • ' /f 


r-/r-» .-•. • •^•' ..-.,,* 

■', / / ■ ■•"• 


// ..* y//> 'AVr* i/ifAtf^'tttf 

452 AENEIDEA [393-402 is— muro 

where again there is no oracle, and the meaning is tlie same, 
viz.: the fates will find a way to effect their purpose, no matter 
what may be the obstructions. (c\ Stat. Siir, 5. 1. 145: 

*' inrefwre ctam livoutia fata, piuinquc 
intravit vis saeva larem," 

where the meaning is still the same: the fates found a way: 
viz., to effect their purpose. And, (rf), Cic. So)nu. Seip.: '*seil 
eius temporis ancipitem video quasi fatoruin liaw,''' where, as in 
all the preceding cases, the way of the fates which is spoken of 
is not the way they will take to evade an oracle, but the way 
they will follow, the way they will take to effect their purpose, 
to arrive at their object. 

Aderitque vocatus APOLLO. — ^'Apollo will be propitious, will 
not insist upon the fulfilment of Celaeno's oracle to your ruin 
and discomfiture." The addition of the words was necessary 
in order that there might be no collision between the fates, who 
nnist have their way, and Apollo, who, as the god of oracles, 
knew, of course, what that way would be. 


modico.' Alii, (juia imposita est excelsu muro, ut Coelius histo- 
ricus ait," JServius. ''A Philortote, Herculis cuinite, condita 
(hoc enim est suhnixa aiikoi." Heyne. Xo; the reference is 
to the (frcat strength of th(^ little city : the little Petilitt — sub- 
nix a, relijifiii on the strouij nail bff irhieh it tars able to defend 
itself (Kjainst alt assaults. Compan^ Li v. 23. 30: " Petilia, 
aliquot post mensibus (|uan) coepta oppugnari erat, ab Himil- 
cone, praefecto Hannibalis, expugnata est. Multo sanguine ac 
vulneribus ea Foenis victoria stetit; nee uHa magis vis obsesses 
(|uam fames expugnavit . . . X(m- ante(|uam vires ad standuni 
in muris ferenda([ue arma deerant expugnati sunt." Our text 
is a passing compliment to this galhuit defence made by the 
tittle city. 

>^rnNiXA, retf/inf/ on: compare Sil. Ital. 2. .*)i)7: '^gah_^amijUO 
r«trns('is snftnixant cristis:" and Id. S. 21"): 

"sufniixKs rapto }ilobeii murieris ostro 
saovit iarn rostris Varro;" 

39.3-402 is-MURo] BOOK m. 453 

and— precisf^ly parallel to our text — Stat. Theh. 7. 345: *^ct 
Hyampolin acri subttixmn seopulo/' For an exactly similar use 
of niti see Avienus, Descript. Orb, Terrm\ 3: 

. . . "per terras qua priscis inclyta inuria 
oppida nituntury * 

Pctilia. — As we should say in English. Llttletonn or LiffU'- 
toN. See Turnebus, Adrrrs. 28, 28: '*Petilia a petilo, quod 
exile et parvum est {petit, Fr.: qu.?|, ut a nftilo, Rutilius." 
See also Vossius, Etym. in voce. 

Parva. — In this instance, as in numerous others, the cha- 
racter of the place as expressed by its proper name is repeated 
by Virgil in his descriptive adjective. Compare 3. ♦593: "Plem- 
myrium undosum;" 3. 698: ''stagnantis Helori:" 7. 713: 

"qui Tet/'irae honentis ruptfs iiiontenique sereriuft," 

where ''severum" is not, as supposed by P'orbiger c'raons, 
alibi non commemoratus"), and by Wagner, who no less than 
Forbiger prints "severum" with a capital S, the proper name 
of a mountain, but an adjective agreeing with ''montem/' and 
explanatory or descriptive of the scenery of Tetrica, the struc- 
ture being: '*horrentis rupes montenuiue severum Tetricae'' — 
the expression *'niontemciue severum Tetricae'' having exact 
parallels in Geoty. 3. 37, ''anmenu|ue severum Cocyti." Aeu. 
6. 274: "amnemque severum Eumenidum;'' and especially 
6. 638, "Curibus severis.' In like manner Lucan 1. 214, ''puni- 
ceus Rubicon." Sil. 3. 213: 

•*tuin, quae Sicanio prae<;iDxit littora iiiuro. 
in rlijM'i speciein <,*urvatis turribus, Aspin." 

Stilt. Silr, 3. 1. i)3 (ot Naples): *'inrrm'nn[\\ii repleSti Partheno- 
pen." And our own Rogers, of the flamingo: 

"what darioij winds alon^^ tlie y^^llow strands V 
far in the deep th<; j^iant Usher stands 
folding: his wings of fUtum." 

" On the contrar>. Sil, \ >. yj^: \ a b ii i x *i r lict^rc -.ccuro " may he ailduced in 
sopport of the intcrprctaii<ji» «>f Svrviiii, inasiniicli a^ the a>c»» cannot be i>aid to have con- 
lidence in the lictors who carry them, bm only to l>e supported by them. 

454 AENEIDEA [410-419 ast— aestit 

Sir W. 8cott, Mavduffs Cross: 

. . . ''yonder to tho oast 
Pittificc, tho gift of (^iody and fair Montrose/' 

Also Milton, Par. Lost, 3. 352 (of the aiuarauth): 

" tlicir crowns inwove with amaranth and gold : 
iiftmortal atnnrauth, a flower which once 
in Paradise, fast by the tree of life, 
began to bloom; but soon for man's offence 
to heaven removed, where fust it grew, there grows, 
and flowers aloft, shading the fount of life: 
and where the river of bliss through midst of heaven 
rolls o'er Elysian flowers her amber stream; 
with these that nerer fafhy the spirits elect 
bind their resplendent locks inwreathed with beams,"' 

and ibid. 7. 577 (of the galaxy): 

"a broad and ample road whose dust is gold, 
and pavement, stars, as stars to thee appear, 
seen in the t/alaxy, that milky way 
which nightly as a circling zone thou seest 
]»owdered with stars,' 

and 10. 525 (of the rerastes), ''rcnfsfcs hornal.^^ And 1, at 
l(»ast, do not doiil)t that th(^ ''nialifera Aliella," Aot, 7. 710, 
had its name from its apples, /. r., from the word from wiiieh the 
(lermano-English apple is derived. 


AST — AI-:STi: 

Kak'kscknt (vs. 111). -As rarns (the English fifi/f and the 
op])osite of dens us) properly e\j)i*('sses tlu^ state of a body 
whoso particles lie not closely compacted, l)ut at some distance 
from each other, the expn^ssion rni hmckscknt r'LArsiRA pklori 

410-419 AST— AESTu] BOOK 111. 455 

means, irhen the f farriers of Pelorns after harhuj appeared to 
you for some time (viz., so long as they were seen sideways 
and not in front, or frOni directly opposite) to be or elose 
together shall begin to groir rare, i. e., to shotr that they stand 
at soyne distanee from each other, or that there is an interral 
between them: or, in other words, when yon shall have proceeded 
so far round Italy as to be able to see that it is not conti- 
nuous with Sicily, but separated by a strait. See, {a\ 
Justin. 4. 1: '*Ea est enim procul inspicientibus natiira ioei [sc. 
claustrorum Pelori], ut sinum maris, non transitum, putes; quo 
cum accesseris, discedcre ac seiungi proniontoria, quae antea 
iuncta fuerant, arbitrero." With which compare (6), Valerius 
Flaccus's description of the Dardanelles (1. 284): 

. . ''dirimique procul non aequore visa 
coeperat a gemiua discedere Sostus Abydo." 

Hardly could more precise description be given of the point at 
which Aeneas was to turn southward. Compare also, (cj, Val. 
Flacc. 2. 628: 

"rarior hinc tellus, atquo ingens undique caelum 
rursus, et incipiens alium prospectus iu orbem" 

I the lands more thinly (widely) scattered: more sea between 
them]. (d), Stat. Silr. 1. 2. 186: "cum pluviis rarescunt 
nubUa.'' (e), SU. 17. 422 (ed. Rup.): 

^''rarescit multo laxatus vulnere miles." 
(f), Prop. 4. 4. 77 (ed. Hertzb.): 

''cumque super raws fooiii flammantis acervos 
traiicit imnumdos obria tui'ba pedes.'' 

{g). Lucret. 6. 840 (ed. Liichm.): 

**fngidior poiTO in puteis aestate fit humor, 
rarescit quia terra calore, et semina si (juac 
forte vaporis habet, propere dimittit in auras" 

\fhe eomponent particles of the soil grow looser, more separate 
from each other, whore ''rarescif corresponds to '^putrem," 
4€n. 8. 5f)6\. ill), Aen. h 122: *^rari nantos." (ij, Aen. 

456 ABNEIDEA [41C»-419 ast— aestu 

,?. 314: "raris vocibus" [not fete, but at hifcrrals from each 

other; or, as in the text, shoiHng intervals between], {Ji Ovid, 

Fast. 4, 769: 

. . . ^'referat mihi caseus aera, 
dentciuc viam liquido vimina rara sero" 

(where *'vinvina rara" is withes or rods between which are large 
intci'stices). [k), Newton: ''Gold is so rare as very readily and 
without the least opposition to ti-ansmit the magnetic effluvia, 
and easily to admit quicksilver into its pores and to let water 
pass through it." And, {l\ Milton, Far. Lost. 2. 947: 

. . . ''so eagerly the fiend 
o'er bog or steep, through strait, rough, dense, or rare. 
with head, hauds, wings, or feet, pureues his way." 

Claustra. — Xot the straits or at-tual passage, but (literally) 
the closers, shuttei*s, or barriers, /. e., the approximating head- 
lands between which the very narrow passage, channel, or gut, 
technically called '^strait," is left. See Rem. on "claustra," 
Aen. 1. 60, and compare Claud. Belt. Get. 1S8 (ed. Burm.): 

. . . '' vallata mari iSoinjuia rupns. 
ot duo «.'ontinuo «:oiiiiecteus ao'luora muro 
isthmos. ct anjijusti patuerunt f/au.sfra Lechaoi. ' 

where *'angusti Lechuei '' is the narrow part of the isthmus at 
Lechaeuni, and *H'laustra" is th(,' wall or barrier across the 
isthmus at that part, across that |)art of the isthmus. Compare 
also ibuL 220 (od. Burm.): 

''ijisa etiani diffisa brevi Tniia<:na |)()nt(). 
si rerum natura sinat. disc^edin-e longe 
optat, t^t Tonium rtfutja Uixarc Prhro." 

where Claudian's "Ionium rcfu^o laxare Poloro '* is the exact 
ecjuivalent of VirgiTs anousti karicscknt claustra pklori, the 
''claustra Polori " of both being the barrier presented by the 
mountain IN^lorus to communication b(.'twecn Tyrrhene and 
Ionian seas, a barrier which Viigil represents as appearing to 
open or leave a s|)aco b(^twe«>n the opposite shores (RAEh>:- 
cKNTi. and which Claudian lepresents as retreating ("refugo 

410-419 AST— AESTu] BOOK HI. 457 

Peloro'') so as to leave the eomnuinieation between the two 
seas free. 

Haec loca VI QUONDAM, &c. — In this and tlie following verses 
there seems to be an allusion to the orio;in of the name 
Rliegiuni, as in parva, vei*se 402, there is to the name tcthja. 
See Strabo, lib. H, and Uiod. Sicul. 4. 85. 

Akvi vETisTAs (vs. 415), ago, continuation of time in the 
forward direction, the opposite of antiquity, or time considered 
in the backward direction; the forward face of Janus, not the 
face with which he looks behind him. This is always the sense 
of vetustas with Virgil, as 10. 792: 

•'si qua lidein tauto est oj)eri latura cetustaft;" 
12. 685: 

. . . ''sou turbidus iinbtn* 
proluit, aut anuis solvit sublapsa rehattasy' 

and sometimes with other poets, as Ovid, Met, 7. 440: 

"quae iactata diu fertur durasse retuMas 
in scopulos." 

The same meaning will be found to belong also to the adjec- 
tival form of the word, as 3. 84, "saxo vetusto'" [not ancient 
stone, but stone which has lasted from ancient or remote time 
down to the present —long-lived "l^one, as \\i) might say]. 9.284, 
•'Priami de gent(^ vetu.sta" \n()t ecjuivalent to '' Priami de gente 
antiqua" (for the term antiqua might be applied to a family 
which had existed but for a short time). ///// the familv of Priam, 
which had lasted through so many generations |. 

LiTTOKE muTCTAs. — "Man iam disiunctas," Heyne. ''Marl 
irrumpente disiunctas," Forbiger. By no possibility can 1 it- 
tore be equivalent to mari: and the disjunction by th(j sea 
is sufticiently expressed by AS(ii;sTo intkui.i it akstu. Liitoke 
DiDUCTAS is sepnratf'tl or jjarfnl in shore, i. <? , with respe(;t to 
shore — in other words, stamliny each on its on'n shore, and 
s<), only too diffidently, Conington : "ILeyne's (explanation of 
UTTORE DIDUCTAS as equivalent to m a r i d i d u c t a s , ' ubi 
enim littus, il'i mare,' s^'^'ms rather harsh. IVrhaps it would 

458 AENEIDEA [410 419 ast— aesti- 

bo better to interpret the words separated in respect of coast, 
the ground on which they stood being no longer continuous, 
but disconnected." And so exactly, Sil. 1. 108 (ed. Rup.): 

''at qua diversas clomentior aspicit Arotos, 
Herculoo dirimcntr /)rtn, tft'<fnrta i^ropintjuis 
Europes videt arva iwjis: ultra obsidet aequor, 
iiec patitur nomeu i)roferri longius Atlas" 

[hinds separated with chains of mountains near to each other, 
/. c.n lands separated from each other (viz., by the sea), although 
still near to each othei\ /. r., their mountain chains were not 
far removed from each other |. Compare also the same authors 
closely imitated account of the identical convulsion, 14. 11 (ed. 

^•Ausoniae pars magna iacot Trinaoria tellus. 
ut semol oxpugnante Xoto et vastautibus undis 
accepit frota, caei-uloo propulsa tridentc. 
namque per occultuin caeca vi turbinis oliin 
impaotuin pelagus laceratae viscera terrae 
discifUt, et, mcffio j>en'itm])*'Ns arva profumh^ 
<'Uin i)(>i»ulis paiitor cniivulsas transffth't ///-/yf.y.'" 

There is, tln^-eforc. no occasion for the alteration of the text 
propj)sed by the anonyinous correspondent of the (rc/tflcnfaff's 
Matia\hu' ( 1 7()4, p. 404), viz.: "littora, //. c, 'quoad littoka,'*' 
the words having already the better sense, /// respect (not of 
shores, but) of shore. 

4H3 4:V4 niAFT.— A 10 umj] 






l^pfirtrf.] i^nviw.Hiik vaTI sk^u a mi^kb - ammi^i I .IW. (Fo^g.). 

fytitict,] pRtTT>KN*TU VATT, siQri >TiiF.s ANTMriki ill P. Manut.; Voss. 

[/>j//iW.l PituiiiejrriA, vati siql'a kidics, AMMir« III 'MiKUic!to phudkntu, iii 
homiii«3 enim [►ludentia est^ in vatibiis Mes," Servius iCotl. DreKd,): 
U Cerda: D. Heins ; N. Heins. (I670i; Heyne; Bmnck; Wakflt; 
Wagner (ed. Heyn, and od. 1861 1; I^d.; Ribb.^ which last, having 
qiiotBd Servius's '*in liomine enim prmietitta est, in vatibuK /?^/p*»" 
ol^erves "unde apjiaret et ipsum vati vAim sc^juoutibuB LonhirixiKHc/' 
Rihbetik, however, while thus citing the words of Servius in fiuj*f»ort 
of the* pouctuation adopted by him3r?lf in his text iviz,^ iw?iii^?tfTtA, vati^ 
baa entirely omitted to state that Serviua hitnaelf^ aa ropreaonted in hiM 
oditioDS, ej^. <//*., Colon. Ailobr. I Bit) i after the oodd. of [>amolj, l*um^ 
Gott. 1826, punctuates: iiki.kno mjiukntia vati. Having mvMvlf 
personally examined the Hresdcn *^ode5f of Hervius* i am enabled to 
state that the reading of that codex ta not hxi.k?(o fHiinKNTU v«Tf« 
but HEI.RNO pRuiiKxiiA^ without any vati, and that, thtireforu, RibbeukV* 
reading, which is that of all tJxe otmnnentatorH and t^diforK an tjittul 
above from Iji D^rda down, has the suppoit, «iudi uh it in, not only 
of Servius s words, hut, accordiBg to the l>ro»deii eodox^ of Borvina'M 
, ritati»>o of the |»ashAL'e itself. 

1% vnm*KST\\ . , . qi\ fu>v>, any turrsj-clil at all, any i^liaiieo 
iit all; any even the Kmalloit relianre. S<«» I{^ni. *m *^'Arithm 
^i quern,*' 1. 185. 

Lb Cerda myn: '*vif|e ut iiiterpiiiixi vommii, ut r-KiniKMiA 
ad Heleniiin. rm>> iu\ vuti*in refftrutiir,'* un iritprputi* luiitinn 
in wbirli (see Vm\L^rt.) the «drl <'on)riientat*»r Imw Ihh'H fnllHWi'd 
by tbo modern commentaton*, witJi the perhiip s-in^le exception 
of Voss, most errone^iuftly m 1 tliiiik -(lj« b'H^'itUMe thirrw in uu 
sueh thing to be fnund in antiquity im u Mperiii] ap^eriptinii tif 

460 AENEIDEA [433-434 praet.— aI'ollo 

prudentia to an uninspired man, and a special ascription of 
fides to an inspired prophet; on the contrary, prudentia no 
less than fides, and fides no less than prudentia, are in- 
discriminately applied to mere man and inspired prophet — Cic. 
ad Fnm. 6. 6: **ut in fabulis Amphiaraus, sic ego jjrudais et 
sciens ad pestem ante oculos positam sum profectus,'' being an 
example of such indiscriminate application of prudentia, while 
of a similar indiscriminate application of fides the examples 
are so abundant that quotation were mere supererogation. (2j, 
because the distinction not only does not occur in ancient 
writers, but is in itself a bad, incorrect distinction, there being 
no reason why prudentia {foresiyht) should not be ascribed 
to the vates Helen us as well as to the man Helen us, nor any 
reason why fides [truth, reliabi'liti/) should not be applied to 
the man Helenus as well as to Helenus the vates. (3j, because 
such distinction, even if it were both correct and to be found 
elsewhere, was yet of too minute a kind to be used by so grave 
and dignified a writer as Virgil, especially on so solemn an 
occasion : was more suitable for a lighter writer, such as Ovid. 
And. (4), because there is no trace, no inkling, of any such 
distinction made elsewhere by \-irgil, who on the contrary 
attributes fides to or has fides claimed by the most hetero- 
geneous variety of characters -4. 12, Anna; 2. 809, Hector's 
ghost; 9. 260, Ascanius; 2. 511, IViam; 2. 161, Troy; 10. 71, 
the Tuscan nation; 11.511, scouts sent out to observe the 
(Miemy ; 3. 69, the sea; 5. 601, Fortune: (iron/, i. 213, bees. 
If in the actual practice of our author fides has been ascribed 
to each individual character i)f this motley assemblage; if it has 
been a^scribed by Horace, (hi. 3. 16. 30, to his (Top, by Ovid, 
Fast. 4. 814, to birds; if "proh deum hominumque fidem !" was 
an exclamation in everybody's mouth; if ''Punica fides" and 
"Graeca fides'' were ccnnmon bywords, where is the propriety of 
the Fn)Es of our text belonging only to vati and not to helf:no 
vATi? No, no; there is no such propiiety, and Virgil has made no 
such distinction. The structure is si qua kst prudentia vati helexo. 
SI qua |r.v/] fides \v(iti Ilrloto]: the meaning is: "if the prophet 
Helenus knows anything, and deserves your confidence, may be 

433-434 PRAfeT.— A^oLL(>] BOOK TIT. 46 1 

relied on;" a^imu3i si veris implet apollo is the variation of 
the single theme si qua est heu-lxo prudentia vati, si qua 
FIDES. Animum is the animum neither of Helenas alone, nor of 
"vates" alone, but of '^Helenus vates;" and in verso 712 it is 
neither "vates" nor Helenus which wo have separately, but 
'•vates" and Helenus together, the proplief Helenus. Nor let 
''Helenus . . . sacerdos" (verse 369 j be quoted as an objection 
to the preceding argument. "Sacerdos" does not, indeed, here 
stand apart from "Helenus," but it is not for the purpose of 
something being predicated of it which cannot be with equal 
propriet}^ predicated of "Helenus,'' or of something being pre- 
dicated of "Helenus" which cannot be with equal propriety 
predicated of "sacordos;" on the contrary, the predications of 
"Helenus" and of *\sacerdos'' all belong to one category, and 
"^sacerdos" is reserved and removed to some distance, only in 
order to round the sentence, fill up the measure, and avoid the 
weakness of structure which would be evinced by leaving "canit" 
to depend on so remote a subject as "Helenus" — the reserva- 
tion and separation of such a co-ordinate nominative for such 
obvious purpose being of most frequent and ordinary occurence 
throughout the poem, ej\ gr,, 1. 199: 

1. 415: 

'•vina bonus quae deinde cadis onerarat Acesfes 
littoro Trinacrio dederatque abeuntibus herns .' 

••at Vemtft obscuro gradientes acre sepsit, 
of niulto nebulae circum <lca fudit aniictu.' 

462 AEXEIDEA [446-457 Diami— ( axat 




[punrt] roscAS ipsa caxat III Wakcf., compnriug 8. 506; 11. 513; 12. 

[pufict] poscar; ipsa III P. Manut. 


In numerum. — "In ordinem," Servias, Heyne, Wiignor. 1 
think, however, that something nuicli more precise is meant. 
Numerus was a term applied in Roman military tactics to a 
company or number of sohliei-s disposed rrtfd' mid pie as we 
say, /. e.j so many in one row, abreast; behind tliese an equal 
number also abreast, and behind th(^(^ tigain an equal number: 
and so on, until the whole number was disposed of. The sol- 
dieiN so disposed in order, rank and tile, formed a numerus. 
See 11. 597: 

"at maims interna muris Troiana pnipiiiqiiat 
Etrusci<iiH' din'os, <'«iuituiii«iiio cxtM-citus <jninis, 
cMinpositi niDmro in turnias. Krcinit aequoro totu 
insiiltans sonipc^s, ot prossis pugnat liabonis 
huL" obvoi*sus (»t hue: turn late forrous hastis 
horrot agor, <^ampi(|ue armis siibliiiiilnis ardent," 

where the description is undoubtedly that ot an army marcliing 
rank and file, and where yet there is no statement to that effect, 
if the force of ntnk and filr be denied to "numero;'' where 
further "numero" if this sense br denied to it performs no 
us(»ful part, is a mere expletive and had better been absent. 
It is in this sense the sibyl is said in our text to digest 


say, she placed them rank and tile j)iecisely in the ord(M' which 
they \v«»uld have occui)i('d if they had been written on a sheet 

44&-457 diorrit-kanat] BOOK IIT. 46-) 

of paper, or parchment, precisely in that order in which words 
are usually written in order to be easily read. She made a page, 
or, as the printers say, a "/br???/' out of her leaf-writt(^n verses, 
and left them so, but on the first opening of the door the wind 
came and scattered about in every direction the fugitive* oh'- 
ments of which her page was composed, and she would not take 
the trouble of re-making lier page so as a second tim(» to con- 
nect the scattered fragments into continuous sense, 


(where situs is the respective positions of the leaves in the page), 
and the oracular response was lost. 

Manent immota locis {vs. 447 j, theme; nkquk ah ohdink 
CEDUNT, variation. 

Tenuis ventus (vs. 448).— "Quia hie satis ad kkondks tknkkam/* 
La Cerda, Voss. ''Ornat epitheton a natura puto vonti sum- 
ptum; saltern hoc dignius poeta quam ut sit: si vel paruni venti 
immissum fuerit,'' Heyne. I^ Cerda and Voss are right, ll^'yno 
wrong. It is as if Virgil had said: "disturbed by avan a slight 
breath of wind.'' 

Incoxsulti abeunt (^ vs. 452;. — Inco.nsulti, "inscii rerum, ignari, 
sine consilio. Et conHidtuH est qui consulitur: imutHHuliuH, (jui 
non accipit consilium,'' »Serv. (Cod. Dn.-wi.; ">yx^?^//ro/, quia 
non accepto orarrulo disced unt." \ja, Cerda, lleyn^f, I^ie wig. 
But, first, there is no example of the uw? of in consult us in 
this sense: and secondly, the inquirers have a^^tually rt^'Jilvttil 
their answer, although, on a/'count of \in \mufi wriiUtti on l^-av^*. 
they have not been able to understand it. Inco.\«i;mi in there- 
fore, as always elsewhere. nulUuM fouHilli; tfui iwHtriiuii quul 
facere aporteat : vLtiiyayoi, aunffuvoiyiti, diafif^/uvoivitjii,ujot;)/}i, 
artf^tiovhuioi. UTifj^^int^, as ^tf . Ae^^^rh. A'jfnf/, 11 TJ ^Choruii, 
not understanding the ora^:lei» of Cab^ndra^: 

['^obscaris ora/ruiii^ iijf^o editL»' mt^^h ^uio ^'h%m\\V*\, <6^ 

464 AENEIDEA [446-457 digerit— canat 

ApoUon. Rhod. 3. 126 (of Ganymede skinned, to use the boy's 
phrase, by Cupid at a <i^ame of marbles): 

A i'7i nil' fTfinlouetJi I'. 

(c), Id. 3. 423 (of Jason Iiavinii: received the answer of Aeetes 
that he must fight the bull): 

I^Ol/.tjl' (T f<fi'fl 'tOKVl' OTOajtftC /OOi'OP, OV (ff 7t1) tl/h 

p'atque in medio haositahat Into, perpiexus malis"]. (d), Id. 
3. 893 (ed. Berk): au ijyari tj rie^^oXr^rca jiaua uohg p'consilii 
inopia porculsa est"], (e), Id. 4. 106 [of Medea): 

t] (f fU7i((/.iy (uoaovGtc, 

[where Sliaw: ''inops coiisilii ''J; (/), Aesch. Ayam. 1360: 

/.(r/oiai T(tv fii'.rorj' intaraviu nc.liv. 

(ij)^ Lucan, 1. 495: "tiirba per urboin . . . incoitsuUa ruit." 
[h), Val. Flaec. 4. 302 : 

"(Mco itciuin vacuas a^^it [Aiiiyciis] Incontiulfa por auras 
brachia. Sontit oiiiiii Pollux rationis ogonttMn" 

(in both wiucli last j)la<'es " inronsulta '' is at mn(hnn, trithont 
drfiuHv n'nn or ptfrposc} Also (f), Urat. Falisc. CaDn.Venat. 4 : 

-' inro/isHltt lioiniiics, vitaque orat error iu omni.'' 

And especially (/), Cicero ide Oratore, 1. 45), whose w^ords 
seem almost to be an express gloss upon our text: "Quid est 
enim praeclarius. quani honoribus ot reipublicae muneribus per- 
functum seneni posse suo iuro dicero idem, quod apud Ennium 
dicit ille Pythius Apollo, sc esse oum, unde sibi si non populi 
et reges, at onmes sui civos consilium expetant, 

'suaruni rerum iiicerti (^uos ego mea opo ex 
imertia ccrlos conijjafein[uo consilii 
diniitto, ut ue res temero tractent turbidas,' " 

44^1—40* KiuhKj 



as if he liaii said, '*e\ incortis e*^rtos^ ox tfiPONsfiff/s tuimpotes 
coDsilii/' And finally {ku Te . Adciph, 4, 4. 3: 

eonsisteiv nihil enttmlii quiueiufiiii |>otest/ 

Thus, the udjc?ctival "incousultus" of Yii^gil is exactly the 
opposite of Horace's adjectival '"'consultus," OiL I, 34, 2: 

^^QsameDtis dum sapientiae 
emisultujt erro," 

and the same as the '-aeger consilii " of Statius, Theb. IL 140: 

"obscora vallum diira nocte perermt 

Tlu> Itiiliaiis preservf? the word in the same adjectival sense: 
sconsitjUalo, without fixed counsel— not knowing what to think 
or do, sveniaio — Eime di Petrarm (ed. Fr. Soave, Milan, 1805), 
parte 2, canzone 49, v. 22; 

"vergiae, que' begli ooobi 
cht^ vider trinti la spietata atampa 
ne* dolci inembri del tuo canj Figlio, 
volgi al mio dubbio stato, 
che scmwii/littto, a te vien per consigJio;" 

Metast.^ La Clettienxa di TiiOf 3. (Titus speaking); 

, . . **e obe sperasti 
di trovAr mai fiel Irono? 11 aonimo forso 
iV ngni ccintentjo? Ah, sc4*mhjUfi!t}- Ossarva 
t|uai fruttl io ne raccolgo/' 

where ^'sconsigliato'' is ill-advised. The French, too^ have their 
bien conseill^ and mal mnseilU^ as La Fontaine, Fables^ '*Le 
fou qui vend la sagesse:" 

•4es gens bien-eofisttlk's et q^ui voudroiit bien taire 
eutre eux et les gens fous mcttrout pour rordinaire 
la longueur de ce fil." 

The neoreBt approach I find to the sensi^ assi^^ned to the word 
br Hevne is in the ''inconsulti recessus'* of Claudian, where the 
poet speaking of the absence of Apollo from Delphi inf^nnis us 


466 ABNElt)EA [U^Abl dioerit— CANAf 

that during that period the oracular cave is silent and incon- 
sultus {6 Cans, Honor. 29): ^antraque moesta silent, ifieon- 
S7iltiq\ie recessus," where, however, the meaning is not qtnbtis 
no7i est responsurn, but qui non sunt mterrogaii , After all, the 
difference between quibns non est respon^nm and non compotes 
consiln is not very considerable nor much to be insisted on, 
the latter being a consequence of and involved in the former. 
Hic TiBi NE QUA MORAE, &c. — Comp. Apul. Flor, 1. 1: "Re- 
ligiosis viantium moris est, quum aliquis lucus aut aliquis locus 
sanctus in via oblatus est, votum postulare, donum apponere, 
paulisper assidere: Ita mihi ingresso sanctissimam istam civita- 
tem, quanquam oppido festinem, praefanda venia, et habenda 
oratio, et inhibenda properatio/' Stat. SiU\ S. 1. 106 (Her- 
cules begging a larger and richer temple where passengers 
might stop): 

'*da templum, dignasque tuis conatibus aras, 
quas puppes velis uolint transire secundis." 

St. Isidore will, no doubt, occur to the Spanish reader: 

. . . "lo! he leaves his plough 
still-standing in the field, and goes to church 
when the bell rings for vespers, and returning 
linds a winged angel down from heaven descended 
guiding his plough and oxen, and more land 
ploughed in his absence of one short half hour 
than, had he by the plough staid, he had ploughed 
himself in a whole day from mora till night," 

and Fridolin, to tiie (fornian (Schiller, '^Der Gang nach dem 
Eisenhammer,'' st. 20j: 

" entschlossen ist er alsobald, 

und macht den sakristan; 
'das/ spricht er, 'ist kein aufentiialt, 
was fordort himmelan.' " 

470—487 ADDix— uiokimI 





VAR, LEOT. (vs. 483). 

suBT»i3flT?K 1 St, GalL, Mat (G eaneeDed). II 

III P, Mauut.; 

'ilBTRMlNK I /'«/. II 

III I). HeiDS.; N. Hf»ms. i,l<570i; Phil; Hoyne; 

Brunck; Wakef,; Pott; AVagn. (ed. Heyn., ed. 1861); Lad.; ilaupt. 

VAU, LEOT, (vs. 484), 

nOKOKl 1 MeiL, St. Gad. II L'?;. Hi Seivius iCod. Dread. i; ed. princ; 

Rom. 1473; Ven/ 1470, 1471, 1472. 1475; Milan, 1475, 14S>2; E 

Maout; Lft Corda; li. Heios.; N, Htuns. (1«j70); Phil.; Heyne; 

BruDck; Pott,; Dorph.; Wagn. (ed. Hem and ed. 1861); Lad.; 

!i<wfoRE 1 Pai. 11 -^j. ni Scaurus (ap. Serv,}; Pomp. Sabinus; Wakef,; 
Voss; "Twelve Years' Voyage;" Ribb, 

Lddit equos addttque dfces. — BrcKS. iindniibtipdly (jnt'df's, I e» 
piMs (and so Coiiingtoii an*l Wagiier), imt «aily becaust^ Diony- 
sius of Haliramassus informs us that Aenea?^ aotiially took pilots 
with him to show him tlio passage, but because (a) it would have 
been \ery remarkable if so iuexperieneefJ a sailor had ventured 
on these totally unknown watem without pilots, and |/>), this 
\vii8 the last and most proper plnee for procuring them. Com- 
pare Aesch, Suppl. 176 (Danaus tu the chorus, his daughters. 
who have just arrived in Greece under his pilofeige); 

468 AENEIDEA [470-487 addit— amorem 

and also verse 238, where the iic(Oiker<: says to the same 

(CHQo^f t'oi [sine hospitibus patrocinantibus] Tt, roor/zr f}yf]T(iit', uokfiv 
trkrji^ (cTof-OTog, jorro &(tvu(«TTOt' nfAft, 

the r^yr^T('n' of which passage is exactly the duces of our text 
To Peerlkamp's objection that one pilot would have been suffi- 
cient, the reply is simple, viz., that fleets are in the habit of 
taking not one but several pilots, in order to guard against the 
manifest danger to the whole fleet in case of loss or separation 
of the vessel carrying the single pilot. If Virgil had meant as 
Heyne supposes he meant, grooms or caretakers for the horses, 
he would not have used the term duces, but custodes. For 
dux used in the sense of guide, see Aen. 6*. 262, 

Hanc arripe velis (vs. 477).— See 10. 298; 9. 13; 11. 531; 
and compare Pers. 5. 140: 

. . . ''nihil obstat, quin trabe vasta 
Aegaeum rapias.' 

KraHf/. Matth. 11. 12: i] liaaikiia nor oiQartov liia'Ceiai, /uu 
lit aoi (a (iQ :i a lo rai V a v nir. 

Nec (EDIT HONOKi (VS. 484).— "Tauta dat munera, quanta 
merobatur Ascanius," Scrvius. '^Xoh cedit honorl sciz. mune- 
runi, quo proseiuitus erat Helenus Anchisen; ut Andromache 
Ascaniuni nunc non minus bonurifice muneribus hospitalibus 
impertiat," Heyne. '\\ndromache donat auro intextas vestes 
Aeneae, puta, et Anchisae: Ascanio chlamydem illorum donorum 
HONORi, /. c, praestantiae et pulchritudini, non cedenfem, prae- 
terea eidem alia textilia plurima," Wagn. (1861). 

1 am as little satisfied with any of tiiese explanations as I 
am witli one foi-meiiy proposed by myself in the CUuisieal Museutu 
(London, lS4(S), and inserted by Forbiger in the third edition 
of his work, or with a soi'ond also proposed by myself in my 
'Twelve V(»ars' Voya^^e of Discovery in the First Six Books of 
the Aenois" (Meinhold, Dresden, 1853). Feeling that these 
interpretations are all pretty equally unworthy of the author, 
and ill adapted for a position in the middle of one of the most 

470-487 JuutiT— amoiucm] 

BOOK ni. 


highly finished a^iri pathetic passtij^^es bo<|uenthe(l to mi admir- 
ing posterity by perhaps the most ]>atlictic of all poets, I have 
never ceased, since my former publications, to keep my at- 
tontiou more or less iliii3cted to the passage, with tlie hope, 
however faint, of at length, perhaps by some happy chance, 
alighting on a meaning which might at least be in g<»od keep- 
ing with the context Having at last, as i think, been success- 
fuU and discovered a meaning which not only does not dis- 
tigure but greatly enhances tlie beauty of the lieautifiil paint- 
ing, I shall, if the reader have no objection, take him with me 
by th** hanil and let liim liavr* the plcMsurt* of re-discovering 
it along with me. Let us, therefore* open the Ihetiba of Euri- 
pides at vei'se 910, and what drt we find? Hecuba, in order 
to wreak her terrible vengeance on Pt)lymestor, not hesitating 
to break through all oriental decorum, and, although a woman 
and in aftliction. and degrade<l from her former high rark into 
that of a conunon slave, appearing in the presence, not only of 
men, but of men who had known her in her times of happiness 
and prosperity: 

iiiaxvvtifAui at ji(toQfilf!inp tpttviiotf, 
nali'fitioTOfi, fi' ratotoi^ xtiu^vti xaxotg' 
orrtl '/tilt Uttf thjp tvtvjfovfi'f fU&oii,' «' k/^h 
fr TWiff rmruui i vy^^ttpovfi iv Hut vt^, 

fdA* avTo at] #c*j>w«>' fiyiot} att^fv, 

"Xct us now rt'turn to our text, and what do we find ? Andro- 
mache—a vvitman like Hecuba, and *if the same rank, and fri»m 
the same cijuntry, and a near rehitive, and having suffered the 
smme aftliction - not hesitating, iti nnler to gratify the ten- 
deniess o( her feelings towards Ascanius. to break tlinaigh the 
same oriental dot'orum {sv.r ckoit noKoui), not restrained by 
th<* i»rientiil etiquette, the oriental siife (Germ J, flic oriental 
**hono8/' the oriental sense that it was beeonung in a female to 
hide her afflictinn and degradation in retirement, from present- 
ing hei'self voluntarily, not merely before men but before the 
verv men before vvh<»m she should most feel iishamed, most feel 

470 . AENEIDEA [470-487 adwt— amokim 

aidiog — reverentia — those who had known her in her previous 
happy condition. Compare Eurip. Iphig, in Aulid. 722 : 

Clyt. cij nai iHu<; Nrjofjdog, fi'db'f*!' Xoyoiv 

T(Of ann' axovaua, t>;tiirjr noo dtofmran: 
AciiIL. (0 Jioii't' uiSioi;, Tr^rd** rtvfc knoao) notb 

yifi'((tx((, uooni]p fvJtoiTit) xtxrriutvtjv; 
Clyt. ov (^avfite o' »;,««s* (tyvofiv, ovs ,"'/ nnoo<; 

xuitL^fg' (itvM S' an Of^fig to a(0(f{)ot'fii'. 
AciilL. Ttg <T' (t; Ti d' til'^fg Javai^Mi' tig arXloyov, 

yvrt} :ioog (tv^mtg uaniatr /if«f{Kcyftfi'Oi'g: 
Clyt. .'//;dV<s' ,"*»' '■'/'< ^aig, KkiTainvrjoroa &f uoi 

ot'oud' Tionig (ff not 'oTif lyautui'Viv avdi. 
AaiiL. xu).o}g k).tiii>; t-v i^ot^y^ti ra xacouc 

luo/ooi' df: /Lioi yvvuiit ov^^akkitv loyovs, 

where 7con'i' aidcog exactly corresponds to Virgil's '^ honor/' 
See also verse 1207 of the same play: 

Clyt. ii df, itxvov, tfny^tg; Iniir,. .iyikXtti rord' iSttv uiaj^woftfti. 
Clyt. o}g ti 6ii; Iphig. to dioTi/t-g uoi rwr yicftotv (cidtn (ft()(i. 
Clyt. ovx tv u^iQOTriTt xftottt Ttoog rrc vri' :itnT(oxoT((. 

(i).X(( fJiitf'\ ov OfUi'OTrjTOs f^oyov ;;r dvi'b)itftH(, 

where for or oi^noiijo^ egyor Virgil would have said ''non 
c-odenduni est lionuri." 

We may with the more coiihdence apply to our text the 
key thus put into our hands by Kuripidos, because it is per- 
fectly certain from the story of Pulydorus, with which Virgil 
begins, and from the story uf Polyphemus with which he closes, 
this tliird book of his Aeneid — both of tliem told almost without 
a single variation in Euripides' own words — that Euripides was 
seldom absent from before Virgil's eyes while lie was engaged 
in writing this pait of his Aeneid. 1 am even inclined to 
think tiiat our author is saircely less indel)ted to Euripides' 
Hecuba tluni to Apollonius's Medea for his dcbfif of Dido in 
the terrible charact^M* wliifli she assumes in the next book. 
He('ul)a a[)i)eajs on the stage, territied by her visions of the 
preceding night, and exclaims (vs. ()8, cd. Hothe): 

11 .iot' ((toouid f-i'fiyos oiic) 
(htnc.oi m'.inuttuf : 

Dido makes her appearance, no less terrihed by the visions sh^ 

470-487 ADon— AMOHHii] 



has seen, and exrlainis in the very words of Hecuba: ''quae 
me suspcnsam insomnia terrent!'' The Trojan woman (of the 
ehorus) who is the eontidant of Hecuba advises faer to repair to 
the temples, propitiate the gods by sacritice, and endeavour to 
move Airamemnon by prayers and entreaties (vs* 141): 

rtXii^ lift yttnv^-f ilh 7?(^^t*i /i(nf.toi'%j 
rot'v- f' mnuptiui;^ tovg !^' vnayittoif^. 

Dido's rotitidiiut, her sister, gives lier exactly similar advice: 
''propitiate the gods by sacritice, detain Aeneas by excuses and 
kind treatment:*' 

*'tu modo posoe deos vetiiani, sacris^ue litatis 
iadulge boepitiOf causas^x'^^ inneete moraudi.'^ 

Nay, I am inclined to go so far as to question whether even 
Medea's terrifying ovit^ot may not liavc been sugge^^ted to 
Apollonius by these very ovtinoi of Hecuba, and so both 
AjKjllonius and Virgil have drawn from *>no and the same 

Tfiis passage being thus, a,s 1 would hope, rightly understood 
at last, not only {t\ does this picture actjuire new tlelicacy and 
beauty and pathos, but {%] we perceive with what scrupulous 
attention to oriental deconun the former meeting of Andre- 
mach»^ with Aeneas and his companions (vss. 301 et nffpf.) is 
brought about. i)n that occasion Aeneas and his companions, 
arriving unexpectedly and wholly unacquainted with the place, 
siirpiise Andromache in the pei-fi>rmance of a religious rite 
which made it necessary for her not only to be out of rioors but 
outside the city and on tlie side of the public road The meet- 
JOg being thus wholly accidental and unpremeditated tm both 
sides, there was no breach of decorum and no r»xtniso was re- 
quired. On the present occasion, oJi tlje contrary, the meeting 
WAS not only premeditated, but actually souglit for by the female 
herself: there was therefore a flagrant breach «d' that decorum 
which consigned the fallen princess with her afHiction to the 
privacy of the gynaeceum^ a breach of decorum which is as fully 

472 AEXEIDBA [470-487 addit— amorem 

acknowledged in the words nec ckuit honoki as excused and 
justified in the words diorkssu mai-^jta suphemo and the whole 
of the broken-hearted mother's address to the boy who reminded 
her so livelily of her own deceased son. And (8), we sympa- 
thize more than ever with the greatness of Andromache's sur- 
prise at the sight of the Trojans «»n the former occasion, and 
with her agonizing recollections of tiie alteration in her circum 
stances since she had last seen tlie same faces. We learn also 
at the same time more fully to appreciate the feeling of shame 
and self-abasement with which 

"deiecit vultuni. ct deniissa voi'c lociita est: 
•0 fclix/'' etc. 

If the reader is still not (juite satisfied that in this part of 
the third book, no less than in its commencement and perhaps 
in the commencement of the fourth, the Hecuba of Euripides is 
continually flitting with more or less distinctness before the mind 
of our author, let him go on a little further and he will find 
Andromache inquiring concerning Ascanius: 

••([uid puer Ascaiiiii.NV suitoiatiio et vo^ciTur auraV 
<luoni tilu iam Troia 
oc'jua tamcn i»ucro ost ainissao cura parotitis r"' 

almost in the very words in which llcruba inquires for Poly- 
dorus (vs. i)34): 

.inunov titi' t^iJit :i(if(^\ or /-i: fm,s: )^i-oo^, 
*■' >'/' 

t-i f 1,^ ii-y.itiit},^: I i^oiff- iii-uii^n(i n mn 

Even in tliose colder western climates and more refined and 
henrtloss times, mourning alone is a sut'ticicnt r(^ason for con- 
finement not mereJN to the house but even to the private cliain- 
ber, and Donna Isabella's apoU»,:;v for appearing in public 
within two months after slu» has become a widow^ is not less 
poetically ti'ue than it is poetically beautiful (Schiller, Braiil rati 
Mes,^infi, J); 

IO-4B7 \imi amorem] 



^*der noth gehoirhond. nioht dem ei|meti triob, 
tret' iclu ihr greisen hiiiiiiter dieser stadt, 
beraus zu cuch aus dec vetrichwie^'eQeD 
gomachern ineines frauousaalH, das mfliU 
vor ©uren iniiniierblickeri zu i'ntsclileit>m, 
denu es geziemt der wittwe, die den gatten 
veiloren. ihres Icbeos liclit und rahin, 
die ischwaiz uniflojte nachtjjfestalf dem aug' 
der welt in still en mauern m v* rbergen; 
doch unerbittlich, allgewaltig troibt 
des augenblick^ gobieterstunme mioh 
an das entwohntc licht der welt hervor/' 

Compare the atrount jiiiven by Claiulian, in Nttfiir 2, 427. of 
the women ^oitig tmt rt» see the pnnblimeiit of Rufiniis not- 
withstanding theij doing so was ao infringement of feminine 

, . . "vacuo |ilebs obvia uiuro, 
iam jieciirn tluit, Senibui? non obstitit a€.ias, 

where we may say: ^'senes non recliint rtetati. virgines non 
ceiiunt piidori/' AUo the jiccount given hy the same aiitfiur 
of the similar infringement of feminine decorum by the women 
crowding to see the trinmphal pi^ocessiun nf TheDdosius with 
the young Honorius through The city, .>' Cons. Honut\ 126: 

'Njuaoti tuin iuvenes, quuntao sftnnrf pudanm 
spectandi studio matrrs. piierisqiir si^veri 
cejtavere sencjs, ctim tu goaitoris amicu 
exceptus gremio media m veherei^ per nrbein, 
velarotque pios commanis laaroa I'urrus! " 

\f. t\, "'miitres non eessere pudori''], 

KxHCtly similar to the nkc cedit iion«>ki of otir text is the 
*^non arcet honos*' of H*ifinus, Pasijth^ Fal^ uip. Wornsrhtrf^ 
/W/, Lai. Mi nor, \: 

'filia mWs 
afstuat igrte rwvo, 
vt per pram iiivcntuTii, 
men tern perdita, quaoritat. 
nou illam thalanii pmior arcrt, 
non regalis ftoiwa. non magni cuia inaiiti/ 

474 AENEIDEA [470-487 addit— imoreii 

and scarcely less similar, Mamertinus's "honori eius venerationi- 
que c^denk's" (Oratiarum actio luliano, 30): "pene intra ipsas 
Palatinae domus valvas, lecticas consulares iussit inferri; et cum, 
hmiori eius venet*ationique cede?it€s, sedile illud dignitatis amplis- 
simae recusaremus, suis nos prope manibus impositos mixtus 
agmini togatorum praeire coepit pedes." Compare also Ovid, 
Met. 10. 251 (of Pygmalion's statue): 

*'et, si non ohstet reverent i a, velle moveii" 

[the statue cedit revorentiae (in Virgil's language, cedit 
honori) and does not move]. Also Plin. H. N. 34. 5: ""^honos 
clientium instituit sic colere patronos." Ovid, Met. 7. 146: 

"sed te ne faceres tetiuii rererentia famae" 

Juvenal, 1. 109: 

. . . ^'cx])ectent ergo Tribuni: 
vincant divitiae: sacro ficc eedat honori 
nuper in banc urbem pedibus qui venerat albis/' 

where the ''honos" which is not ceded to is the Tribunicia 

The (ireeks use the corresponding (heek word ei/.etv when 
they wish to express the yielding to any aft'ei^tion or impulse of 
the mind, as Horn. //. 10. 121: 

;io}.k((Xt yun iihtUfi Tf, y.c.i ovx hih).n novtfolhit. 
ojt' oxvo) f^ixtDv, 01 t" <nf oa^trioi looio, 

IhiiL i). KfU: ar ()e mo jtityaltiiOQi 'huw e/irac. 10. 238, aidoi 
eivLHr. Id. Od. IS. 143: 

tin to iig at ^iii, y.v.t xanrti ttxoiv 

<H II lltl. 

Ibid. 22. 287: 

ui^noit nau.'Kcr 
tixo)f (((/oaSitji; lityii ttntcr. 

Ibid. 14. 262: 

v^{}ti ttiuvi t^, fTitonoutioi fxtPti at^io. 

ilO-AS'7 AUDIT — amorkm] 



Eiirip. Iphifi. in Atd^ 138 (ed, MarkL): 

Herodut. 5> 15; ^Af^aivK^c (fc, o ^^fivPiuo, /Fa^eittP re xm oqeiop 
tuviQ. arc v£o^ te uov Am AUAiOv a/iadt^g^ Qida/.tu}ii m Aartxuy 

tr^ .foau. It is, hovvevc*!'^ our authors own ^*ne noster honos 
infrac'tttve cedat faiua loru,'* Aen. T. 332, which establisfies 
and places beyond nil doubt the correctness of the ttbove inter* 
pretntion, the selfsame wonlg being there used in the converse 
relation to iwpress thr eonvei^e tlioughtj viz,, the not yieldinm;, 
not giving way, of the ^Mmnor" nf rhr speaker. Compare also 
Claud, Epigr. 18. 3: 

'*inata quibiw mpidno ceasit rrrfraitm flanimao/' 

PiCTURATAS VKSTEs, iKXTUJiuis DONis (vss. 483, 485), I under- 
stand, not as expressive of a variety of present,s of the same 
kind over and above the Plirygian t hlarays, but as descriptivo 
of the one only present, the l^brvt^ian fblamys. Compare Aen, 
7. 248: ^' Iliad ura€|n^' labor vested," where "vestes'* is the one 
single dress or ciothiiig which had been worn by Priam; the 
dress which, inchisively with the sceptre iind \\\m\, was tlie 
'^f^pstamen Priami" (vs, 24flL In both instances the plural 
number is used, as richer than the singular, the singular number 
oeing always poor unlesij where emphatic. Compare further 
7. 251, where the plural ''vestes*' of vers, 248 is expressed again 
by the singular '^purpura picfa** (tlie singular here not being 
poor, as expressing the abstiat^t idea, that of the wliole class j, 
ittid vs. 252, where the singular 'Vsceptruni" of vs. 247 (not 
poor, because rendered plural by the adjoined "tiaras'') isi 
for the sake of richness {where it stands alone and would, 
therefore, be poor as being singular), expressed by the plural 

SuBTEMiNE Ami j VS. 483). — Compare Clauti in Ctrtw. Pfob, 
e Olybf\ 177: 

4?6 AEK^IDEA [506-511 SI Qt'ANDO— ARTU^ 

"laetatur veneranda parens, et pollice docto 
iani parat auratas trabeas, cinctusque micantes 
stamine; quod moUi tondent de stipite Seres, 
frondea lanigerae carpontes vellera sylvae: 
et longuin tenues tiactus i>roducit in aunim, 
filac^ue concrete cogit squalere metallo." 

OxfiRAt* — Not loads Ins hands with the presenty but loads 
his person tmth it, puts it on him, clothes him with it, as the 
goddess Roma clothes Stilicho, Claud., La^id. Stilich. 2. 339: 

. . . " dixit, gremioque rigentia profert 

dona, graves auro trabeas 

tunc habiles arinis humeros dea vestibus ambit 

Compare Terent. Phorm. 5, 6. 4: 

"sed ego nunc mihi cesso, qui non hunieiiini hunc miero pallio." 

LoNGUM (vs. 487). — Not "closely connected with testentur, 
and signifying may long be a record of affection'' (Coning- 
ton), but simply the epithet of amorem, and signifying lasting — 
Andromache's lasting love. 



VAR. LECT. (vss. 502, 503). 
[punct.^ kc] 

EPIRO UESI'ERIAM III ''{SC. propinquaill) st. EPIRO, HESPERIA," VoSS. 

pROPiNguos, EPIRO, HESPERIA, III Hcyne; Brunck; Wakefield; Wagn. (ed. 
Heyn. and ed. 1861). 


PROPiNQUos EPIRO HKSPCRiA, III Aldus (1514); P. Manut. ; La Cerda 
(interpreting in the same way as Heyne i ; D. Heins. ; N. Heins. 
(1G70); Ribbeck. 


5<ity 611 sa wSnS5!^S| BOOK tft 

Si qi:amk> . . . NKPoTi:s (vas, 500-5051 — As oW, thorefore, at 
U'H^t as the time of Vir£:il isi the sentiment expressed by Ca- 
nmrda in his Discorrjo Prelimiiiare to his *'A]i|K»ii(liee al Saggiu 
<ii (TmmiTuitolo^ia L'oni|iurata sulla lingna Albanese;' p. 51: 
•*ma nessiuna poten/,a, a rroder niio, tinrhe la (*reeia non aia in 
grado di tarsi valere, piii delT Italia, rivendieatasi alia nnita 
politii^, ha diritto, di prote^gere T Albania, e direi quasi il do- 
vere; essa che ospita eirea eentomila Aibanegl, i quali dissoda- 
rano e popolarono inoltt^ sue teire incolte, ed in piii manit?re 
rhanno servita in ogiii tempo. X^ T Itaha puo dinientiean* le 
molte rebixiuni che tino dai pin remoti secoli^ ed ai tempi auginitii, 
od anco in piii recenti eta, ebbe vol vecchio e eol nuovo Epiro, 
di CHii vede i inaiiti dallo sue spiaggie siil lonio, e snlT Adria- 
ticu/* Prophesying^, as us;nah after the e^unt, VirLrii pnt8 into 
the mLiiith uf his liero the MTitiment of his own time, a senti- 
ment \vhi<Tli, to jud^e from the passa^ just cited, has never 
ceased to exist both amon^ Italians and Albanians from that 
time down to the present, and which, sljoiild only the Italian 
^Minitii" jiersist and thrive, can hardly fail at last t<j be fatiil to 
all Ottoman suzeminty north of the Balkans. 

MoNTi-i^ UMBKANTUB OPACi (VS. 508). — '^Eitte prolepsis fnr 
*imaRASTim ut opaci pssent,"' Thiel, Forbii^er, Jacob (Qtmesi^ 
Kft,, p. 110). Nfi; npacys is shitdij, i. e, corrrcd wifh tret^^^ 
exactly as Grorff, L I'tfi: *'nirigt opfU'i falce premes umbram/* 
wheiv ''opaci'* c^n t>nly be shoflf/, l «., eovereil tmth ftee^. 
Compare also Tacit. Hfsf. .1. 0: ^^'praecipmim montiiini liiba- 
nam erigit, miruin dictu» taritos irvter anbn^^s oparutn, fidiiinqne 
nivibus/' where ''opacum" can only be trotxM, The Homeric 
a^a a/^ioevta, (M, 7. 268, and fnujuently elsewhere, is to be 
understood in the same way. So Aen. 7. ,?6'; *'et laetiis fluvio 
Huceedit nporo'' [///r river ahmly — witli what? of course ivith 
tree»t s^ioeially mentioned at vss. 29 and 'dA\ Also EeL L 53: 
**frigus eaptabis opamm^' [the shadij cooi, as if he bad said 
frigid am umbram, or as he has actually said, EcL 2. 8: 
*Mmibras et frigora^J. And Silius, 4. 741' ^^stag'ois Thrasy- 
*lll<?i^us opacW [ihf iiilce of ThrdSijmcnus shady with Iree/t, as it is 
tn ihiK da\ ). The sense, then, is: ''tlm sun sets and shade falls 

4?8 AfiNEIDEA [tiOO-M si quando— awtus 

upon the shady mountains" — the shade spoken of as falling 
upon the mountains being that shade which comes over the 
whole landscape the moment the sun sets, and which, the moun- 
tains being the most striking part of the landscape, especially 
as seen from the sea, is most striking on the mountains. It may 
well be questioned whether the epithet shady, so useful and effec- 
tive in the passage above quoted from the first Georgic, is not 
here a mere stop-gap. If it had been necessary to inform the 
reader that the mountains were wooded, some other word should 
have been chosen, and a term avoided which causes a confusion 
in the mind between two shades which liave nothing whatever 
to do with each other, the shade of the trees and the shade of 
the evening. The lapse, if I may be allowed to speculate, owes 
its origin to the nmning of the poet's mind on Homer's oQea 

Umbrantur, emjlvya^oyvai, for which word see Timaeus, 
Lex, Platon, 

SoRTin REMOS (vs. 510). — "Per sortem divisi ad oflficia 
remigandi, qui esset proreta, quis pedeni teneret," Servius. 
"Sortiti vices remorum, sive postquam, quibus proximo die 
vicibus remigaremus, sortiti erauuis,'' Wagner (1861) — the old 
error of taking Virgil too much at his word, too literally. The 
meaning is not casting lots for the oars or diriding the oars 
ainaruf thetn, but whose lot teas the oar, i. e., ire roivers, sortiti 
REMOS being equivalent to remiges, precisely in the same 
manner as the ^'sortiti diadema" of Pnidentius {(butra Sym, 
I. 33: 

''estnc ille e numero paucoruni, qui diadema 
sortiti aetheriae coluerunt dogma sophiae') 

is equivalent to reges, and the 'Mnortales animas sortita" of 
Hor. {Sat. 2. 6. 93: 

. . . "teiTCstria quando 
mortalrs attimas vivunt sort if a^^) 

equivalent to mortalia. This use of sortiri, without any, 
even the slightest, reference to the actual casting of lots, is of 
as common occurrence as that of its root sors, and the corre- 

500—511 sj *^iiA\T)o— ART lift] HOOK IIL 

sponding English ht without any such refenmce. Compare 
Ovid, Met. IL 757: 

. . '* Priamusf]ue novissima Troiae 

[''whose lot or chaiiee it was to be the last king of Troy*'). 
Claud, in sepukhro sprciosae, 3: 

'*hic forniosa iacet, VeDeris soriita figurara** 

[*^ whose lot M was to liave a figure no less beautiful than 
Vonus's**J. Claud. /// Coths, Prob, et Oli/br, 154: 

**sed gravibus curis aiiiiiinni sortita senilem 
ignea lougaevo fraenatur corde inventus/' 

VaL Flacc. 2. 482: 

. . . ''hoc sortosj hoc comiger imperat Hammon, 
virgin earn liaiDQare animanif sortii€K^Xie Letheii 

Maml. 1. 202 (ed. Paris, ltj79}: 

**ef4t igitur tellufj nieiiiam sortiia cavemam 
tt«ris, et totu pariter sublatii profuado*" 

So also Aen, 9. 174: 

**omiiis per rnuros legio, mrtita periolam, 

andVftL Flaca 3, 70: 

. , . ''nee porta ducem nee pone aioratar 
excubias mortita mamis" 

[not by any means '^ which had been appointed to the post by 
the uctual casting of lots/' but *' whose lot it was to occupy that 
post, who had been appointed to the post/* no matter wiiether 
by the command of a superior, or by rotation, or by rif^Iit i*f 
preference, or by casting of lots, or by whatever other methodj, 
Virgil^i "sortiri'* is expressed by Homer and the Greek 
tragedians either by ^uiiQEtv and its compounds, or by Att/xflrytiv, 
as /A /. 278: 


480 ABNEIDEA [600-511 m qvasko— artos 

Od. 5. 334: 

ij 71IHV ufv frjr liooTo<; t<v&rj(a(Tit, 
vi'v d' (c'/.(j<; H' .itXtiytnni *>fO)t' fifuuonf Tiuri^. 

Ilfid. 11, :U)o: niir^v dt Itloyy^ao' loa d^eoioi. Eurip. Hipp. 
79 (ed. Stokes): 

TO au)(^novttv ei).i}/fp ft^- rtc nuvi' icf^t, 
Toi'ioiy ^Qintnihu, toi^- xtcxotot d" ar ihiii,,-. 

And so even Xenoph. Anab, S. 3: /.icaqov (h vjcvov Xax^v 
[having got a little sleep, having slept a little]. Also Luc. 
Eva fir/. 1. 8: eyevico de ei kj leqarevetv aviov ev ii] TuSet rrjc 
€(fyiueQiai: arior erarri tor xhor, ymicc to e^og i^ig legaretai; 
elaxe lov O^ruiaoat, eiaUAhov e/c rov laov lov aiqiov. The 
eonvei-se Greek expression is auuoQog (orb us), as Eurip. i/ierwi. 
421 (ed. Person): 

rjutt*; St ntrTrixof^iti y ((uuoooi Ttxt'ow. 

The Italians use the word in precisely the same manner, as 
Guaseo, Dr//r Omatrici : 'Mn fatti (luello donne, che aveano 
sorfitfi dalla natura una tVonte troppo ainpia, se non potevano co' 
capelli, la diniinuivano con Ic fasce." Metast. Olinip, 2. 6: 

"felice il re di Creta, 
ehe uu tal figlio .so/7//'" 

Id. Te/fNst. 3. sc. ult: 

. . . "tutte perdono 
lo ingiurie alia Fortuna. 
se avro la tomba ove soi-tit la curia."' 

This junction of '^sortiri" witli rkmos was probably sug- 
gested by the junction made by the Greeks of vacg with •/.Atj^04;, 
and the expression sortiti remos probably a translation of 
raiy.hiQoi—uKMos being used iii the translation instead of 
naves, because the use of a part for the whole is more ele- 
gant, because the principal part of the sailor's business was 
rowing, and because rowing, being the most fatiguing part of 
the business of the snilor. supplied the best reason for optatak 
te[,luris, corpora curamiis. aiuJ fkssos artus. If the reader, 

h3^14 nkcdusi-cjlptat] BOOK III. 


admitting timt tiie nbove is the true interpretation of the ex- 
pression sORTiTi REMUS, shoulcj bfe? iiioliued^ tiot^vithstanding, to 
disallow the analogy between that expression and rai/.hiQot 
i>n the ground that var/.h^ooc is moro properly ship-owupr ttmri 
mmlor (^Na lit' lor OS dominiis riavis est appoUatiis quod navis 
in sorte eius sit, xA^^^oc oiurn U niece sors dieitur,'* Isidor. 19. If, 
I reply that nocchierOf the Italian form of the word, means rather 
gul»eruator and nauta than doniinus (/, e., possessor) 
navis, antl that we have the very expression rav^hiQov s^XaTiiv 
in Hesiod; and that even if rctr/J.tjiKK had been neither naiiti- 
rus, nor nautu, but always do mi nils navis, the anal o^^y had 
been little impaired, inasmuch as soutiti kkmus might be ecjuaily 
well interpreted dtunini rem urn m, nv as we might say in 
English, oar-nmateni, lords of the oaf\ 




Hoioa 111 Braack; Vosb; I^d.; Ribbeck. 

iioms III F. Muiiut-; La Cerda; D. Hoins.; N. Holds, (16701; Ht3yn<i; 
Wakefield; Wagoer (ed. Heya. and ed. 1861). 

iORLs alTa: ''per horas decnrrens/* Servins, Wagner, Foibiger. 
N4>; under the coninumd of the Houi^, as an army under the 
command uf a general; governed, marshalled, by tlie Houi^. 
See Rem. nn 4. 2 4"), mid rompare Kef, H. 17: 

**nAscero, pi'aetjuo if*n)t veuiens tuje, Lucifer, ainmin/* 


482 AENBIDBA [612-514 neodum— captat 

As Lucifer "agit diem," marshals, commands, the day, in the 
same manner as a general his troops (Lucifer, however, not 
only commanding as a general, but preceding as a general or 
leader (dux) — ''praeveniens agit;'' compare '^ducebatque diem," 
Aen, 2. 802y so the ''Horae agunt noctem," and nox is acta 
HoRis. Compare also Georg. 1, 352: ''agentes frigora ventos" 
\havi7ig the cold under fheii command; commanding cold, driving 
cold, or. as more prosaically expressed by Ovid, Met. 1, 56, 
maki7ig cold, "facieutes frigora ventos"]. Also Sail. Bell. lug. 2: 
"animus incorruptus, aeternus, rector humani generis, agtt atque 
habet cuncta, neque ipse hnbetur" [i. e., does, manages, rules, 
commands all things, "treibt alles"]. I need scarcely point out 
the near affinity of this to the more ordinary meaning of age re, 
to drive, impel; commanding and leading by a general being no 
more than a species of <lriving. Accordingly, actus in the ex- 
pressions "acti fatis," 1. 36; "tempestatibus acti," 7. 199; "acta 
furore gravi," 10. 63, might almost, perhaps quite, as correctly be 
interpreted commanded by, marshalled by, under the command, 
controU and impulsion of, as drireii by fates, tempests, ixxiy. 


die wind', und fangt mit lausehendem ohre die klihling," Voss. 
No, no; Palinurus does not either listen to the sound of the 
sea, nor for a gale, hut turns his ear in every direction in 
order to feel with it, or hear with it (no matter which), in what 
point the wind is blowing. Turning his ear in one direction he 
feels no wind on it, hears no wind in it; turning it in another 
direction, he feels no wind on it, heai*s no wind in it; continuing 
to turn it in various directions he at last feels or hears, or rather 
both feels and hears, the wind blowing on it, and so knows that 
the wind is coming from that quarter toward which his ear is 
turned. This is cap tare; not to catch, but to try to catch, to 
move in vanons directions in search of; to woo, as for want of 
a more appropriate term we say in English. Compare (a), Ovid, 
Met. 10. 58 (of Orpheus striving to catch, making repeated 
efforts to catch, Eurydice in his arms): 

^'brachia(|ue iutendens, protdique et pmtdere raptamt 
nil nisi cedentes infelix arripit auras" 

512—614 vrxinuM— c-aptat] 



[seeking, making various efforts, to aiteh jiiul to bp rHiight). 
{b\ Eel, I 51: 

*'hie iuter flumitia nota 
et fontes saeros fri^s eaptabh upaoum*' 

(wilt seek to eattOi the sha<ly i^ool. wilt wntj th** simply ruol]. 
(€?), Georff. 1, 375: 

. . . *' biicula caeluin 
saspicieiis patulis eajtiavit naribus aurm'' 

aught to catch the air with her nostrils, auighl lU the air witli 
her nostrils, wooed the air with h^r nostrils], irfi^ Ovid, Met^ 
JL 767: 

''DOD agreste tauieD, neo iuexpuguabile Amori 
pectus habeas^ sylvas capiaiam Sftepe [»or omniw 
aspicit Hesperien patria C^br^nifia ripa, 
iniectos humehs siccantein sole capillo&'^ 

m sought to be caught (ufte*n ctntsed, wooed througli all 
&e woods]. \e\, Flaut Amph, 656 {vjI Bothej, Alemena to 

''ta si rne impudicitiai cupias^ captr^ dod pote^i'' 

[if you try to caieh me on a charge of impurity, you c-aunot 
caich rae). And so (/n Erasmus correc^tly. fhlloq, Ormriv, 
FnbuL: '^rex. intellecto fuco, 'quid/ inquit, *aii tu mo facifji 
^anem?' lussit toUi homiueni, ac pro vupfatiH (jUadrAginta coro- 

fttis infligi quadraginta plagas*' [whirh he had tried to t^atcti], 
Fioally. ijfU Senec, Ejmt. 103: '*qijid iata rireumHpi*l» 
quae tibi possunt fortass*? evenire, «ed poHnunt er non evenir4% 
incidentium dico ruinam? Aliqua nobih inridunt, non innidi- 
antur: ilia potius vide, ilia devita, qua*? lum oUervaiif, qiuiit non 

%ptnnf* [strive to catch us), AcRimiw akka c ait at in thua 
the explanation of onsi^ oii/iwat vr!iToa» or if you plt^mio 
rather ojixes bxflorat vkvto«< ih a !hem«9 of which aitkiuch 
A£RA CAPTAT IS tfae Variation. The repetition of effort which la 
expressed in the one ctauae by oiiJ«f9i ia t^xf^rmmA in thf^ othiir 
by the frequentative captat. 

484 ABNEIDEA [520-5 U velor— minerv. 



Armatum auro oriona. - Compare Sen. Here, Fur. 12 (Juno 
soliloquizing) : 

^^fej-ro minaci hinc terret Orion deos." 


No sign of change in the serene sky, the sky serene and with- 
out sign of change; in other words, the fair weather likely to be 
constant. Constare is to remain the same, not to falter or give 
sign of change, to be settled; constat, ^7 2> agreed on; it is settled. 
Castra movemus (vs. 519). — Not with Forbiger to be under- 
stood literally, but as the ordinary metaphorical expression for 
setting ont^ decamping. See Claud. liapt. Pros. 2. 125 (of bees 
setting out): ''cum cerea reges castra movent;'' and Ovid, Met. 
13. 611 (of birds setting out): "quarto scducunt castra volatu." 
This view has been approved by Conington. 



Vklorim TANinMrs Ai.As. Not ( witli HoyuLM 'Mwtremas velokum 
partes, lacinias. nngulos," because it is not usual to expand 
the sails to tlie uttermost immediately at first setting out: 
but, metaphorically, sail -icings, ning-liko sails, sails resem- 
bling wings, as if he had said: ** expand our wings," /. e., "our 

520-531 VFLoii.— sii>:erv,J BUOK 11 f, ^^^^^^ ^gj 

sailsT' and so Isid. (h^iij. 19. 3: ''ajnui Ijatimis mitom rcla a 
volatii dicta; iinde ost illiid: vfxorim iamumus .\la.s.'' Cnmpare 
Hesiod, Opera ei l)ie.s, 6*1^6; 

'rijo^* Silica are the sails: Lucret. 4. 391: 

"qaos ngimus prooter ugvem^ r;r/i>i|ue Polnmtm\'' 

and. r*xactly parallel tu i>nr text, Fmp, 4, 6. 17: 

"nee te \\mA eJaaais <:cntems reniigat (dis 
terreat." . , . 

The same tigUR' (that uf young l>iids artemptiDg tu tly) is 
preserved in both clauses of our text; as if Virgil had said 
**pAyDDics ALAS et TKNTAMfs volaro/' The converse metaplion 
viz., that nf I'owinir with wings, wit! be foiuut, Aeit, L ,'i05. '*re- 
migiti alHrnm:" and that of sailing wirh wings^ Milton, Par, 
Lw(i, 5. 206: 

, , . "^doxvn thither pronf^ in flight 

be speeds, and through the \7i«?t ethereal sky 

jtnits hetweon worlds itnd worlds, with stcndif irffK//' 

OBSiTHOe {VS. 522;, dimly semt; stared y disiimjitishable, as 
Liican, 3- 7: ''dubios monies.'** Compare also Aen, H, 453: 

''ohnntrnm [nidouemj, <|ualrtn prinm <\\\i surgwo nicnhc 
Aut vtdet. \\\xt Tidiss^e pntat jier nobila laonin,*' 

where see Rera, 

Hinn.EH iTUJ.vM.^ — "Ad C'astruui Minervue nppelliuit Troiani. 
sub Hydiiinto, quo loi*o planum et niulle littus; hinc uuMn.KM 
tT4UAir. Sive cjuia pi-oeiil ex alto visentibus terra semper 
humilis videtun (T supm, v, 77/' Heyne, ed. Wagner lioth 
explanations wroni::, Italy is called ''hnmilis'* in comparison 
wiiU the mountainous shoi-e ifiey had just left^ vei-se 500. The 
common passage to au(i from lireece was in tins situation in 
the time of Virgil icompare vei>ie "jflH), and tf»erc?fon* Iialy 
emed *'huniiiis'' tn the travellei-s in his time, viz., by con- 

486 . AENEIDEA [520-5S1 tblor.— mmaiv. 

trast with the opposite shore. The identical term is applied to 
Italy by Dante's Virgil, Inferno, 1. 106 — according to Landino 
and Venture in the same sense as in, and in imitation of, our 
text, but much more probably, with Lombardi and Mogalotti, iu 
the sense of humiliated, depressed (in the moral point of view), 
humble, Dante's words are: 

^^di quell' umile Italia fia salute, 
per cui mori la vergine Camilla, 
Eurialo, e Turno, e Niso di ferute, ' 

where "fia salute" seems to place the moral sense of "umile'' 
almost beyond doubt. Nor is it very unlikely that Dante, who 
has elsewhere so much mistaken our author's meaning (see Rem. 
on "auri sacra fames," 3. 56), may have supposed that in ap- 
plying the term "umile'' in this sense to Italy he was applying 
it in the very sense in which "humilis" had been applied to 
Italy by his master. 

Italiam primus conclamat achates (vs. 523).— Conclahat, 
cries out ivith all his might. 

Ferte viam vento facilem (vs. 529), theme; spirate secundi, 
variation. See Rem. on 4. 611. 

Templumque apparet in arce minervae (VS. 581). — The inter- 
punctuation of the Medicean between arce and minervae is 
incorrect, the structure not being templvm minervae apparet in 


C'Ayx Minervae et Minerviuni et Castruni Minervae,'' Cluver. 4; 
in Peutin^er's map. Castra Minerve, [sie] ) being the name of 
the place. Arce must, therefore, be written with a capitiil A. 
The punctuation of the Medicean being retained, and the structure 
TEMPLVM mini-:rvae APPARET IN ARCE bciug adoptcd, the place is 
not named at all, quod ahsurduui. 

586^^636 ciiniiii8c.^TKM?J 

BOOK in. 




This passage affords a striking proof of the truth of a principle 
I have so often insisted on isee Remm. on 1. 150; 5,515-602) 
as necessarv to be borne in mind by the readers of Vii*gii, viz., 
that Vii^il is apt to take his objects in an order directly the 
reverse of that in which they would be taken by a writer of the 
present day: in other words, follows a directly reverse train or 
sequence of thonght. desicribing or narrating last that which a 
modern writer would have described ur narrated first. H^^re, 
for instance, a modern writer would have told you, first, that 
the harbour of Avx Minervae wh3 a feemicircular bay hollowed 
out in the land by the force of the ^h from the eaat; that this 
harbour whs hid from the view of thuse approaching^ from the 
sea, by rocks which protected it from the wave^i; that on the 
landward ^ide of the harbour the ground was veiy hi^h and 
crowned by the **Arx'* and temple of Minerva; that the ground 
on each side of the harbour fell ur sloped downwards to thp sea, 
and was surmounted by a double wall; and then, only, would he 
have told you that Aeneas and hia comrades made thia port and 
landed, Virgil, on the contrarj% tella you that Aeneas and his 
comrades see the temple of Arx Minervae from the sea, enter 
the port, which as they approach widens out before them, sod 
land. Having thus accomplishe^i the main object^ the safe 
landing on the Italian shore, in the port of Arx Minervae, and 
so put his bearers out of snqpente, be turns about and beguui 

488 AENEIDEA [530-536 crkbrksc— temp. 

leisurely to tell them what kind of a port the port of Arx 
Minervae was: portus ab euhoo . . . TEMriAM. Hence the pre- 
vious TORTUS PATESCiT and the subsequent wse latet, a vote^ov 
;iQOTEQov on which the coiumentatoi'S have not failed to stumble 
and break their shins; Donatus (ap. Servium) substituting patef 
for LATETi', and Wagner (in ed. Heyn.) interpreting i^vtet in a 
sense in which I scarcely think he will find many ready to 
agree with him. viz., that of hid from the mtidSy as if the 
winds were looking out for the port, trying to find out where 
the port was: ''quomodo latet portus quern iam intraverunt, 
vers. 58*2? et repugnare videtur etiam vers. 530, poktusque 
PATh>^ciT. Latet significat longc reductus est a ventis. et ita 
tutara navibus praebet stationem." 

Obiectae salsa spumant ASi'ER(ihNE CAUTEs. — Approaching 
from the sea. you see only the obiectae cautrs with the waves 
dashing on them. The poit is ensconced snug behind — ipse 

De-HITTunt brachla scopull — The high rocky ground on the 
landward side of the port, in other words, at the head of the 
port landwards, descending on each side (»f the p(»rt with a 
rapid inclination toward the sra. seems to einbrace the port 
with its arms: these bkaciilv. converging where they reach the 
sea and there protecting the harl)our from the waves, become 
there identical with the cautes of verse 534. 

Gemtno brachia muro. — On the top of each " brachium "* is 
a double wall. Ausonius speaking of Milan, Ord. Xobii. lyh. 

5, o\ says: 

. . . ''turn (hipUrr muro 
aniidificata loci sjiccios." 

The doubh* wall extending IV(»in thr |)()rt of Athens to the city 
is well known. Conington understands both ln^\^n[A and muro 
to be spoken of the rocks. 

TiKKiTi (VS. WM\k — "In nnHJiun, in siniilitudincni. rurrium." 
Servius. No: turrit us nev<»r has this nx'aning; is always, 
when literal, ////// toircrs on the /o/f: when ii.etaphorical, as when 
applied to a hea<l-dress, frifh stnnvthinij rcsmtlfliny toftrrs on 
(he top. In our text it is literal: the sropiLi are called turriti 

bt¥) 53<i rfiFhRts^ . XESit\] 

BOOK 111, 


because rrownetl with the arr and tonipli^ of Minerva. See 
8. 693: ''turritis puppibus" [tuiTetcd ships, *• c^ ship with 
turrets on their declis]. Liieret. 5. 1,401 n\\. Wakehehl): 

'Mnde bovos Lin ii-s, (uittd/ tttrft<ut\ tetros, 
aoguiinanrfs^ hoUi dticueriuit viilut^ra Vocni 
siilTen-e, *^i rnagnas Martis tiirlmre cat^^rvas*' 

[elephants with tumns un tfieir ba<:'ks|. Hirt, de />. Afr. HO: 
*"elephantisque turritis , , , ante nvmu instnutis'' (tiirrrted ole- 
lihants. /. (♦.. with turrets nn their backs], TuKKm scurrij. 
tierffnre, efi/fls surufou tiled trifh t otters, viz., tlie towors uf the 
arr anil the temple of Minerva, 

I)e\iittont, refcgit (vv, 535 and 5361.-- In the forefxround 
the ijRACHiA are sent down, come down, to the sea; in the 
ba4.*kground the temple retirej^i from the shore» The two verbs 
ai'e panilkd to eaeh oiin r. an(J Serviuss ^loss un refuglt 
j/'uedificia vicina litloiibus iont^e intuenti videntur in mari, \i\\m 
aceedentibus qua^si reecdere el retro se a^ere |>utantur**f is lo 
be iiumrnardy rejef'tod; tir«t. beeiiuse nut atrreeable to fart; 
tieci/ndl>% because deolured so by pKMrrruNT, which tells >oii tliat 
tJie. BKACHU do not appear tu retreat from the waters edge, but, 
lau the (contrary, to vome down to it; and thirdly, because the 
'use of refiigere to express backward position, the baek^round. 
as we say, U of the eunimonest, as Lucan, 10, 182: 

. . . *' rr/V/f/rweque gfrens a Ironte capillos" 

(the hair turned back], and — qnnted by Cic. 'htsc. Disp. ♦?. 12^ 

^* refuifrrr nndi: carpus rmwie entabuit" 

ho (!y(?** wcn^ Kuuk in iheir <triKts|. Conipure also rhiimp- 
fleury. '^drandetir-et D^nrndence d'nne Serinette:" '*paie, blond, 
Jes yenx in«juiets, le t^rane ftti/ttttf et se d6vel«*|»pant en pointe, 

[. Teinte niaiehait des epaules, la tete ineHni*c sur repaide 
nitCv" In neither case, neither of tlie teniple nor of the 
BRACHfA, ia apparent motion mennt, only apparejit position, viz.^ 
ttiat the teniple is behind and farther ulll and on graviually 

490 AENBIDEA [544-562 kxcepit— contors. 

rising ground; the brachia in front, nearer, and sloping down- 
ward toward the sea, and, when tliey reach the sea, converging 
so as to enclose and protect the port 

The picture is of a harbour so land-locked or re-entrant as 
not to be visible from the sea. The enclosing land on the side 
next the sea is rocky, and lashed by the waves. On the oppo- 
site, inner, or landward side of the harbour, the land rises high 
and rocky, and is crowned by a temple. From this highest 
point the ground enclosing the harbour on each side falls to- 
wards the sea, and is surmounted by a double wall. 

HospiTA (vs. 539). — See Rem. on vs. 377. 



ExcEPiT ov ANTES. — Compare Aescli. Suppl. 217 (Chorus of Da- 
naides Just arrived in Greece from Egypt): 

Chor. jn' ovv y.iy.'/.i](iy.ui lotrdf- ^muovo^r fjt; 

Dan.MS. (hjo) jnmnuv ii]r^h. atjut-tor ihKn. 

Chok. (uJ.' hi i' t-7ihfn''f^r, ^/ rf i) h z a(} it o) yUoit. 


DOMos srsi'ECTAC^uE LiNQUiMi s AHVA ( vv. o49. o50 ). — Thc rigging, 
and of coui-se tlie evolutions, of Aeneas's vessels correspond 
witli those of the so-called Latin riirged boats [Ixirche Lntific) 
which are to be seen in all tln^ ports of the Mediterranean 
Sea at the present day. In these boats it is not the mast but 
the antenna which is the principal object, the antenna 
being not only much longer than the mast, often as much as 
half as long again, but carrying the one only sail, which in 

644 64J2 KXfJKprr— wwrowi. 1 



proportion to the vessel is very Urge; and the mast being little 
aore than a mere prop for the antenna, a mere pivot an 
^which the antiuina is to turn. Neither does the sail dothe 
the whoh» of the antenna, fnit leaves the long or sl€n<lerer 
extremity or end, tlie rurnu, hare- one end of tlie antenna 
<vi25, that whieh h usually bound down to the |m)w or bow of 
the vessel I being ahvay^ tfjiek and heavy, and tlie other end, 
viz, that whieh stands out entirely beyonri the sail, and even 
beyond the vessel itself, and whieh has generally a sloping 
iireetion upwurds, being light and slenden and tapering to a 
rpoiut. With what piMpriety this shai'p extremity of the an- 
tenna wns ealted eornu, those ran best judge who have seen, 
in the pnrt of [.i*«jhorn or (Jemm. a little tleet of these vessels 
moored along the pier, earh with the stern tnrned towai'ds 
land, and the long and taper extremity of the antenna (re- 
sembling the horn of the unicorn in the British aims) pointing 
upwards and landwards. 

CoRNUi — The plural number is apt to suggest the false 
notion of more than oni* eornu to viivh antenna. There was, 
huwever, only one eo r n u to eaeli a n t e n n a , and nne a n - 
tenna* as there was also unly one mast and one sail, to each 
vessel; a second nuist or second sail (other than a tnere jib) 
being exceptional in the Latin rigging, and the phiral being 
used in our text only because there were many vessels, nnd 
therefore many antennae. 

Obvehtimus, tunt foirard, viz., toward the land, because the 
horn of the antenna^ always pointing toward the stern (see 
above), must necessarily point toward the land when the vessels 
make for sea; and Aeneas and his companions having only just 
landed, the vessels were standi ng» not as if they had been moored, 
viz, with their sterns tuwiird the laud, as we see the Latin- 
rigged vessels standing in the port of lieghorn or Uenoa, but 
just as they had arrived, vi5f,, with their bows toward the land 
and their sterns toward the sea. It was therefore necessary, 
before they could set sail, to turn them round, i. e,, to turn them 
so that their bows wuukl face the sea, and their sterns the laud, 
ind this is pi-eeisely the evolution described in the words obvfk- 

492 AENEIDEA [544—562 kxcepit— contors. 

TiMus coRNi'A ANTENXARUM — the coRNUA of the antennae not 
only turning towards the shore when the bows of the vessels 
turned towards the sea, but, on account of their heigiit and 
length, being the part whicli turned most, and most con- 

But there is a still further meaning contained in the pas- 
sage. The Trojans not only turn the horns of their antennae 
towards the shore which they are leaving, but they turn them 
towards oRAiiniENVM DOMOS suspECTAQUE ARVA ; in other w^ords, 
they make their retreat, witli their faces turned towards the 
enemy, presoithnj their homs to ihe ettnuy — "comua hosti 
obvertunt." Compare Plant. Pseud. 4. H. H: 

''nimisque ego ilium homiuoin metiio et fonnido male, 
nc malus item erga mo sit, ut erga ilhmi fuit. 
ne in re secunda nunc mihi obrartat cornua.^' 

Apul. de Magia^ 81: "superest ea pai-s epistolae, quae similiter 
pro me scripta in memetipsum vert it cornua.'^ And Horace, 
Epod. 6. 11: 

''cave, cave; namquo in malos asporrimus 
parata lollo cornua.^ 

Hence ohvehtimus is fnrn ioinirds the rffOfn/, the object against 
which they turn their coUxNua being omitted, as 9. 622: ''ner- 
vocjuo ohrrrsfts o(|uino." If tlu* meaning had been tftrn totrards 
the .sYY/, it is ])n)bal)le tiie nbject towards which they tunied 
their (okmta would not have be(»n omitt(Hl. Compare (>. 3: 

''obvertunt pr/af/o proras.' 


Wordsworth has: 

•'hence we behold the bay that bears tlie name 
of proud Tarentum, proud to sliare the fame 
of Hercules, though by a dubious claim." 

No; the structure is not hinc cKKNiirR siNrs takknti, for the 
bay of Tarentum eould not be seen from the port of Castrum 
Minervae, but niNc, (ffter feavimj this pfare^ or next after leaving 

wrfunt^nwroHfe.] BOOK III. 

this plam, SINUS tarknti oehnitur, t)H> hfnj uf Tartnhim is se^n 
by its. Compure AtUL S. 342: 

'^hiitr lucum ingentpin, qtiem riomuhis ncer Asylum 
I'ottidit, et golidrt iiionstrat snh rtijve I.ujjen'ar' 

|#^<?^'/ he points out the greul grovr, ^v.\: xmA (<'\artly parallel) 

^cero. de Nat. Dwf\ 2, 44: **Capiti aut»>ii] Ef|ui pruxirna 

M^qtmrii dextra, tutusqiie deinceps Aquarius* . , . IUhv autein 


*ut sese ostondens eiiiorgit ^coqiius alto 

Dt'intlo Delpliiiuis. . . Quoni siibsotpjtiis 

'ferviduB iUe Qmm stellarum luce refolget/ 

Pust Li^pus sutjseqiiifiir" (wijciv "binr" is iiut from this f/lwff 
hilt neat (ifi^r tMs) 

Et uemitlm ... AUENAK jvv. 555-557 1. — Thr p-jiiuk'st di'^mp- 
tiun with which I am a(M|uaiiitetl of perfjaps tlit* grandest objin't 
in nature, the roaring of an agitated sea. The thinl book of 
the Aoneid* lavishly int*'rsj>ersed with thi*?4e fine de«eriptivo 
! Bketches of natural ohjfH'tii and st'enerv, aft'onls rest iind refrenli- 
rment to the n,*ader\s mlrul between the infi*n8**ly» alirntsi pain- 
fully, cunef^ntrated dramatic actions of tlie .s<ic*»nd and fourth 
hooks. A similar efTeiit is produced hy the inteipusitinrj of the 
Ludi of the fifth book between the toiiilli and sixth 

Tlie tiEMiTiM istiKNTiif i»Ki-Ani is termed hy a liviag pM^r 
(1847) in a fine line, and with a happy extenHioji of the nmVx- 
nary metaphor, "rhuHo che tnanda la boeea del mar/* *Soe 
Cmiti Lin'ri tli (i, Ptfifi <of Riva, on the (jigo di Harda in 
the Italian Tyroli, Milano, 1843. 

FiiACTASijuB AD liTToRA vocjQ».— The Ktruetufe in not nuctAi* 
aj> urroRA, but voeEs ad urroaA; the voic*^ or ^ounda were 
not hroken an, or agaiftsi, the ahore, but there were at the 
shore t/roken {I e,, hoars f\ muiuUt. Compare (Jeory, 4. 71 : 

^andttiir ff^eio* ttfrtitus imltata tubanuii/' 

Juv, 2. Ill; 

494 A£!nEIDEA [567-589 ASTRA—uvBRAii 

Mart. Capell. 9. 889: ^^Mars eminus conspicatus nuptias tenero 
cum admirationis obtutu languidiore fractior voce laudavit, 
profundaque visus est traxisse suspiria." 

Aestu misckntur arenae. — Precisely the ^*furit aestus arenis" 
of 1. Ill, where see Rem. 

CoNTORSiT (vs. 562), turned with all his might. See Remm. 
on 2. 52; 6. 634. According to the strength necessary to be 
employed on the occasion , our author sometimes uses the 
simple verb torquere, sometimes the compound con tor- 
quere, to express the act of turning the rudder round, whether 
to starboard or to port. At the fii'st arrival on the coast of 
Italy, the sea being calm and the wind gentle (crebrescunt 
OPTATAE AURAEJ, ho uscs the simplc verb: 


In our text, on the contrary, the sea being exceedingly agitated, 


and the sailors alarmed by the neighbourhood of Charybdis, he 

uses the stronger expression. Nor is the force employed shown 
by the use of the compound only; the epithet rudentem ex- 
presses the effect of that force upon the rudder, which is so 
strained as to make a loud noise, to hrayj as we say. 



Astra, not ihe stars^ for it is broad day, but tlte skf/^ the heavens; 

ASTRA RORANTiA, the dn))]jifi(/ slx'i/. See Kern, on ^^astra," 5. 517. 

Candente (VS. 573), (jloicinii. Compare Claud, Epith. Honor. 

et Mff/iac, .S'; 

. . . 'Tiuoties incam/iu't ore, 
confessus secreta, rubor!" 

567— h8H AstKA — itmhramI 



where — i^ness beiu^ expressed by ''rubor**— ^'inciinduit" must 
mean sometJiiug elsi> than grew red: '* rubor incanduit'' must 
jiK^an redness tjlowed. So Am. 9. 663: ''ciindenti corpore 
cygnum/* a sirntt of a tfioniny [white) Itody. Acfi, (k 896: "can- 
ilenti elt?phant(i,'* (flonnnij [ivhitf) irorff. Hon Od. L 2: ''can- 
deiitOvS humeros,'' tjlowing {whita) slmakkrs, Hon Sat, 2, 6, 102: 

. . , ''rubro ubi cocco 
tiiict* super lectoa eatideret vestis eburaoe/* 

the cloth, dyed teith red eochineai, glowed; and so in our text, 
CAXDENTK FAVii.LA, fisik^s glowing (red). 

Glomerat (vs, 577),- Not forms into a />ti//--as shown by 
Ovid's finding it necessary to add '*m orbes" to "trloim»rat" 
in order to expreas that idea. Met, ft. 29: 

''Bive rudeni prinios lauain ffhrnerabai in orhcM**-^ 

but throws up rapidly one after the other, so rapidly thai the 
I ohjeets thrown up seetn to Ije added to each other so a.H to form one 
body, the essential notion of /s^-lonierare bein^ to form into one by 
siweessive addition. Compare ylf7f. 2, 315: "glomerare niunum,*'not 
to form a ro a n d hand, hut to form a haad by successive additions. 
Also Ovid, Met. 14, 212: '^et frusta niero glomerata vomentem/' 
piere after piece^ in quich saceession, and mixed with wine, 
Su ^'^lonierare /j;ressus," Sil. 12.517, to take step after sie]j, to add 
one step to another, to take a great nmnber of steps in succeh\uon, 
FiTXDogiE KXAr-isTUAT iMo (VS. 577). — These words constitute 
the grand winding up, the completion of the picture, carry- 
ing the reader back beyond the two divisions iNTKanuM and 
iXTEKDUM^ to the commencing st^itement, horrificis iuxta tonat 
AKTNA Ruixts, Anil such is the way in which Virgil's most 
elaborate sentences are usually wrfiught, the last clause, 
though in strict grammar coni^e'cted only with tiie clause imme- 
diately preceding, having yet a connexion in the sense with the 
untsetting statement or thesis, and so winding up and rounding 
the whole. In liJfe manner caoa^m suBrKXERE fumo, verse 582, 
tbotigh in grammatical strictness connected only with iNTKh:- 
MEBJS OMNEM MUHMUHb! TRiNACKJAJd, refei*s back past that clause 
to aetkam RUims KxspiRARE CAMLMS, With wliich, and luyt with 


496 AENEIDEA [567-589 astra— umbram 

iNTREMERE oBfNEM MURMURE TRiNACTiiAM, it would have been ploced 
in connexion by an English writer, who instead of saying that 
Enceladus's flames burst out through Etna, and as often as 
he turned, all Trinacria shook and sent up a cloud of smoke, 
would have said, "the flames and smoke proceeding from the 
body of Enceladus burst out through Etna, and every time he 
turned the whole island shook." In other words, an English 
writer would have been sure that his readers would have under- 
stood him literally if he had said, '*Etna threw out the fire, and 
all Trinacria threw out the smoke/' It will be observed that in 
both the passages not only the sense, but the grammar, remains 
perfect, if — all the intermediate and lilling-up parts being left 
out— the concluding is subjoined immediately to the commenc- 
ing clause: 





Compare the exactly similar structure, A€?i. 5. 820: 

^^subfiiihint umla/^, tumidiiiiKiuo sub axe touaDti 
sternitur aequor aquis, fiujiunt ensto nrtJierc nimbi^'' 

where the sense and grammar are both complete, the words in 
Roman type being left out. See also Remm. on 1. 488; 3. 317; 
4. 488. 


(vv. 579, 580). — The sense is, not that Ktna in its present 
form (/. c, hollowed out and having a passage through it by 
which the fire might escape) was phiced on the top of Ence- 
ladus, but that Etna, while it was still a solid mountain, was 
placed on the top of p]nceladus, and that the flames proceeding 
from him burst a passage through it; ru mpeban t caminos — 
hurst out and flamed through the sides of the uiouittain, as 
the fire sometimes bursts and breaks out through the sides of 
a furnace or stove. The image is the more correct, inasmuch as 
the eruptions of P]tna, as well as of other volcanoes, are apt not 
to follow the track of previous eruptions, but to make new open- 

M;?-o^9 ASTff.^— r^H^Au] Book iIL 

ings for themselves tlmm*^h the solid sides of t(u* (iinnntniti 
Compare Georg. 4. 556: 

''stridere apes atei"0 ot ruptU efforvere costis/* 

Also Stat Theh, 12. 275 (of the lamentations of Cei*es): 

'"illiug iDsariis ululatibiis ipse renmg^it 
Eneeladus, rup(oi\ue vias illurninat igtti,'" 

a fiuer passage than Virgirs, iiiasnuich ass it is more abtstract, 
no mention at. all being made of tlie real mountain, but only of 
the mythical source of the flames, Statius's greatly neglected 
\n\^m abonnrls with su<h fine passa^n^s, spoilecl, however, fre- 
quently, like our own Yi>nng'ti;^ by the immediate juxtaposition 
of some extravagance. There is nothing finer in Virgil than 

*' Persephone n amnes^ silvae, freta, rmbila clamaot; 
Persephoaeii tantum 8tygii taoet aula manti." 

Caelum subtexere (vs. 582).^Goethe has applied the same 
idea figuratively with great effect, Eijmont, act 4: '^seit tier xeit 
ist mirs als ware der liimmel mit eineni sehwar/en Hor iiber- 


Compare Plin. Ep. 6. 20 (of the similar volcano of Vesuvius); 
''niulUi tibi miranda, niultas formiilines patimur." 


splendorem aetheris,*' Servius, also Wunderlieh. ^^Nec ixcmus 
eoLrs aethra siderea. //. i\, sirleribus; nee caelum stellis 
fiilgentibus Incebat," Heyne, Wagu. (eil, Heyn.), Tlie meaning 
of gidereus not being consi^Hfiff o/\s/r/nv, siudiled imih stars, 
but (sw Rem. on '*fii<lei"eam in sedem,'' 10. 3) mdittni, Hght- 
(jiring, like a .star or consfeikitioit of .stans, the interpretation uf 
Heyne and Wagner is false, and that of Servius and Wunder- 
licli, however insufficient tfje argument of the latter in support 
of it iviz., ''Ranc interpretationem osu^ coninnctioiuun Nt:(^iiK — 
NBC postulat'\>, alone conecL SinmEA, Ughf -giving, radiant; 
aETURa, riearne^is, serenitg of the sLg: sojkkea aetmra lighf- 
gimng ckarneHS, or sermiitg of fin sltf, porhafjs, and very pro- 
bably, the magnetic light (of wb!<*b tire aurora borealis is a 


498 AENEIDBA [591-595 nova— AWiia 

form) of the moderns. The entire sense of the passage thus is: 
"There was neither moon nor stars, not even the radiancy of 
the sky (magnetic light), but the night was dark and the sky 
covered with clouds.'' In like manner, aithQiog, as appellative 
of Jupiter, is frre front rant and clouds, clear, serenus, Theocr. 
Idyll. 4. 43: 

["etiam lupiter modo serenus est, modo pluit'']. 

Nox iNTEMPi-STA (VS. 587), preciselv the NvS KarovXag of 
Apollonius Rhodius (4. 1694): 

((VTtxa (f* K{ii]futoi' 171 fo uf'/a Ikituh xHovtk^ 
I'v'i fffOfift, Ttjv jito Tf: A«Tovk((S(c xtx/.tjoxovat, 
vvxt' oAotjV ov/ uHToii Suo/ui'hi', ovx auitovyiti 

ui^ototi oxoTit} tn'/«Ton' uviovau ^tot&^b)%>. 




VAR. LECT. (vs. 595). 

ET 1 Med. (Fogg.) in P. Manut.; La Cerda; D. ITeins.; N. Heins. (1670); 
Heyiie: Brunck; Wagner led. Heyn. and Prapst.\\ Voss; Lad.; Ribb. 
I who stigmatizes the whole verse). 

UT in Wakefield. 

Nova, new in the sense of strange, ft n wot ted. never before seen, 

exactly as 8. 181, "novo errors," a tteir error, ati error of ivhich 

the person had tiever before been (pdlttj. iSee Rem. on 8. 181. 

SuppLEX(^uK TENDiT MANX'S (VS. 592). — Compare Thucyd. 

Jl-5i^5 NOVA — ahmir] 

BOOK 111. 


DiRA iLLuviES . , . ORAJUS (VF. 593-594). — ^The account of the 
man^s appearance, suspended at clltl, in urder to tell you 

I [What the man did, and to break by the introduction of action 
ihe iiniformit>" of mere description of the person, is resumed in 
Jhese words, containing an exact specification of the '"cultus." 
This is according to our autljor's usual habit. See Rem. on 
1. 151 (''atque rotis,'' etc.). 

CoKSKRTUM (vs. 594), pftf toff€fltn\ faMened, The parts of 

which his dress consisted were attached to each other not, as 

usual, with studs or buttons, hut, as amonjy^ the Indians still, and 

among the aborigines of whatever <MMintry. witli skewers, in the 

same way as the paits of fowl and otfier kinds of meat are 

attached to each other by the butcher at the present day. 

Compare Ammian, 14. 8; '*huic Arabia est conserin^ ex alio 

latere Xabataeis contigua/' 

^. Et quondam I'ATHUs AD TROiAM MISSUS IX ARMis. — '' Rcsecuisset 

^baec poeta, si licuisset retractare; potuit enim ea res ipsi nota 

H|||) Aeneae nondum potuit/* Wagner (/Vwev/,) ^^Die worte er- 

lialten nur dadurch ihren riehtisreu sinn, wenn wir sie als cine 

I subjective bemerkung, die erst der erziihiung vom erzahlenden 
beigefugt wild, auffassen," Kappets, xtir Erkh'irumi ton VirgiVs 
A^neide. Virgil not having cut out the verse, as he no doubt 
Would have done had he had the advantage of Wagner's cri- 
licism, but left it in its place to puzzle posterity, it is posterity s 
itsk to try and underst^ind it. Is it, with Kappes, a mere 
prolepsis, or is it^ witii Ladewig, a guess which Aeneas and the 
LTrojans make on seeing Aehaeuumides, an attempt to explain to 
heraselves the apparition? If the foruur, it renders Arhae- 
Imenides' own words, vei-se 602: 


fade repetition, with<nir interest either for Dido or for Vir- 
pl's readers, both having previously had from Aeneas*s own 
mouth all the information they convey. It is, therefore, moi^ 

500 AENEIDEA [605-621 sparoite— ulu 

probably the latter, and to be regarded as standing in the closest 
connexion with graius: ''we take him for a Greek in distress, 
and wandering about after having been at Troy, one of the 
unfortunate shipwrecked su^^'ivors of that expedition." It is 
the practice of Aeneas — whether the practice is right or not 
is another question— thus to anticipate, and to use his later 
acquired knowledge for the purpose of explaining his narrative 
and making it more interesting to his hearers. See, ex. gr,, 
2. 17-20, 31, 60, 106, 129, 152, 195, &c. 



Si'AH(iiTK MK IN FLUCTLs, thomo; VASTO iMMKRHiTK poNTO. Variation. 
Si>AR(inK MK IX FiATTrs. — '' DUdcvnite : et quia nee saevius 
nee celoriiis aliijuid fieri potest, nova brevitate usiis est," 8ervius. 
'^Discerptuin dispergite/' Heyne. Thiol. '^Streut in die fluth 
niich umhor," Voss. *''Spargore* est laceraro,'' Poorlkjunp. 
No: or ''abreptum divellere corpus" added to *'spargere," 
Aoi. 4. G(H), as well as the ''discerptum*' added to "spai-sere," 
Gcnnj. 4. 522, were superfluous. Sparge re is simply to flhig. 
to throi(\ viz.. with tho action with which seed is thrown out of 
the hand, or with which anything is flung or thrown utterly 
away. Compare Soph. Oal. Tijr. 1410 (ed. Brunck), Oedipus, 
of himself: 

tzo) Hi- ;/or 
ya/Ai'ici'. t; (f()rf-r(nn\ t] ,'h tc ). tt n n i or 

Si i>i:hko, iioMiMM MANiBUS rtHiissK II VABiT. - That the 
sentiment is si pekko, iuvabit pekiisse uomlvum maxibus, not 


605-621 SPAROITE— ULU] BOOK III. 501 

by the better sense, and by the apparent imitation of Saint 

Ambrose, Ep, /. 19: ''Si pereundiim est, in vat perire manibus 

Palaestinorum;" and of Pindar Theb, Homer. Latin, 40 (Chry- 

ses to Apollo): 

. . . "in me tua dirige tela*, 
auctor mortis orit certe Deus." 

Immemores (vs. B17), viz., trepidntionc et mehi. Compare 
Paulin., Epist, ad Macarinm: 'Uinum ex omni numero nautarum 
senem, sentinando deputatum, vel nietn immemores, vel ut vilem 
animam contemnentes, reliquerunt.'' 

Altaque pulsat sidera (vv. 619, 620). — ''Tangit alta astm," 
Ruaeus. ''Sil. Ital. 17. 651: 'tan^ens Tirynthius astra,'" Wagner. 
"Un che col capo tocca le stolie/' Caro. ''Er selbst hochragend 
beruhret holies gestirn," Voss. And Uryden, more poetical, but 
not less incorrect: 

"our monstrous host, of more than human size, 
erects his head, and stares within the skies." 

The idea is much stronger: so tall that he knocks, hits, thumps, 
or bnmps, the stars (sciz. with his head) as he tcalks. Compare 
Hor. Carm. 1. 1. 35: 

"quod si mo lyricis vatibus inscros 
sublimi fcriam sidera vertice." 

The notion of hittitnj, knocking, or thumping is inseparable from 
pulsare, as Ennius (quoted by Servius), of the Muses: "quae 
pedibus pulsatis Olynipum:" and Aen, 11,660: ^'(\v\\\m flumina 
Thermodontis pufsant,^* 

Visu FACiLis (vs. 621). — Agreeable to see, of an agreeabk 
appearance. Compare Ovid, ad Lir, Ang, 259: 

"uritur heul decor ille viri, generosaque forma, 
et faciks vultus; uritur ille vigor.' 

Val. Flacc. 6. 323: 

. . . "tu qui favilcs homiuunKjuo putasti 

has, Argive, domus, alium hiu miser aspicis annum, 

altricemque nivem, festinaque taedia vitao" 

[agreeable habitation, agreeable residence]. 

502 AEXEIDEA [605-621 spargite— ulu 

Affabilis. evTCQoarjyogog, as Eurip. Suppl, 869 (Ad vastus, of 

[''mores non fucatos, come [aifabile] os'']. Id. Hipp. 95: 

Fam. fv S' t m oooriyoQOi oiv tart its /n^ug; 
Hipp. nkHorrf yt, xai xfn6o<; yf aw uo;^0'(o ^Qu/fi. 

I cannot say that I admire this (621) much admired line. Either 
DiCTU or else affabhjs seems to be superfluous, and to have 
been introduced merely to please the ear and to eke out the 
antithesis. Xer visu nee dietn facUis, or nee facilis visu nee 
affabilis, had equally conveyed the entire sense. And Homer, 
Od. 8. 168y uses no more than the single adjective /w^icvra for 
the whole three substantives (fir^, (fgeve^j and ayoQrjiv^: 

ovTbtg or nicvTfoav Oto^' /(toviiTa diSowtv 
uvSoantv, ovit tf irjv, ovt' «o' tfnf%'((';, oi z' (cyonrjriv. 

For the cliaracter compare Od. 9. 188: 

otoi; :intuaivtaxn'^hV av^f ttt^i «/./oi\: 

Also Ovid, Mcf. L). TfiO ispeakin^'^ (»f tho <am<* Polyphoimisi: 
•*visus al) hospitc niillo iinpiinc." l^liny, PaNCff. -/^ (Of Domi- 
tiaii): "ad liacc i[)se uccih*su qiKKjui^ visiujue tcrribilis — non 
adirc (juisquam. non alloqui audobat." Stat. Sifv. 3. 3. 71 (of 

Caligula): ' 

'*hun(? ct in Arctoas tenuis comes usque pruinas 
terribilcm affatu passus visuque tyrannum. 
immanemquo suis."' 

Hrrudiaii, 8. 11 lof Plautianusi: yiootcn' de ff(\*(QO^ r^i\ (>k utjU 
fiia :io()(UfV(ct. ccLht /Ati rov^ i .nivivmn'nic ((raaioKfew. And 
Luciarrs mockery of Diop^ncs. Vitar. Auct. 10: iioroc /.at cr/ju 
r()ri^i(i^ fiiai //^Af, ui^ (/i/.oi tii^ ^fior.inotKfuirit^. The opposite 
character is tlnis sweotly skotohod by Appolonius Rhodiiis. ;]. 91S: 

nU or.U't //s jotu^ .1 noTHKor yn i^j' (:i6'n(>)r. 
o/ .'/ fiiKH tc aridin . fto^' yf-t iw, orU dOnt n/./.iof 
(ilh'.fcuov t^oiot^ (((f cinaio^ i-^-i/.KdJ i/ic.r, 
otnv ft)0(>r('. Uiy/.t .liOs ff<(iiiaj tiiwif'O), 

|63l-C4H lAcriT— coiixa] 

BOOK 111. 




VAR. LECT (vs 632). 

tliuicxsTTM I Pftf. Ill St»rvius; F. Manut; J). Heins. 

[|||»C6I7& I Mul {INMENSVSk '*Ia veteribufi aliquot codd. iMMKr«su9 legi- 
hir." PieriuB, 111 N. Heiiis. |1«70); lleyue; I^rutick; Waket; Wagn 
(e<i, Ileyn,, ed. IRSh; Lad,; Haupt; Ribb. 

Iacoitquk pkb antrum iMMKNSifS. — '' Fkr ANTRUM, fortjus quaiB hi 

tantro; spectat eniin corpus Cvolypis hiimaniie ma^nittidinis 
muduni lon^^e excedens, t|Uiul totuni cjiiaeii antrum expK'Vc^rit," 
Forbiger. And so Voss. ''and die hohle hindureh weit dalag/* 
But did tlie sow of the eighth book fill the whole wood? and 
yf»t sho "per silvani pruciibuit/' Why, we are not even told 
.tjjat she was at all above tlie ordinafv size. Or did the dead 
body, which ^'iacet per rura" (('oripp. Joliann. 4. 776: 

. . . ^'virides crnor infioit herbas 
exsiliens. tantiiniqiio iacet jier nira cadaver'' i, 

l>ip as it was, fill the vrhole country? Or, granting that Cepha- 

^lus, a hero, might cover a very large extent of grass when (Ovid, 

Art,Atmif,3, 727) ''solitas facet ille per berbas/* was our author, 

II mere poet, nf such a si^se that if it liud pleased him ifreon^. 
3, 430\ ^Morso nefhoris iaeuisse per herbas*' he would have 
covered a great part of the grass of the wood? No, no; neither 
m our text, nor in any one of these cases, does per express or 
indicate in any way the magnitude f»f the lying body* Its 

I sole reference is to the stretched out position of the bndy, more 
briefly expressed by i ace re per. than i ace re fusus per, 
of which latter expression the former may be con spidered the 
representative. Where our author, 6. 423, wishes to let hiB 
, reader know that the stret^iied tiut body was s^o large as to till 

504 AENEIDEA [631-649 iacuit— corna 

the whole cave from side to side and end to end. he does not 
mince the matter, or mystify with a per, but says roundly and 
at onee: ''totoque ingens extenditur antro." 
Eructans =>ihZvjv, Horn. //. 9. 487. 


As lanje, roioidy and yhning as an Argolic shield, or the sun. 
Besides the citations of La Cerda. compare Callim. Hymn, in 
Dian. 52 (of the Cyclops): 

7i(iai (f vn Off oil' 
tf(U« u ovi'oyk T}Vf(, aaxfi to a r hTnttSoftut, 
Shvov vjioyknvoaovju, 

Ammian. 24. 2: "continentem occupant arcem, . . . cuius me- 
dietas in sublime consurgens, tereti ambitu Argolici scuti spe- 
ciem ostendebat, nisi quod a septentrione id quod rotunditati 
deerat, in Euphratis fluenta proiectae cautes eminentius tue- 
bantur." From which passage it appears further that the dis- 
tinction drawn by La Cerda and the commentators between 
clypeus and scutum was not very strictly observed by the 
low Ijatin writers, 

Cavo (VS. (341), a mere eke. antijo iniplyinju- cavo. 

RupE (vs 647). —Xot merely 'v/ rocky height." but, Achae- 
nienidos being, at the moment spoken of. at the foot of Etna, 
^'tJte rocky height'' pur excvllcHcc . i. e., Etna. "Trinacria 
rupcs" is Ktna in Catullus, ad Mnnliinn, .7.7.- 

"<!uin tantum anloroni quantum Trindcria ntjns." 

and Orat. Kalisc. Cf/ifnj. -l^iO : "est in Tr'niarrhi specus ingens 
rHpc •/' with which compare /v7. 6*. 29: 

••nee tantum Pliuobo «;au<lot rannisstiu nipi s : 
net- tantum Ixhodope njirantur ot Ismarus Orplioa." 

and Orpheus, AnjoHant. 2: llaorr^at()a yftiQi^v, wliere *' Par- 
nassia rupes"' and llaori^iuda JLEi{)i^r aie Parnassus, which 
mountain had been eijually well indicated by ** rupes" and 
itiQf^i', simply and without adjunct, had Parnassus been (which 
it was not) previously, as Etna was in our context, the subject- 
matter of discoui"se. See Kern on "Cyclopea saxa," 1. 205. 


631—649 l.MVIT — CORN a] 

BOOK iir 


\iVFh% but CYCLOi'AS AH Ki'PK. Achfl" mmiilps, fruni his liiding- 
place in tho woods looks out on the Cyclopes tending their 
herds on YAim. Dmipare Tibiill. 4. L 56, of the same Poly- 
phemus ^'Aetneae NeptuBius ineola rupis:'' and Ovid. Mrt, 
4, 188, of the same: 

*Mlle quitJem totam freinotmndns ohnttthulat Artnatn, 
praeteniatquo nianu silvas, el luniinis orbus 
ntpibiis incursatf** 

I. e., ^'rupibus'* Aeimte. Poliphemus and his brethren inhabited 
the sides of Etna, and did not come down to the plain or sea- 
^ore except on rare occasions, 8ee Hi>ni. Oti. 9. 113: 

liXk oiy* vif't^ltop ofti^mr nuotat xtt^it)vti. 

ind eoinpare vv. 644, 655^ 675, An uvpk thus joined to 
CYCLOPAS not nnly enhances vastos, but affords the fine contrast 
of Achaemenides in tlie woods «l\ su>vis, vs, 646) and tJie 
Cyclopes on the side nf Etna; join ah rupk to PROSPicro, and 
you nut only take from the strength of vastos, but leave the 
Cyclopes witlmut uny determinate position in the picture*; and, 
a stiJl worse cousequence. place A*'luiemenid0s exactly where 
he is most likely tv) be s<'rn by the Cyclopes. Tlir picture, 
although not the grammar, is simihir to that of KrL I. ", where 
Meliboeus lying in tlie gi-otto Inoks out iit his goats browsing 
m\ the side of the mountain: 

^*mm ligi) vos jiosthao, viritii (»r<aectns; tn antro. 
duiitofa peodci'D fjrocul d* tupr videlin/' 

Ab RUp^;, o// Utf Htotutfnin. exactly a^s Eel. L J, /; '-vicino 
«b limite sepes'' (on your neighbour's nieariugj. 


PEDUM rocistjiic, Compai*e Horn. (kL 9. 257: 

^ttrftH'Tttn' t^Uftyyfty u ft4UjVP til Tot' tf mlt*>QOy, 

unci verse 669; Somtuai piidum ^ ItaL caipr.stto. 

Baccah LAPumsAQrE corna {vs, 649 ).— Eiidiadys for baccas 
1 apidosas corn i. The rornuji mrmcu^a (karnslkirscfte) grows wild 
in Sicily, Italy, and even in Germany, at the present day. Its 

506 AENEIDEA [656 668 vasta— adempt. 

oblong, red, shining berries, consisting of little more than a 
mere membrane covering a large and hard stone, are sold in 
the streets of the Italian towns. *'Bad enough food for a 
hungry man!" said 1 to myself, as I spat out some I had 
bought in Bassano, and tasted for the sake of Achaemenides. 



Vasta SE MOLE MovENTEM. — Movhiif, not i^^ith last size, but 
mfk exertiofi, viz., with nil the power of a great-sized 
man. with the muscular exertion of a giant. See Rem. on 
'Mngenti mole.'' and compare Stat. Theh. 9. 225: 

''vetitum erat ad fluvium: solito tunc plenior alveo. 
signa mali, nnufna si nioU Jsinonos a<jchaty 

8il. 12. 151 : 

'"traduiit lUrrnlca prostratos tnolr j^igantos 
tellunMn iniectam (juatoro. ct spiramine anhelo 
torreri late raiiipos. " 

Liv. s. i:^: 'M'aniillus ad Peduiii cum Tihurtlhus. maxime valido 
cxcrcitu. niaiorr trutlr, quarKjuani a('(|nc prosporo eventu. pugnat*' 
(where Walker's editii/U: "niaiore certaniiue" {(/rcafrr trouble, 
(prater /rorf>\ (jreater diffhulttj, viz.. than tiiat with which his 
colleague Maenius liad fought elsewliere]). Stat. Theb. 5. 441: 

**audet iter. niagni(iiic stMjuoi»> \ostigia mutat 
Herculis, ot iardd (luamvis sr niolr frrmtrm, 
vix cursu touf'r aofjuat Hylas." 

Ae)i. L 33: 

•'tantae ini)lis ^nat Roinauaiii cuudere goutem." 

656—658 VA8TA— aiikmptJ 

BOOK riJ. 

[Aliter] Vasta sk molk movektkm,— Molk, f. f,, magiii- 
tudine, bulk, or rather, htifk and weight taken together, Se*> 

Val. Flam 2. 2B: 

. . > '*bcoimliia tied maxinuis illis 
hoiTor abost, Sicula press us toMure, TypliOGiis, 
built- prfjfugum, <^t »acras revomentem pectore flatnmas, 
ut niemorant, prensum ipse coDiis Neptimus in altnm 
abstulit, mipliruitquG vadiR: totiesque cruenta 
tn/fic resurgentein, torquentemque aoguibus uoclas 
Bic^niurii dedit usque freturii, ciujKiue urbibuB Aetnam 
intuUt ora premecs" 

[rimng ayarn in bloody bt(ik\. In this instance, at least, moles 
cannot be eirlter rffori or aif^^ffrnfns, for effort could not be 
bloody, and Typboeus has no rtpiiarattii;. S€»e also Sonet". Here, 
(Jet. 1242 iHeronles s^peaking): 

''bis muiidiis liumeris s^ditV baec mohs mm est? 
baecne ilia ceiTix? has ego oppoBui nianus 
cAelo ruenti?" 


Siioh ftnothor moiiKten with the exception of tlie blindness, as 
the giant Hidinibo of the Sanscrit poem: '^Der niissgestaltete, 
breitaugig, griisslicb, abscht^ulirh anziiseheir' C'der Kumpf mit 
dem Riesen : a us dem Ma b abb a rat," translated by Wij^disch- 
tnann, Frankf. am Main, 1816). 

MoNSTRUM HORRENDUM.^ — Compai^ Aesch. Prom, Vinci, 352 
(of Typbon): Jator leQca^, 

Cur LUMEN ADEMPn^M. — As our jiuHior has used tin* wurd 
LtJireK 80 lately as verse <>35. 


to express the ey*' ur eyeball of Polyphemus, and au be use 
it almost inmiediately again no less than twice in the same 
sense, verse 663: 


vorae 677: 


508 AENEIDHA [606-668 VASTA— AbFiiPt. 

and as lumen, so understood in our text, affords the so well- 
fitting picture: horrid^ deformed monster y rendered still more 
horrid a?ul deformed by the gouging of his single eye (luminis 
EFFOssi)) SO the almost unavoidable conclusion was, that lumeK 
in our text is eye (eyeball)^ and the object presented to us by 
LUMEN ADEMPTUM tlio evelcss sockct of Polvpliemus. Hence, (1), 
Forbiger's '^ Henry {Tnelre Years' Voyage, 3, p. 46; et PhiloL 
11, p. 638) LUMEN non per ocnhtm vult explicari sed per the 
light of day, das tageslicht . . . sed vv. 635 et 663 vulgarem 
explicationeni videntur iuvare;'' (2), Caro's 

''cli' avea come una grotta oscura in fronto, 
in vecc d' occhio;" 

(8j, Conington's '' another novelty is proposed by Henry, who 
understands lumen not of the eye, but of the light of day, . . . 
but the use of lumen, vv. 635, 663, confirms the old inter- 
pretation"; and even (4), the quotation of our text by Gesner 
in his Lexicon among the examples of lumen used ''pro 
oculo/' For my adherence, even in the face of all this autho- 
rity, to the opinion expressed in my "Twelve Years' Voyage" 
let the following examples, in not one of which can the ex- 
pression lumen adimere mean "to take away the eyeball," 
be my justification, (ri), Ovid, Met. H. .V/AV; 

. . . "gravius Saturnia iusto, 
nee pro materia feilur lioluisse: suiquo 
iudicis aotonia daiimavit Imnina nocte. 
at pator onuii])Otons (no<(ue eniin licet irrita ciiiquain 
facta (ici feoisso tleoi pro I it mini' adfinpto 
scire futura cU^dit" 

(where wx» have the same two-fold use of lumen as by our 
author, viz., in "lamina," to signify rycbally and then again 
immediately in "Jumine" to si<::nify the light (viz., as seen by 
tiie eye), the sight), (h). Prudont. l)i/)fgrh. IS9: 

*'hio lupus ante rapax vestitur vollore nioUi: 
Saulus qui fuorat fit (ulentpio In mine Paulus" 

|the light (viz, as seen by tin* eye), the sight], ir). Prudent. 

8S8 VASiTA— Al>KMT'T. 



. . . ^'huno himim' a^rwpfo, 
effossiuqtie oculis^ velut m caligiDo ooctis 
caecum nrmrr sinit ' 

where the sense is, (he liyltf (i. \\ thr sfght) May taken airtn/. anil 

the fift'.'i ilttfj md, surd wIhhv Pi-u<leritius tuivin*^ in miiul the 

Humrimi wiirning rNlocipit exeniplijr vitiis iiiHUbilt^'^K oaebews 

the cxaujple set him by Virgil ujid Ovid, ami iustead of using 

lie same word in the same passage first in one sense and then 

another, expresses tlie two ditfereiit senses by two ditfereut 

Iwurds — the light as seen by the eye, i.c, the sight, by lumen, 

[and the eye, /. r,, the eyeball, by oculus. (if), Ovid, Tm/. 

4. 45 tsp4'aking of Augustus's rlemeni*y in spmng his lite): 

**idcjue dens seutit; pro quo nee lumen a/idmtptum est, 
net: niihi detractaa possidek alter opes*' 

(the liffhf. in the sense of fifr]. {el Id. I/jfs, 273: 

''ut duo Fhinid«t% iiuibiis idem lumen ademtt, 
r|ui dedit 

Se fifj/ff, in the sense of .si(//f(\. Ami, i/}, Lutret, 3. UH'^ 
\(i)( Xerxes): 

'"ille ijdoqut^ ijist^ vi.uTi i|iii quijiidHiii jiHi' mart* nwiymiiii 
«tra\it, itorijiie di^dit Ipgionibiis irf» pwr altunu 
ac pedibus salsas doiiiit superaro l.icunas. 
et eoutemp.sit, efpiis insulfcius, rnurmura poriti, 
ittmtnr udemptth ajiimam monbundo corpore fudit" 

[the UghL in tlie sense of fifv\ 

I A di mere lumen being in no one of these instuncea to talc 
the cffc oat of the soekd, but in every one of them to take airat/ 
tttr light, either in the sense nf blinding or in the sr^nse of 
killing: and to take away tfie light in fhe sense of to tftunt 
Bpflbrduig in our text a sense <|uite as barmoiiious with tlie eon- 
^kxt as to take away the light in the sense of taking the eyeball 
^Biit of tiie socket, with what r/'s tottseqaentiae is adiniere lumt*n 
^»-of the use of whii-h phrasi- in tlie sense of to take the eye out 
^f the soeket not so nuicb as one single instance has yet been 
HUiJuced —interpreted in our text to talce the et/e out of the socket? 

5l0 AfiNElDEA [656-658 vasta—adkmpt. 

As (a), a dim ere lumen is to take away the light, iu our 
text, and Ovid, Met, 3. 330^ and Ihis, quoted above, in the 
sense of blinding; and Lucr. 3. 1042, and Ovid, Tt'ist. 4. 4. 45, 
quoted above, in the sense of killing:, so (fr), in Ovid's para- 
phrase of our text, Met, 14. 7.97, where this same I^olypheiuus 
says of himself: 

"quam nullum aut leve sit damnum mihi lucis ademptae,'' 
no less than in Ovid's {Met, 3, 515) 

, . . "tenehrasque et cladeni lucis wlemptae 
obiicit I viz , Tiresiae],'' 

adimere lucem is to take away the liyht in the sense of 
blinding; and (C), Claud. Laws Sercnae, 24 (still of this sanie 
Polyphemus): ^''lumine fraudatws Cyclops," fraud are lumine 
is to cheat of the light, in the same sense; and (d), Ovid, ex 
Pont, h 1, 53: 

"alter, ob huic siniilem privatus lumine culpam, 

clamabat media, se meruisse. via. 
talia caelestes fieri praeoonia paudent, 

ut, sua quid valeant numina, teste probent. 
sao])e levaut poenas, r re pf a (luo himlna re<liluiit/ 

p r i v a r e lumine and e r i p e r e 1 u m i n a are, respectively, to 
deprive of the lights and to snatch away the light, in the same 
sense: red(hM-e lumina, to restore the fight so snatched away: 
and (e), VVm.N.H. 7. }i7: "Magna ot Critohulo fama est extracta 
Philippi regis uculo sagittal et citra deformitatem oris curata 
orbifafe Ifoninis,'' o rb i t a s 1 ii m i n i s is deprivation of light, 
in the same sense; while (/), I.iv. 4. .']: ^^eccjiiid sentitis in 
quanto conteniptu vivatis? Lncis vobis liuius partem, si liceat, 
adifnant: cjuod spiratis, quod vocem mittitis, (juod formas homi- 
num hal)etis, indignantur," adimere lucem is to take away 
the light, in the. sense of killing; i^i, Cic. pro liosc. Amer.: 
"cui repente cachnn, solem, aquam terrauKjue ademerunt/' adi- 
mere caelum et so J em, to fake away the sky and the sun 
(i. c., the fight), in the sense of killing: and i/ii, Aen. 12. 935: 

"rt mo. srii ('()r[>us spuh'atinn hnin'm' mavis, 
redde meis."' 

>6 65S VASTA- J^T»EMiXj 



spoil a re 1 union fa ftrspoH of the Ihjhi, in tlie samo sense; 
^•nd \i\ Uvid, Mi. L 720 (of Argus): 

, . . ''qoodque in tot himina lumen lialvfiW*^ 
ejEiiiirium est; rt'ntiimriue orulos tiox uci-upat una" 

*xtiiJ|;nere lumon is to ptrt oitt ihr litjht, h\ tlie sense of 
killing, advantage being taken in tfio last-quoted passage of this 
very double sense of lumen, which has so cheated theVirgilian 
Ciimnjentatui-s, to make the pun *^lumina lumen." 

It is this very lumen ad i mere which the author of the 

I Orphic Argouatitics hai^ expressed, vei^e B73, by the phrase 
fioi^Qi; a/FOvoatfCetv avyaq: 

tt{tyt<lftno xotov^ (f w r o s J' an tvoati taa v it v yng, 

^aiid Laberius (A til. Ui-II. 10. 17) by the ratfier strange word 

*'sic ego fitlgeotis splendorem pecuniae 
volo elitrifirarp exitum aetatis meae,'^ 

If it is a defect in style, a.s nu doubt it is, tn use the word 
x^MEK in the sense of lujhi (\, e., sighfX the same word having 
been just used, and being soon to be used again, in tlie sense of 
h/f (i. e., pyelmU\ it had been a wor^e defect to reitemte liere the 
iiisp mode in which the sight had been lost^ that precise in<Kle 
eiug frt^li in tlie reader's ret^ntlcrtion, iu\\\ if it wim^ not, being 
be reciiUed immediately by the washing tmt of the gore of the 
eket only tivr lines further nn. 
rUir author's cui i.umkn ade-MPI'um, riglitJy undei'stood, is 
'neither too particuhir nor too v^igue; neither on the one hand 
.unnecessarily obtrudes on us the lacklustre eyeless hole, nor on 
be other contents itself like Lucian's ivdtr^g, zr^v oiNv (Lucian, 
9. 1, 2 (Doris to Oalatea): ii rroi^tert am erdeti riir ffiinv -^^ah] 

I€6o$ag, t7ii(f!yovoQ out ytyoiivat\ \\\t\\ reminding us that the 
Cyclops was lilht(L it is iha^ jusfr witieH; presents us, in as few 
flUfurds as possible, with the picture of the Cyclops who lias lost 
his sight by violence; the blhuM Cyclops. The Manes of Vir- 
gil will, therefore, I should hope, rather be i obliged to me than 


512 AENEIDliA [(>5r>~658 vasta— ADoipr. 

have a grudge at me, for the "proposed novelty," a novelty, 
after all, not so very novel, (a), the identical expression having 
been applied by Alexander Ross (Rossaeus) in one of the cantos 
of the second book of his Christia.^ to a case in which there was 
no scooping-out of the eye, viz., the case of St. Paul: 

, . . "turn subitus vibrator ab aethere folgur 
quod iuvenom deturbat equo, inox lumen ademit\'' 

(6), and the closely related expression "egens lucis" having 
been applied by no less an authority than Statins to this same 
Polyphemus in such a manner as to exclude all notion of scooped- 
out eyeball, it not being Polyphemus himself but only Polyphe- 
mus's hand which is stated to be "egens lucis," /. r., blind (Theb, 
G. 716): 

"quale vapoiifera saxuni Polyplienuis ab Aetna 
luch efiente iiianu taiiieu in vestigia puppis 
auditae iuxtaque inimiciun exegit ["lyxein : " 

as well as (r) the cognate expression "spoliata visu," de.spoiled, 
not of his Pife, but of his sif/hf (/. r., hi mi no), to a blinde<l 
clo]>hant, by Silius, 1). oJjT (cd. Hup.): 

"armii vin(|Uo sinuil .sj}ofiaf(H[\w hf'lua risK 
sternuntur subita imiserandiiin !) mixta niina;"" 

and (d) the cognate expression "auditus non adimeret" applied 
by Tacitus, Annul. IS. /7, to the curtain behind which Agrippina 
overheard the debate of the senate: 'Njui in palatium ob id voca- 
bantur, ut adstaret abditis a tergo torihus. vrlo discretn, quod 
visum arceret, amlitns non udinicrrl :^' and. (e), the cognate 
pression "viduata lumine'' to the dark realms of Proserpine, by 
Silius, 3. 601 (of Vespasian, Jupiter speaking): 

"nee Sty^is illo lai-us rltluatin[\vo Imninr regna. 
sed superuin sedos nostros(iuo t(Mio}>it honores." 

Li'MKN being thus shown tu mean not the eye but the day- 
light, it becomes uimeeessary to lefer to the* precise parallel, 
4. 1<S1, ''monstrnm horrendum, ingens,'' or to the Homeric 
l)r(»totype, (hi. U, U)0, mh yuQ Duiu^ iitn/,iu .ci/noQtor, as 

Tmrne*— oTi»i 

iuOK Jit. 

proof that nfOENS belongs, not as somewhat wildly imagioed by 
Key (Lai, Gr\. ^ H73), to lumen, but as generally iicknowledged 
to monstuum; and no lesis iinnwessary to discuss the equidly 
fantastic gloss of Pierius: '^truni'a vmvH gestata manu reojt 





isxsvH n H ; cod C^non. (Butlerl III Qiiioctil. htJit, S. 4; Princ; Ven, 
1470, 1471, 1472, 1475; Mil. 1474: Aldus iloUr, R Manut: Bersm,; 
1). Hoins.; N. lleiOK, i HiTU, 1671, IHTtij; Hiili|)po: [knm,; Pott,; Cod. 
ramerar. (Bemu 

MA«r I /W„ MeH, (M nupefscrJi U »^. Ill Serv,; N, Heias. (1704); 
Heyn.; Brutick; Wakef.; Dorph.; Wagn. (1832, 1861); Gossrau; Lad.; 
Haupt; RiWi, ; Ccmiiigt. 

^P The reading is undoubtedly mancm, not siaxu. See Quinct. 
Inst. 8. 4: 'Muiui quod ilhid rorpus raente ooncipiam ruitis 


where TRimcA manu pinus regit would make no sense, and 
where therefore the second m of manum cannot be due to the 
mistake of i\ smbe, hut must be from (iuinotilian's own hand. 
To Wagner's question: ^'quorsuni mauus a baeulo regenda 
fiiit«8etV" the aiisw»^r is easy: viz., the stick guides his hand, 
and bv mtjuis of his hand, himself, exactly as /leneas, 10, 218, 

ipse »edeu£i uhiviiutqiie regit, velisque aiiaistrat/' 


514 AENEibEA [669-666 trunca— on® 

directs the rudder, and, by means of the rudder, the ship. The 
Cyclops follows the guidance of the pine-trunk which he holds 
in his hand, i. e., feels his way, gropes his way, witli the pine- 
trunk; and, therefore, precisely is the pine-trunk said to govern 
his hand, to direct his hand, /. e., by necossaiy implication, to 
direct or guide himself Compare Afffhnl. Pal. (ed. Diibner), 
9. 298, where the blind man says: 

0X1710)1' lit 7ioo>; vi]oi' Kvtjytcytv, ovm ,ii-,irjlof 
ov iiovvov Ttktjri^, i(k).ti y.m i]t).iov 

[my stick led tue np to the teviple, viz., re gen do man urn]: 
and Prudent. Diptych, 137: 

"it mare per niediuin Domiuus, iluctusfiue liqueiites 
calce terens, iubet instabili descendere cuinba 
disciijulum ; sed mortalis trepidatio plantas 
mergit: at ille Dianuin reijit, rt restitjia firmaf,' 

in the former of which passages we have the stick leading the 
blind man, while in the latter we have not only the very words 
"manum regit et vestigia timuit," but those words in tiie same 
order with respect to each other, and occupyinir the same posi- 
tion in the verse which they occupy in our t(»xt. 

The reading manu suggests, say, rather, actual ly presents, 
the absurd picture of the blind man directing liis director, direct- 
ing with his hand the stick which he puts forward at random, 
in order to be directed by the information which it conveys to 
his hand, and through his hand to himself It is only the see- 
ing man who directs hi;^ stick, as Tacit. Hist. 1. 79: '*sed turn 
huniido die, et soluto gelu, neijue conti, neque gladii, quos 
praelongos utraque )?fa)ui reytnit, usui, lapsantibus equis, et 
cataphractarum pondere." 1 need hardly add that while the 
construction manum regere is not only simple and natunil, 
but usual [compare Sen. Ilrrr, Opt. 313 (Dejanira about to take 
revenge on Hercules): 

''aderit noverca [Iuiio|, quae hhuuis nostras rvijttt, 
nee invocata.'' 

Claud. •/ Cons. Honor, p. 58: 

••ft casus artos(jU<' doc't. quo (h.rfrii nfinftir 
sidere, «juo lluctus possint moderainiiie falli." 

65&-660 TRfTNCA— OVTOJ 



^rudent Ontlr, Stjnufi, 2, 184: 

viut«^rior qui spirat homo; Iiiet ille (>oroun6 
supplicium, <jiiod subiectos male rfjtYTiV rtr^«^**'J, 

either 1 if the construetiuns necessitatetl by the i*ea<iiiig m\m, 
ri/.,, eiUier tlie eoufcitructiuii uvmw \€ifm\ kt firmat vii:sTicUA, wv 

FESTIGIA BK6IT ET FIBMAT, is OS awkvvard jUkI lllinrttuml IIS it is 

nnusnal. Neither can it be neoesBary to dwell ii|iun the perfei^t 
Bymnietry of tlie verse 


In which vkstiuia answers to manum, and nitMU' te HKt.n\ or 

upon the tact that iieuit sianum kt vkstiiata n\mM presents, 

Btter than either maxu regit \rHm\ trr vf:»ti*iIa firm at or manit 

'uEuiT ET FIHMAT VjEsTioiA. tile ioiagc of Pf»lyphemn8 groping hiH 

^way with the pine-trunk: but it iijay n^t hv amiss tu remind 

hose who, with Coniogtun, still find it ''difrteult tu m^ how the 

laff guides the hand." and who sdll iinjiiire* with Wagner, 

^fjuoi'snni nmnui^ a baeulo re*^enda fuisKet/* antl, with both 

hose editors, iis well n^ with Forbiger in hin latetit iMlitiun, 

ad MAXu, (1). that it is not the eyes alone of a blind man 

vhich are blind, but hig whole body, and especially hiti feet and 

band |see Eurip. llet, 1049 led. WitzBcheh, of Potymestor: 

Stat. Theb, 6, 716 (of PolypheinuH himself): 

*Sjuile va|»oiilbr« taxum rolyi^hemtu* ab Aotoa 
/i#r#/* rtit^fi tuanu tioien ill ve«ttgia pujipiu 
audita;? luxtujue miitiicum exegit Utyx^ui {; 

And !ii, that it is not accidentally our author ut$ei», in order 
express the direction and ffovenunent of I^oIyphemui!»*i!i Urabii 
by the pino-tree trunks the very word eoiunionly used by cither 
lutiioi^ fas Cic, lie RtpubL 24{H\: **l)etnn te iptur «cito eamix 
Bi quidem ileuM e^t, <jui si^it. qui i^entit^ qui nieminit« qui pro* 
idet, qui tarn renit et moderatur et njovet id mtpm cui pra 
ositus est f|uam bunc munduin ille pria«.«pif d^Uii.'' 8(nac. 
IJVoai/- 392: 

516 ABNEIDBA [659 660 trunoa— oves 

"ut nubes gravidas, quas iiiodo vidimus, 
Arctoi Boreae dissipat impetus, 
sic hie, (fiio rcyimurj spirihis efiluefj, 

and even used by our author himself elsewhere (as 4 336: 
''dum sprn'tu.s hos regif nrff(,s''\ to express the direction and 
government of the limbs of living creatures generally by the 
internal vivifying spirit^ but intentionally and in order to 
heighten the contrast between Polyphemus under the direction 
of his own intelligent will and Polyphemus under the direction 
of a staff; in other words, between Polyphemus seeing and 
Polyphemus blind. That there is no word of sympathy with 
the unhappy Cyclops is only what was to be expected from a 
poet belonging to and writing for a people whose highest en- 
joyment it was to sit in the circus and look on while wild beasts 
tore culprits to pieces, or gladiator killed gladiator at the word 
of command. 

The determination of the true reading of our text determines 
the true reading of Prudentius's imitation, Diptych. 137: 

•'it maro per medium Domiuus, tluctusque liquont^s 
caloe tereiis, iubot iustabili dosccndore ouuiba 
discipulum; sed mortiilis trcpidatio plantas 
mergit; at illo ntnntnn regit et vestigia firmat," 

where the imitation of Virgil is plain, and yet where, if we read 
"manu" instead of '*manum/' first we obtain a (|uite different 
sense from Virgil's, "nianu" and ''vrstigia" tlien being no 
lono:er referrible to one and the same person, but "manu" be- 
coming the hand of Christ, while '' vestigia" are the steps of 
Peter; and secondly, lose the essential part of the picture, which 
Prudentius plainly intended to set before ns, viz., that Christ 
took Peter by the hand, held Peter's hand in his, and so sup- 
ported and led him on. 

Lanigkrae comitantt'k ovks. — ('ompare Callim. fragm. 127, 
Bentley's ed.: 

a n »' /■ s ' f^h ff *)■*■ y.orof:. o it j^ /. i y t ^ , <c o v t ^- h i ai no i 
toxov H'tjoiihuni d' uvXtu yiu fi()Hcf«i. 

51 DE cou-0— pendet] book III. 517 




B coLLo FISTULA PKNDKT 1 Pnl. All the "codicos antiqui*' of PioriuH 
except one (*'sunt ijui carmen hoc ut nothuni expunjcant. Id tamou 
in plerisqae codicibus antiquis habctur, praetoniuam in uno [qu. the 
Vat. Fr.'f] ubi vei-sus hac iienthemimeri clauditur, solamen^i >: mali," 
Pierius). II 2 iCiud. 70, Dresd.i, and, accordin^^ to my n.'collection, 
all Ae second class codices I have examined. I have, however, written 
memoranda of no more than the two specified. <Vjd. <.*auon. (Butler). 
III. According to my recollection, all the incunabula I have collated, 
I have, however, no written memoranda of them, except Aldu8 (loHi, 
who has ovEs: ea sola voliptas: soLAMENguE Mali i»E <.oli/» fihtlla 
pkndet; La Cerda; Kob. Stephens. 

K collo fisti-la pendet OMrrrEI) I Vat,* Maf. 

P. Manut: D. Heins.; X. Heins. il670); Heyne; Brunck ; Wakef.: 
Weicheit; Voss: Wajin. od. Heyn.. od. 1K61); Thiol; Forb.; Siipfle; 
Lad.; Ilaupt; Ribb.;